The Iola Register from Iola, Kansas on January 6, 1945 · Page 1
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The Iola Register from Iola, Kansas · Page 1

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state Historical Society Tope^a, Kansas Gorap. THE lOLA REGISTER VOLUME XLVIII No. 61 The Weekly Regtiter, £>tabUshed 1867: The loU Daily Register, Egtablished 1697. lOLA, KAS., SATURDAY EVENING, JANUARY 6,1945. Snccenoi' to The lola D«fly Beglster, The loU Daily Record, snd loU Daily Index. FOUR PAGES Allied Drive Is Germans Threaten Strasbourg Drive in On City from Three Directions; 3rd Army Pulls Back Un der Enemy Pressure By JAMES M. LONQ- Pari.s, Jan. 6. (A?)—A second German winter offensive threatened Strasbourg from three directions today as British and American troops butted against stone. wall German resistance in the hard wedge driven by Field Marshal von Rundstedt's first surprise attack across Luxembourg and into Belgium. The. second German drive had burst through U. S. Seventh army lines for 15 miles in five days southeast of Bltche in northern Alsace. The Americans still fought to wipe out an advance guard which had filtered Into l^lngen on the Moder river, 9',i miles southeast of Bltche-and 28 miles northwest of Strasbourg, where the Germans were within 12 miles of Saveme, the Vosges back door to Strasbourg. May Be In Force A military e.xpert explained that the word ••infiltration" used to describe the enemy penetration of the area i^ight easily cover a powerfiU assault, considering the heavily wooded terrain. The enemy had landed at least in battalion strength along a seven- mile stretch on the west bank of the Rhine within seven miles north of Strasbdiirg, and had liashed out from the nohhern rim of his Colmar bridgehead arid driven Into Neu- klrch, 19 miles south of Strasbourg. Although front line dispatches said this new ofiensive had been blunted, it threatened to pinch out a 30-mile deep Allied salient between the Saar and the Rhine which had been |X)inted • into the Wls.sembourg Gap toward the German Rhine city of Karl-sruhe. ptTemiye To a Halt The Americans were drawing back from the Wis.sembourg area and Allied authorities were battling to prevent the spread of panic flight among civilians in Strasbourg and Hagueiiau. The slight gains, and even some withdrawals of Allied forces aroimd the rim of Von Runstedt's Ardennes biilge Indicated that the offensive to erflse the damage of that breakthrough had ground to a virtual stop. • Blizzards, giving way to fog, ice- crusted roads and intense cold, combined with expert German defense, were handicaps whiph even a new secret artillery weapon developed by the United States riavy had not pvercJome. Third Pulls Back Under the pressure of at least 21 counterattacks in two days, U. S. Third army troops on the southern flank of the bulge withdrew two miles in the Michamps- area, four miles northeast of Bastogne, and a mile around Wardin, three miles southeast of Bastogne, Thursday. ' The withdrawal of the Third army troops was described as an orderly Jine-shortenlng operation. In the face of a heavy Oernian concentration the Americans reduced their wedge line into the waist of the enemy salient from six and a half to tlisree and a half miles, a front dispatch said. They took up strong (lefense positions on high ground along a curving front two to two and a half miles outside Bastogne. Yanks Use a New Secret Weapon Beffe Sector, Belgium, Jan. 5. (Delayed). (AP).—A new secret American artillery weapon, used today on a large scale for the first time, shattered German counterattacks trying to halt the U. S. First army drive southward in the Belgian bulge. As a result the mow in this area was blanketed with Nazi dead. Details of this new weapon were held up for reasons of security, but it was something the U. S. navy had developed and which was found to be of great use against ground troops. Nazis Build For Future Exporting of Funds Latest Move in Effort To Stay in Power Secretly After War BY BCENNETH L. DIXON With American Forces in Belglmn, Jan. 6. (AP).