The Chillicothe Constitution-Tribune from Chillicothe, Missouri on October 31, 1916 · Page 7
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The Chillicothe Constitution-Tribune from Chillicothe, Missouri · Page 7

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Tuesday, October 31, 1916
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sass^iC^l^^^ THE CHILLICOTHE BAIL'S. CONSTITUTION TUESDAY, OCT. 31, 1916. REPORT ON A PRELIMINARY if THE GRAND RIVER VALLEY, MISS OvisiiNMKNT K.N(;IM-:I:K HM'OM.MK.vns STUAK;HTI-;.V]XG OK THK R I V E R 1JV C'l'TTlVG OUT T!HC »,I-:M)S. " W H K X i X ( ; OF U I V K K CIIA.V.MCI., r i , i K . V X I . \ t ; OTT I,;j(;.S A V I ) O T I I B R 2 K S V { I S A N D TO A l t K A X N ! - ; I-'OR A.VMV, 1. l . N S l ' K C T I O X . W H K . V K K Q r i l t K D , T O l ^ l t K I O K l V r l l )!·' AfCL'-Ml'LATIONS O F A X V T H I N G T H A T W O U L D f . V T K U F K U R WITH F I I K i i F! OW !!·' W A T K U . WOULD BE A MASTER STROKE OF PROGRESS A K K I ' O R T OX T H K MOST 1 M ! O U T OF LJVIXGSTOX COUNTY AM) KST TO O W X K J W OF G l t A X i ) 1XG THK K K - I I K S T A SOIli THAT 1 AXT St'BJI-X'T TO THK I ' i O O l M . K OF T r l i - J ;ilK.VTKST I X T i i K U 1 V K K KOTTCW !..\.Y!, IT KK, I MOST I M i O I J U C T i V H T H E 1 4 H IS. JJviiighton County Ha., 1OO.O1IO Acs .ly lrairiel W i l l IJrliiK Untold \V Owners in the Inci-euse oi' M . l l Other Fa: os ol" Bottom Laml^. YVhicJi il" Proper- alth to the C o u n l y and the hand ions of liiiliels of G n i i i i and m Products. Report made by Ti_ IT. McCrory CliieC of Drainage investigation and W. X. Hall, Drainage -Engineer: INTRODUCTION. In April, 1916, Representative W "VV. Rucker. on bc'-ialt oi the Drainage Committee of the C h a m b e r of Commerce, Chillicotlie, Missouri, requested that the O t f i c e of Publi; Roads and Rural Engineering, U.J,4|. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e detail a drainage e n g i n e e r _ to make an e x a m i n a t i o n o t the Grand River to d e t e r m i n e the feasibility of preventing f u t u r e flam- age from overflow. As a result ol this request, Mr. S_ II. -McCrory,Chief of Drainage Investigations, spent f r o m A p r i l , 17 to 25. inclusive, in making an examination ot", and collecting data pertaining to, the Grand River and its watershed- It wa? f o u n d that few surveys had be«n made on this stream or its t r i b u t a r ies, and that but little physical dan wore available. No reliable information was to be had in regard to the slope of the valley, and as t'.ir as could be learned no measurements of flood flow had ever been made on the Grand River or any of its tributaries. As information in regard to the slope of the valley was essential to the preparation. oC any report arrangements were "made to run ? line of levels along the river f r o m Brunswick to Pattonsburg, Missouri and to make measurements or sum floods as might 'occur while this work was In progress. This field work was begun on April IS by TV. K. Hall, Drainage "Engineer, ana completed July 12. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF GRAND RIVER. THE "WATERSHED. As shown on the accompanying map, the Grand River has its source near Greenfield, Adair County, Iowa I and flows southeast to its junction j I with. the Missouri River. n e a r ' * Brunswick, Missouri. Its watershed is approximately 155 miles long ana from 10 to SS mile's wide, and has an area of S.020 square miles. The areas drained by the river at various points are as follows: | data available, was as follows: "·! r i r i t i . n C o u n L v J . i \ i i i s j . - t u n Tol.Ll i OIKI The above estimates are boliev-e'l to be conservative, and it is prob able that a detailed field examirn. tion would show the overflowed area to be, considerably larger. T H E K I V E R C I T A X X r i L The channel of the Grand Rivoi is in poor order. The hanks are cov ered with heavy growths of trees and brush. -In mt'ny places these g r o w t h s have caused deep deposit' of silt and sand which have materially, reduced the size of the channel Considerable quantities of log-;. stumps, and other debris are scat- by narrow reaches. The average width of the valley grows less as- one goes up stream. The bottom land along the East Fork of the Grand River in Gentry County, Mo., averages a b o u t y 2 mile wide t h r o u g h o u t the c o u n t y . In Worth County the b o t t o m s are considerab j ly narrower. The entire lowlands, I f r o m hill to hill are overflowed I r e f l u e n t l y on both streams which arc 'typical tributaries of tho G r a n d River. There is but little i n f o r m a t i o n : available relativeHo tho f a l l on the various tributaries. A field iuspcc ticn indicated that apparently the lower portions of the tributaries have usually somewhat more fall than has the river at the p o i n t ; w h e r e these t r i b u t a r i e s enter. As one goes u p s t r e a m the a m o u n t of fall, per m i l e of channel, increases The- tributaries below Thompson' 1 Fork have a fall of from 1 to 3 feet per mile near the river. Those above j Thompson's Fork have m o r e fal" than those below; as nearly as could be estimated the m i n i m u m fall or ; these u p p e r streams, near the river is at least 3 feet per mile. The Call on each of the tributaries increase? as one approaches the headwaters On the upper portions of the t r i b u - taries the fall per mile is probably f r o m 7 Lo T 0 fe.et, or even more in some cases. OVERFLOWS. The entire valley of the Granc" River is o v e r f l o w e d f r o m b i l l to hill a f t e r every heavy storm, the d e p t b of water d e p e n d i n g largely upon the intensity of tho storm In 1915 the valley was overflowed a n u m b e r o! times. In 1909 occurred the high est overflow of which we have rec ord. In 1S75, 1SS3, 1 S D 6 , and 1903 serious floods occurred. Only moagri i n f o r m a t i o n in regard to t h e s e earlier floods could be secured From the data available it w o u l d ) ap-poar that thev reached about the same height as tho f l o o d of 1915 So far as could be learned, no oth. er flood approached in magnitxuh that of 1900. The flood oE 1915 caused very heavy damage on th Grand River and its t r i b u t a r i e s : practically all crops on the bottom lands were lost, fences were swept away, and highway bridges washed o-ut. Many of the railroads crossing or following the Grand Rivei valley or its t r i b u t a r i e s were washed out, and service i n t e r r u p t e d foi periods of varying length. In 190!) the losses were even more serious As in 1015, all crops were lost fences torn ont, and bridges wash. eel away. Train sen-ice on the rail. what since the flood of 1915, and very materially since the flood Oj 1900. For this reason it is not pos sible to make an accurate estimate of the discharges of. the river during the 1915 and 1909 floods. Following are the maximum heights leached by the water of the Grand River at the waterworks p u m p i n g s t a t i o n , Chillicothe, Missouri, ia 1909, 1015, and 1916, respectively, an-d the measured or estimated discharges for tliese stages. Tabla here. O.IU40 DAT K _ H e i g h t _ 111 ^eii.u-ge. I Fuel I _Cu. £i. por sec. -May 17. ' 1 0 i J7.0 | M.-I v ,;o, ir, | :n.ii; ! J u l y , lltOl) I a.J 77 I ;i - m i a s u i L fl. erl. _ - . ___ Tho estimated discharge lor 1015 is undoubtedly much more a c c u r a t e than that tor 1909, as Lhe stage tor the f o r m e r year was nearer that i'o, which the measurement was m a d f in 1916, and f u r t h e r m o r e ' inauj changes in. railroad bridges and embankments " were made between 1909 and 1 0 1 5 . After all available data in regard to tloods had bec-n correlated, a search was mad, through the rainfall records of the \Veather Bureau from 1S93 to date to learn if any storms larger than Lliose which caused the f l o o d s o 1909 and 1915 had been recorded I t was f o u n d that the Weather Bu reau stations in or near the Granc K i v e r watershed showed an aventgc precipitation of 5 . 4 7 inches from July 5 to S, 1 9 0 9 , and 5.64 inches. f r o m June 22 te 25, inclusive, 1915 No other storm approaching these in m a g n i t u d e was f o u n d . Both thr, storms occurred after rather pro longed wet spells, when the soil wa? well saturated and c o n d i t i o n s q u i t e favorable for a high rate of run.olT The distribution of the rainfall was somewhat d i f f e r e n t for the two storms. The most noticeable point bilities determined more detinitely. LEVEEri. Complete protection from floods such as occurred in 1909, f o r pos sibly one-half of the land in llu Grand River bottoms, can be secured by the construction of levees. Much of the land in the Grand River val ley is not well located for protectior by levee;,. The cost of protection by the use of levees would vary with the location of the land. That ir' exceptionally favorable locations could be protected for from .$10' tt $15 per acre. On oth r tracts, poorly located Cor protection by levees Lhe cost would run f r o m ? 7 0 to ? 