—CJerman industrialists have liegun exporting fimds for safekeeping and arranging for development 6f new weapons for another war, according to information available here today. Both moves are said to have been taken surreptitiously at the instigation of the Nazi party as part of its program to remain secretly in power after Germany's defeat. The export plans represent a definite change in Nazi policy. Previously the party has rigorously banned sending ftmds out of the Reich. Now the Nazis are said to be encouraging and assigning industrialists to get as much money as (xisslble with the dual aim of saving themselves and advancing their postwar aims. Start "Research Bnreans" Simultaineously the Nazis are declared requiring large German factories to set up small "technical offices" or "research bureaus" having no obvious connection with their sponsors. Their existence is to be days. Destroyer Losses to 51 With Sinking of Reid Washington, Jan. 6. (AP)—American destroyer losses in the war stood at 51 today. The increase came, with the sinking in the Philippine area of the destroyer Reid. AniMuncing the loss yesterday, the navy gave no report on extent of casualties, but said the vessel had a normal complement of 24 officers and 178 enlisted men. The Reid's sldpper. Commander S. A. McComock, 34, of Iron .River, Mich., was reported wounded. EpicBattle Rages On East Front Nazis Hurl Hundreds Of Tanks and Planes Into Effort to Break Through to Budapest ' By EDDY OILMORE Moscow, Jan. 6. (AP)— Tank, artillery and air battles virtually as fierce as any fought since Germany attack! ed Russia raged northwest of Budapest today as the Germans made a supreme bid to break through to their isolated garrison in the battered Hungarian capital. The fighting has reached such a pitch that neither side has given any clear indication of how far the German penetration has gone toward the city from the Komarom area. At last report the Russians held a zone possibly 30 miles deep, but dispatches said the whole sector south of the Danube bend now is most fluid and places are changing hands several times daily. Tanks Into Fray A Russian communique said the Germans threw 300 tanks Into the battle yesterday. The Germans were said to have brought up numerous King Tigers from the Vienna area. These met a strong foe in the Red army's new T-34 tanks. The Germans also poured great numbers of other mobile weapons into the area in the pest two Stepping Stones to poal + + + The WAR TODAY + + + The Weather KANSAS—Mostly clondy; drixxle in east Changlnr to Ught rain toda.v; iisht rain in extreme eaat tonight tarning to snow; clondy Sunday; colder sonthwfest and extreme west today; .colder Snndsy and central a (id west tonight; khrest tempera- tores in middle ZOs west and north; upper ZSia sontheast. ' Temperature—Highest for the 24 hdurs ending 5 p. m. yesterday, 35; lowest last night, 34; normal for today,- 32; deficiency yesterday, 0; de- fitiitncy since January 1, 35 degrees: this date last year, highest, 42; lowest. 23. Precipitation for the 24 hours end- Jnk at "8 a. m. today, .04; total for this year to date-. .04; deficiency since January 1, .16 inch. Sunrise 8:39 a. m.; .tet 6:17 p. m. Thermograph ReaAngs Ending 8 a. m. Today S a. ni, 31 9 p. m. ^5 10 a. ni. ...........32 10 p. m 35 11 a. lA 32 12 noon 32 1 p. m 32 2 p. ni 32 . 3 p. m- 33 • 4 p. m 34 5 p. m. .. -..1 ....34 6i). ro. —.34 . 7 p. m. 35 B p. m. 35 11 p. m 35 12 m 35 1 a. m 35 2 a. m 35 3 a. m. 35 4 a. m .34 5 a. m -...34 6 a. m. 35 7 a. m. _ .35 8 a. m. _35 known only by a few key persons. Both plans apparently undei-score the fact that the Nazis hope to retain support of an essential segment of German enterprises during the post-war internal power scramble. In the fund exporting program special emphasis is on neutral couii- trles where a number of secret agencies are said to be handling the necessary transactions and charging five per cent commission for changing German money into property. Foreign Contacts Valnable Party chieftains also are said to be urging the industrialists to mal'.e all new foreign contacts possible, reminding them that certain international corporations and joint patent deals were valuable to Germany at the outbreak of this war and can be again. Operating as "scientific research bureaus," a secret corps of technicians is said to have been given the task of safeguarding all plans and drawings concerning new weapons as well as materials required for their production. Strong forces of Oerman aircraft— in greater number than have been seen on the eastern front for montlis—are providing steady support for the enemy ground attack. Budapest Ring Tight Although the Russians are tight lipped about the way the fight is going northwest ot Budapest.' dispatches said one thing is certain- no units of the Budapest garrison have been able to break through toward their would-be rescuers. The Germans hold several important heights in northwestern Budapest and are firing with telling effect, but the Russians have kept them from two important escape highways—one to the west and another leading directly northwest to the new battle area. The Budapest garrison itself is being whittled down every hour. (Continned on Pace d. No. 1) HE MAY SMOKE A PIPE Kansas City, Jan. 6. (AP)—N. C. Neely, a laundry driver, saw a corrugated box fall out of a freight truck ahead. Neely stopped, opened the box and found it contained ten cartons of cigarettes. He started in pursuit of the truck and, falling to overtake it, turned over the cigarettes to police. Democrats Reelect Barkfey and HUl Washington, Jan. 6. (AP)—Senate Democrats, intent on harmony, today kept their former leaders at the helm. At a caucus yesterday they unanimously re-elected Senator Barkley (D.-Ky.) as majority leader and Senator HUl (D.-Ala.) as whip. The only change was nomination of Senator McKellar (D.-TBnn.) for senate president pro tem. Senator Glass (D.-Va.) had not sought re-election, because of ill health. BY DEWTTT MACKENZIE The vast and growing battle which Is raging across the rugged, snow- covered terfain of the Belgian bulge is the test of General Eisenhown^ belief, as voiced in his historic order of the day to his armies after the Germai!. counter-offenSive started, that "by rtishing out. from his fixed defenises the enemy may give us the ch^ce to turn his great gamble IntQ his worst defeat." The conflict still is young and its precise dev^opments are tmpredict- able, but wg can see the broad possibilities. So let's set the facts down here, starting briefly with the circumstances which precipitated Nazi Marshal Voji Rundstedt s gamble. Prior to December 16 Von Rund­ stedt .was uijhappy in the defense of his Rhlnetoid , fortifications. The Allies were steadily crowding In and ] he was losing many men and much materiel in the war of attrition. Eisenhower .^as getting set to launch an all-out ai^ault which would force Von Rundsiedt to fight a deciajve battle on the (Cologne plain. The German foi5psaw a disastrous defeat for his arms, and this would let the Allies into pie industrial RhlnelanJ —heart of'Hitlerdom's war industries. So Von Himdstedt latmched his surprise coi^nter-blow. His purposes were (1) to)throw Elsenhawer's projected offeiMive entirely out of gear and so gaiiCmuch time, (2) to force the Allies ^ack from the str^«gic Aachen sector and thus remove the threat to th^ (Cologne plain approach, and (3) to-try to capture the big Allied communications center of Liege, and perhaps the vital supply port of Antwerp. Split-Second Opening On B-29 Bomb Bays WicHita, SJan. 6. (AP)—Split second.-opening of Superfortress Ijomb bay doors is one of the latest reflnements in the giant B-29, the IJoelng Aircraft company annofmced today with war departmen^ approval. The bom'p bay doors now snap open in seVen-lenths of a second awd c\ose in three seconds, the announcement said, by means of aj pneiunatic actua:ting device. Utider the former system, controlled electrically, it took 15 or more seconds to fully open the (]oors and longer to close them- \High Casualties Will Have Sobering 'Effect on Public—and on Congress (By JAMES MARLOW.) Washhigton, Jan. 6. (AP)—You have been psychologically prepared for bad news—in the form of heavy casualty lists—from the fighting in Europe since mid-December. Those figures haven't been released yet. But no one needs to be told now —after the deluge of statements from Washington in the last month, but particularly in the last week— that the European war still has to be fought to be won, and at a cost. We have been told: Heavier panpower controls are needed for more production, even if it means a national service law: 4-F's should be forced into war jobs or into the army; draft-call quotas have shot up. The steady banging on this all week wasn't exactly sudden. It has been growing in Intensity since the German counter-offensive started in mid-December, and even before then. The somber home front began to sound a couple of montlis ago. a bit here and a bit there, as we began to discover that moving into Germany wasn't a hayride. Thus we made the complete swing from the official optimism of last summer, when the Germans looked like push-overs, to the present serious Inood. And those as-yet-unpublished casualty figures, mentioned above, will have an even more sobering effect oh all of us and on congress. Congress may feel that it has to make a decision—one way or the other—on a labor draft, the 4-P's or other manpower controls. If so, it will be interesting to see how congress acts: emotionally and in a rush or calmly, after an examination of facts on what is needed when and where. Even before the German drive