9 0 or more per acre. Between these twc extremes would be many other tratts where the cost of protection would range f r o m $ 3 5 to $70 pei The average cost for the e n . tiro area protected should be f r o m ?20 lo ?SO per acre. Under a levee plan, the c o n d i t i o n of the land outside ihe levees would be a b o u t thf same as it now is; practically the only use to which, it could be put would be for pasture. Protection from floods such that which occurred in 1915 floods of 4 0 , 0 0 0 second-feet) shoulri be adopted for the lower portions ol the streams. On the smaller tributaries, and the upper reaches of the larger tributaries, new channel: should be constructed- These chau nels s should be located near the ceu tiers' of their respective valleys ami should be -made as straight as pos. sible, the old channels being aband oned. Thompson's Fork affords f good example of a large tributary From the G r a n d River at least a, far up as Trenton, and possibly mucr farther, it should be improved in 1 much the same m a n n e r as suggested 1 for the river. At some points above TrenCon it will be advantageous to abandon the old channel and tc construct a new one. On the East Fork of the Grand River, at New Albany, the best plan, of reclamation will be ^o cut a new channel through tered along the banks. The high I roads crossing or following the val- .water during the past few years has! ley was seriously i n t e r r u p t e d , and j cut many openings in the banks n i through which The water flows on ta j tho low land, causing o v e r f l o w s to occur at much lower stages than formerly. In some places there was evidence that the recent high water some of the roads were not able to resume operations for many week; after the f l o o d . If we assume that the loss on the 2 8 5 , 0 0 0 acres of land overflowed in 1015 averaged 55 per acre, a vei" had enlarged the channel slightly conservative estimate, the loss on but this enlargement did not mater, i agricultural lands would be Spl.423, ially a f f e c t its capacity. The general d i m e n s i o n s of the channel of the 000. In addition, there was d a m a g e to roads, railroads, and t o w n s which -- -- _ . - , river are shown in the folio-wins: would probably a m o u n t to at leas* table: 5 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 , making a total loss ol DIMENSIONS OF GRAND RIVER CHANNEL. B r m i s w u - k . -Mo - \ \ - l i i l l i i i i n , Jin. IlodfYn-rt. M o . . . [ J nok Spring-: f l u l l a t i n . . . -ipb 7200 7 f 10 a n 30 s«i. Below j u n c t i o n of "East Foric r i n d "V\~ost bV-M-k ot" G i u t u l "ttivor, n o n r A l b a n y Mo.. . Bolow m o u t i i ol" G r m U s t o n o Below' m o u t h of Thompson's, Fork, near Utloa. Mo v . . . Ilolow Tamith "[ "Mottu'ine Creok, near Bu(H""rd. Mo. . P.olow m o u t h of XjiicusL Crook, noar S?umnor Mo . f i J - t ) 'Be-low m o u t h of Y H l o w Crook, noar S u m n o r . M o . . . , j 0- A t m o u t h o f G r a n d R i v o r , ns:ir B r u n s w i c k , Mo S l _ u The surface of the Grand River watershed varies from quite | rough, hilly land to rolling prairie. Along the j river and the larger tributaries tin-. hills rise sharply with steep slopes j to a height of f r o m 50 to 200 feet j , above the valley. Back f r o m the ] streams the land becomes more roll- i ing and there are occasional areas; [ of nearly levek prairie land. Prac. j tically all of the watershed is culti. vated or used for pasture and hay although along the stream occasion?.' small tracts of timber are f o u n d . | ( The valley of the Grand River i? i The principal tributaries of the j widest near ChilHcothe, where it Grand River are Yellow Creek, ~Lo- reaches a width of nearly 5 mile'. cust Creek. Medicine Creek, Weldon Between Brunswick and B e d f o r d raver, Thompsons Fork. Big Creek. ' the valley varies in width from ap- Grindstone Creek, and Shoal Creek proximately three-quarter "mile t° (see m a p ) . Nearly all of these trib over 3 miles. From B e d f o r d to C a r - j u t a r i e s i, av e valleys s i m i l a r in char low- the valley ranges -in width from I a c t e r to t h a t through _ which the 2 miles' to 5 miles. Above Carlow G r a n a River flows. Usually the hot- the width decreases rapidly v.nti" lorns a r o widest near the river and 1 near Gallatin it becoiwes approxi [ ~ rcws narrower as one proceeds u? ol" dilTerence t h a t was apparent wa: the direction of the paths of the two Morm.5. The 1000 storm came f r o m I h e n o r t h w e s t and f o l l o w e d down the river. The 1915 storm passed across the watershed f r o m the southwest to the northeasit. D u r i n g the 1 9 0 0 storm tho rainl'all was d i s t r i b u t e d in such a manner as to concentrate the ruTi.oft from all the tribtitarie. in Hip G r a n d River at approximately tho tame time, while the precipita lic-u d u r i n g the- 1915 storm appar ently occurred m such a- manner thai the floodwater ill the various trih utaries reached the river at d i f f e r - ent times. F r o m the available date in regard to the occurrence of Hood- and of heavy rains, it would appeal that floods such as occurred in 1915 i r i y be expected at intervals of approximately 10 years. The distri b u t i o n of those floods, however, i; u n c e r t a i n . They may occur in succeeding years or they may be separated br i n t e r v a l s of m a n y years. nere is no i n f o r m a t i o n at hand to show how often f l o o d s of the magnitude of the J 9 0 9 flood may bf expected to occur on the Grand Riv er watershed. In connection witli i study of the Marais des Cygnes watershed in Kansas, a search was: made for data in regard to floods which had occurred in Missouri and Kansas. The results i n d i c a t e d thai in northwestern Missouri and n o r t h eastern Kansas Lhe streams in 1909 reached a stage considerably highei t h a n at any t i m e sincft . 1S-I4. If this is true, it would appear that floods of the magnitude o£ that o: 1909 might occur once in 60 years "Any plan for the complete protection of the bottom lands alont the Grand River must make pro vision for a tloocl f l o w ol at l«asi 8 0 , 0 0 0 second-leet at Chillicotlia To secure protection f r o m serious damage by flooding, except foi storms j The channel is quite crooked i there being many large loops and bends. The banks are general 1 } higher than the land back of them. In order to obtain accurate information in regard to the a m o u n t of Jail on tho G'rand River, levels were run f r o m Brunswick to Pat. tonsburg. This survey showed that the river between Brunswick and Lock Springs, Mo., ihas a fall of ap -entlv jproxirnately one foot per mile th " e !From Lock Springs t o Patonsburg the average fall is 1.G1 ftot per mile. Above Pattonsburg no levels-'were run, but f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n available -it appears that the fall per mile increases steadily towards the he.ul waters of the river, and that the .tall between Pattonsburg and Albany ' i s probably 2% "to 3 '.set per mile i or possibly more. S I , 6 7 5 , 0 0 0 in 1915. Those losses in 130!) were probably as large, ii not larger. RUN-OFF. No measurements ol! the a m o u n t of water discharged by the Grafu s River when in flood stage had bee-a made. The river reached low flood stage several times in the early pan of 1916, when discharge measurements were made at Chillicothe by Mr. Hall. Tlie hi'ghcsl stage occurred on May 17 when the gauge at the water works read 27.0. A number ot discharge measurement.: were made on the Grand River dining the period of May 3 to June 26 The results of these measurements are shown in the following table: Above alternately at the narrowest places being not more t h a n one- smarter mile wide, while at the wid- mately three-eights mile. Gallatin the valley ·svidens and contracts. stream. DISCHARGE MEASUREMENTS MADF: AT CHTLLTCOTITR. M O . DUR- IXG MAY AND J L ' X C , 1 i] 1 Ij GAUG1D _ D A T R I-1K1CUTS DISCHAP.GK 3 9 1 _ B | Feot | Cu. Jltiy S I - ' 1.! I 1! " 1.1 | as be secured somewhat more cheaplj and possibly a larger percentage of the land in the valley could bo so protected. The cost of p r o v i d i n g against such Hoods, as that which occurred in 1915 would p r o b a b l v average from $ 1 5 to $25 per acre. C H A N N E L . T M P n O V E J t B N T . Some relief f r o m existing conditions might be secured to all land in the Grand River b o t t o m s by the con. struction of relief channels in cer. tain sections of the valley, and by clearing the present channel of the river throughout its course. It is believed, however, thali a greater a m o u n t or protection can be secured at a less cost by following the plan outlined below. Protection for practically all land in the Grand River valley, f r o m o flood of 4 0 , 0 0 0 second-feet, can br secured by making- the following improvements: (1.) straightening the present channel by c u t t i n g off the largest bends; ( 2 . ) clearing the en- tiro channel o{ all brush, trees, de the center of the valley as suggested" for smaHer tributaries. The new channel should be made as deep as the- character of the^ material in p m j which the ditch is to be excavated I will permit. Channels of this char acter- usually widen somewhat ajftei bris and enlarging other obstructions; certain portions -of (3.) thf ed landowners so that they may clearly understand what it is proposed to do and what benefits they will receive f r o m « t h e construction of improvements. After this report is submitted, the landowners in the Grand River valley must decide whether they wish to continue to bear the losses caused by overflows, or whether they desire to purchase insurance against tloo3 by constructing flood-protection works. Tho investigation made indicates that a feasible plan for the protection of the overflowed lands along the Grand River and its tributaries can be worked