the war had been bloody and costly, as can be seen from the figures given out Thursday by' War Secretary Stimson. These fig\ires did not include the casualties from the time the German drive storied. They were flg- lu-es compiled by the war department through December 21, which means they were suffered several weelcs before. The figures given by Stimson show: Total army casualties in all theaters—but exclusive of those occur- ing since the start of the German Well, Von Rundstedt drove into the Allied lijie and created the huge salient which will go down In history as the, "Belgian bulge." He also has forced fhe Allied line back from the industrial Saar region to the south. He has achieved his object of dlsruptiiyr Eisenhower's offensive and so of gaining time.. He has provided the Nazi propaganda machine with Invaluable material to bolster home morale and Impress foreign peoples. However, the Nazi cpnunander thus far lUs been unable to break through to tiege or any other sup- |4>ly center. Had be done so it would have been ^ an Allied catastrophe. Not.only has he faUed In this, but he has been stopped and thrown (Continited an Pan «. N«. 2i Surplus Sale Draws Crowd ^ ,' Farmers, hardware merchants, garage men and many curiosity seekers from a dozen counties gathered at the merchan^^s' exhibit building m Riverside, park yesterday to bid on the surpl,u.s irjerchandLse auctioned by the U- S.^government. Startinc pi^aiptly at 10 a. m. the sale continued; until well after dai -k as Col. W. J. Riley bid off some $7,000 worth of tools, small implements ana an- assortment of merchandise ran;jiiig all the way from a pocket flashlight to a 10-ton hydraulic jack. • The larger part of the merchandise was sold at' the established ceiling price. In many cases the crowd was willing Lxnd even eager to pay more than tl,»e ceiling if they could obtain desired articles by so doin;?. Frequent lyj in, order to sfjeed up the salBi the first man to bid the ceiling got ihe article. Lots were drawn when, th'e competition was really k*^n. Over 100 persons wanted to buy 'one ^r more of the six gas heating Jitoves offered for sale at the ceilinfe pri&j of $11.40. All names were put in a hat and the purchasers were decided by lot. Dealers w^e heavy purchasers of nails, screws, and similar supplies. Mechanic:? and garage men bid in most of the drills, bits and other tools. Canadian I'ays $5,000 For Hereford Heifer drive in December—were 556.352 by Decemljer 21. A little arithmetic makes that look like an average of about 15,000 casualties a month—for the first 36 montlis of the war—from December 7, 1941, to about December 7, 1944. But 218.609 of the 556,352 casualties occurred in the past four months, for an average of about 5430 a month for that period. AP War Correspondents Off "Vox Pop" Monday New Yor^ Jan. 6. (AP)—Front line action in Europe and the Pacific will be, described by Associated Press War; con-espondents in a broadcast of the radio ; program. "Vox P(ip," julonday night; Among tHose who will be heard in the salute to AP war coverage are William Stnlth White and Don Whitehead, ";who covpred the D-Day European invasion and subsequent operations: J. Norman Lodge, who covered the: campaigns of Guadalcanal, Bou^inville and other South Pacific figh£tng, and William AUen. Italian and> African campaigti cameraman. ; The story of how the AP gathers and distributes the news to more than 2,000 newspapers and radio stations wi^ be told by Paul R. Mickelson, general news editor of theAP. ^ Ada, Okla„ Xan. 6. (AP)—George Rodenz of Toronto, Canada, paid $5,000 for .a-Hereford heifer to top all other bid.*! last ni?ht at the Hereford ,HeaJ-en association's first annual cattle '.sale. The animal was consignetf by Roy Turner, prominent Sulphur, Ok^.,^ breeder. U. S. Fleet Planes Rip Jap Shipping Vanks Move Closer To Luzon MacArthur's Forces Land Unopposed On Marinduque Isle, 100 Miles from Manila (By the A «iMicinf«i PrMi) Gen. MacArthur's Headquarters, Philippines, Jan. 6. Unopposed American invasion of Marinduque, only 100 miles • from Manila, was announced today by Gen. Douglas MacArthur who said this seventh Philippine island liberated puts the Yanks in "direct contact with the southern L\izon coast." Wltli air and haval support, the Americans seized the little island Wednesday, the same day American carrier planes were pounding Formosa and General MacArthur was announcing fresh U. 8. landings on Mihdoro. Marinduque is about 20 miles east of Mlndoro and is only 12 miles south of Tayabas peninsula on southern Luzon, principal Philippine island. Control Sibayan "Our groimd forces, supported by navaj.and air elements, made a surprise; landing and occupied Marinduque," General MacArthur reported In his commimique today. '"Thrbugh seiziu-e of this Island east of! Mlndoro we gained control of the Sibuyan Sea and established direct contact with tlie southern coast of Luzon." The landing was at Buenavista, on the southwest coast. The interior of Marinduque is virtually impassable, but a highway runs along the. west coast, beach itself. The island is 20 by 25 miles in size. May Have Landed On Luzon, Say Japs (By thfi A«iion »»e(l I'ress) The Tokyo radio said today "the Americans may have landed, on Luzon." This statement was recorded in London after Tokyo had reported a big American armada with landing craft and transports off Luzon, the main Island of the Philippines. Similar Japanese broadcasts were heard in the United States. The Japane.se Domei news agency said today that "three groups of enemy transports with carrier protection appeared in the Philippine waters Friday, apparently with the intention of attempting landings somewhere, prot>ably at Luzon." There was no Allied confirmation. Batter Nazi Rail Lines Allied Bombers Hit Bridges and Road Centers in Reich Says Aussies Doing Full Part in Pacific Canberra, Aust., Jan. 6. (AP)— Acting Prime Minister Francis E. Forde said today that the Australian navy, army and air force are playing a full part in the Philippine operations and that Gen. Dotiglas MacArthur has said so in a communique. The Aussie war minister made the' statement In reply to Percy Claude Spender, Australian war couficil mfember, who said in New York that MacArthur's communi­ ques, by neglecting to say anything of Australian participation, were putting Australia in a false light. Forde added that it is not possi- London, Jan. 6. (AP)—More than 800 American heavy bombers, escorted by nearly 600 Mustangs, attacked three road: and rail bridges across the Rhine at Cologne and Bonn today and bombed several rallyards and other commimication centers in western Germany. It was the 15th dayUght attack by Britain-based U. S. 8th air force bomljers and fighters in 14 days in support of American armies battling against the German attempt to crash through Allied lines and overrun Belgium. Western Germany was battered overnight by more than 5,000 tons of RAF bombs. Huge Night Battle British bombers made five raids diu-ing the night^wo eaich against Berlin and Hannover 'and one against German troop concentrations in and around Houffalize, in the Ardennes salient 10 miles northeast of Bastogne. ; A terrific night air battle, "the biggest the RAF bomber command Scout China Coast Seek Out Enemy Targets Along 500 Miles Of Mainland; Bag 95 Nip Ships Off Formosa By U. S. LEIF ERICKSON Pacific Fleet Headquarters, Pearl Harbor, Jan. 6. (AP)—Pacific fleet carrier planes destroyed 111 Japanese planes and sank or damaged 95 enemy ships in a daring, punishing two day as- .sault on China-guarding Formosa and Okinawa, Fleet Adm. C. W. Niraitz announced t/iday. Strildng all the way across the Pacific, many planes from Vice Adm. John S. McCain's force winged down 500 miles of the China coast searching for Japanese shipping, reported As.sociated Pres.s war correspondent Rembert James aboard McCain's flagship. The Formosa attacks were made Tuesday and Wednesday (U. S. time). Twenty-seven ships were sunk. Sixty-eight ships were damaged. Forecast Shuttle Flights Nimitz' conmiunlaue did not mention the first China probing flight by navy cajrier planes, apparently because no material aiui-k targets were sighted by pilois making their first reconnaissance of the China coast, goal of a three-year fighting advance acro.ss the Pacific. But James sigi;lfioanUy reported that pilots who flew over China's green mainland decl-'retl they could have flown inland to American interior air bases to refuel. This report disclo.ses that American carrier planes poscttly could make shuttling nlr raids on China mainland tar^ieis in r^ajor force after refueling and r«rrming at and the Luftwaffe have had for many months," was fought In the, Chinese-American lind fidd.-,. they Hannover area as German night.'•ould fly back to th-.