out, and that the cost of protection will not be greater than owners of lands ot this .character can. easily a f f o r d t 0 pay. The laws of the State of Missouri afford ample authority for the construction of any improvements suggested in this report. occurring at long intervals provision must be made for a floou flow of approximately 5 0 , 0 0 0 sec ond.feet." A lesser degree o£ reclamation can be secured by a plar providing f o r the passing o[ flood' of approximately 4 0 , 0 0 0 second feet, at Chillicothe. With such a pro vision, overflows should be expected on an average of once in 7 to 10 Thompson's Fork is one of the j largest t r ' b u t a r i e s . Its b o t t o m s for f o w T O n e s above the Grand Rivei , a r e Approximately 3 w. m i l e * wide. places the width is ' about 2 j Tlle y gradually grow narrower, and "" I near Trenton the valley is only The amount of land overflowed by a b o u t Vi mile wide. Above Trenton the U,and -River and its tributaries are f o u n d comparatively years. However, the d u r a t i o n ant height of all large floods w o u l d " be materially reduced. POSSIBLE METHODS OF PRO TECTION. Protection from floods may be secured on the Grand River in twc ways: First, by construction ol storage or detention reservoirs to prevent the occurance of flood stages; second, by the constructor ot levees or channel improvement? planned to a f f o r d protection floodwater. STOP. A O E RESTS RVOI IIS. The feasibility ot materially relieving flood conditions in the CranJ River valley by the use ot, storage or detention reservoirs was invest! gated. A field inspection o£ a considerable p o r t i o n of the watershed was made to determine the possibil ity of securing suitable sites for reservoirs. As no topographic maps were available, the examination was of necessity ^very superiicial. The channel where the prgsent sectior is f o u n d to be exceptionally s m a l l , (4.) constructing levees at lo\\ places in tho bank to hold the watei in the r i v e r channel. l "By cutting off a n u m b e r of t h e i n r g e r loops it is possible to shorten the channel of the river about oae f o u r t h . ' Clearing the banks and en larging certain sections ol the clian nel will materially increase the ca pacity of the existing channel. Tin construction of levees at low place will c o n f i n e the water to the channe and prevent flooding u n t i l the rivei reaches a stage considerably highei than t h a t at which the f l o o d i n g n o w occurs. It is believed that the im p r o v e m e n t s o u t l i n e d would be suf ficient to increase tho channel capacity to approximately -10,000 sec ond- feet in the vicinity of Ch'illi cothe, and to increase the capacity at other points m the same proper lion. There is not sufficient i n f o r m a t i o n available in regard to the channel ol (.he river to permit of more than ; very general estimate oE the cost 01 protecting the landsi by the last. m e n t i o n e d plan. As the entire acre, age in the Grand River valley w o u l C be .benefited, the cost per acre oJ making the improvements outline* should bo from ?8 to S.I 5 per acre It should be made plain that this: plan will not prevent all flooding. It -will, however,' prevent overflow: except d u r i n g storms such as oc curred in 1909. and 1!)15, and wil materially reduce f l o o d heights i r ' the valley and shorten the_ duratior of tile maximum floods. A"S the ve locity of flow ill the channel of Lhe river w o u l d be increased, then should be some enlargement of the channel with a.,resulting increase n capacity. If later it should be de sired to make further improvement's either by the construction of levees or by improvement of the channel the work that had been done undei this plan could 'be utilized to a verv great extent. It is believed that foi the money expended, this m e t h o d oi reclamation o f f e r s greater possibili ties of securing protection againsi all except extreme floods, than can be had from any other plan. If these improvements are-' con structed^it is essential, if the fullest degree of protection is to be realiz ed, that the channel oE the river be kept in first class condition. It should be inspected yearly and al they are constructed, but they rarely deepen. The cost of the improvement on the tributaries will vary greatly. Under the most favorable circumstances protection can- be secured for approximately $10 per acre. On some streams the cost per acre oC benefit ed land may reach ?30 per acre, o; even more. If the tributary improvement's are properly d'esigned and properly constructed they shoulc." 