-ir r irriers. fighters sought to protect'the Junction point, a British statement said. Thirty-three British bombers and three fighters were reported lo.it and 10 of the enemy planes were knocked down. Kiwanis gets Glimpse Of County's History That Allen county's first court house was built at Ckjfachique at a cost of about $210 and since then the coimty government has been housed at Hiunboldt, and in at least ble, as yet, to say what Australian ; three different buildings in lola was forces are doing in preparation for' MacArthur 's future plans. He said that the Japs would learn about the Australians in due time. Foggy. Unpleasant Weather for Week-End Topeka, Jan. 6. (AP)—"Kansas can expect anything but nice weather over the week-end," Weatherman^ S. D. Flora' said today. FJ-eezing rain was falling In the northeastern and north central parts of the state with traces reported at Topeka, Concordia, Kan­ sas'City and St. Joseph, Mo. This rairi was expected to turn to snow by tonight. Most of the eastern part of the state was cloudy with considerable fogl^iness reported. Warmest reported state point yesterday was Dodge City with 60. Goodland's 24 was low overnight. Temperatures today were expected to range from 33 to 40 and tonight lows of 20-30 were forecast. Highs tomorrow will be near freezing, averaging from 30 to 32. one of the little known facts revealed to the lola Kiwanis club Uust night by A. W. Young, coimty engineer, in a review of Allen county's history. Cofachique was an Indian village Following closel,' 'upon Admiral McCain's air sweeps rver Japan's strategically import.'-it Formosa and Okinawa al • fields, another task force of Adml-ai Nimitz" mighty Pacific fleet shelled Japanese bases at Haha and Chichi Jima in the Bonins Friday. In his terse report on the Formosa- Okinawa strilre.s, Ni-nitz said 220 Japanese planes were damaged in sweeps over virtually ail operating enemy lair fields on the two islamd bases linking Japan with the MacArthur-threatened Phi'ippines. The Bonin bases lin-i about 100 miles north of heavily pounded Iwo Jima in the volcanos. Like Iwo Jima they have p.^bably been ased by Japanese planes .striking at the Sai- pan base of Tokyo-raiding Super­ fortresses. James made no mention of oppo- sltuated on the east bank of the Neosho, south of the mouth of Elm: sltion encoanterc-l by navy eirmen scouting the China coast. creek and about a half mile north of the Oscar Stuckey farm. Mr. Yoimg explained how the i Pacific War ^^et coimtv was surveyed in the 13.°i0's Q I 4. T> J and 1860's with instruments less i OPCaKS at KOiary accurate than those used today. As a consequence errors were made which still show up from time to time when boundary lines are rc- suiveyed, he said. In the early years a vegetarian colony was establishsed in Allen coimty with all members pledged to eat no meat. The group acquired considerable land with all the plots laid out in pie shaped pieces terminating in a central community center. Mr. Young's address contained a Capt. Lindley Hlnes, retired, a veteran of the bitter fighting In the MarshaU'-?nd GUbert isianls, described som*" of his experiences in that area bejcre the Tola Rotary club Thiu^ay nlj-'ht. He also showed motion pictures of the American landings upon Tarawa. A long, tough war a^jainst Japan was predicted by Capt. Hlnes who reminded his audience that the United States was caught by surprise on Pearl Harbor day and had wealth of Information about early to surmount difficult .supply prob- Allen county which the Kiwanlans lems before af'-oming the offensive. found both Interesting and entertaining. What Hitler Reaps^ for the German People Members o^ aii American infantry patrol^ view the ruins in a devastated street in Saarlautem, Germany.— (Signal Corps Pboto From NEA Telepbotoj These same supply difficulties will tend to i.nake progress comparatively slow. Capt. Hlnes contra.^ted tlie American plan of carriftr-based air forces and th'e Japanese idea of island based air power. He said that the carriers had provnd their value. They provide mobile air bases. An island can't move, he pointed out. Guests Uicluded Lt. Raymond S. Clark, who is now home on leave, having completed 50 mtisions over enemy territory from,Italian bases. He spoke briefly on his experiences there. Pvt. Walter Smith was a second guest. Scientists Observe 50th Anniversary Boston, Jan. 6. (AP)—Cliristlan' Scientists today observed the 50th anniversary of the dedication of the mother church, the First Church of Christ, Scientist, and a half century of religious accomplishment. The oriKinal edifice of gray granite, seating ab >5ut 1 200 persons, was dedicated Jan. 6, 1895. by the founder of Christian Science, Mary Baker Eddy. It is now dwarfed by the "Annex" built only ten years later to seat 5,000 persons. The great dome of the Annex L's a dominant landmark in the back bay area, reclaimed from the Charles river.

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