1 give a.]most complete protection from overflow. Improvements on small streams made along the lines jusi recommended in northern Missouri and -western Iowa, have, when prop erly- planned and executed, given very satisfactory results. There have been some instances in which results have not been satisfactory. Investigations generally shoy thai where improvements of this character are not working satisfactorily the f a i l u r e is attributable to im- rroper design or failure to construct the improvements in the inannei specified. NEED FOR DRAINAGE SURVEY! Before a definite derision as tc the best plan of flood protection can bo made, a drainage survey must be m-i.de oE the Grand River valley from Brunswick at least as far upstream as Gallatin, and preferably a few miles above Albany. This survey should also include the valleys of all of the principal tributaries up to p o i n t where there can be no question as to the form of improvement that should be adopted for the pro- t e c t i o n of their bottom lands. On seme of tho tributaries the survey would need to be carried only a few miles from the Grand River, while 011 the l a r g t r tributaries It would be necessary to extend it for a consid erable distance upstream?-- It would br best if a survey could be made o Ihe entire project as outlined, as 3 unit. The object of the survey w o u l d be to obtain s u f f i c i e n t data t 0 enable the selection of the best plan of improvement. The results of the survey would show definite!;* whether the project could best be developed as one unit under an organization similar to that of the Little River Drainage District in southeastern Missouri, or whether il would be best to divide it into a number of different districts. No at. ] t e m p t should be made to locate improvements during the survey. The cost of making such a survey a; outlined would be from 10 to 20 cents per acre of land surveyed Tkis cost would include that o£ all necessary field surveys, hydrographir investigations, and the prcparatior. of maps and profiles as well as a full Rexall Stores Straw Vote Who is going to be elected-Hughes or Wilson? That is the question. The Rexall Straw Vote will tell you. How, because it is National in scope. No straw vote sver tnkeu before was national in character. N 0 one ever had the organization to do it before. How lean the Rexall Company do it ? Because we have over 8000 stores located in every state in the Union, in little towns and in cities of 6,000,000. See our windows for results. Bu!. letins coir-ing daily. This vote is taken in all walks of life. The popular vote in first bulletin i£ 180,000 votes and indicates that it is going to he some race. If you want to be posted, study the bulletins on the Rexall windows. Clark's Pharmacy "The Rexall Store ' Chillicothc, Mo. EriFsb Heskl into "Your Hair Brush your hair ^very day with a good brush. This daily Jperation will straighten your hair and invigrate your scalp Our l i n e of Hair Brushes is large. Come in and select one which will best meet your requirements. You'll find it z pleasure to uso the right kind it a brush and will also be reworded with more luxuriant hair and a healthy scalp. Pricoj from Ryburn's Pharm. N. vV. COR. SQUARE Telephone Oiie.One ^ eneral conclusion reached was, that w h i l e it might he possible to protect the overflowed lands in the valley by brush and struct the removed. debris, that might ob- free flow o£ the water IMPROVEMENT OF TRIBUTARIES OF THE GRAND RIVER. The plan of protection for the bottom lands along the tributaries to the Grand River will depend to some extent upon the methods adopted for the protection of ( h e l a n d s in the Grand River bottoms. If a plan embracing levees i? adopted for the por tection of the lands along the G r a n d be necessary to use e In 1915, as compiled from the best I stretches v-ide lands connected From these data a rating curvi. was prepared which was used in est i m a t i n g the maximum discharges that occurred in 1 9 0 0 and 1915. Conditions on the river in the vicinity of ChilUeothe have changed some River, it IPVPPS on t h e lower p o n i o n of the o ,^.-.. ~, tributaries. If some plan of chant h i s method yt m all probabrlitj nel improvement is decided upon, it the cost of such protection w o u l d be J will be possible to protect practical- higher than land used for agricul ' i t u r a l purposes could a f f o r d to pay When surveys for this p r o j e c t arc 5. J made the plan or using reservoirs to control the floods should he given further consideration and its possi- ly all of the land along the tribu- way. On the channel report upon the project. CONCLUSIONS. With the increased development of the G r a n d River valley, floods which formerly did not cause great dam ;e have become very destructive. It has been estimated that $1,650,000 damage was caused by the flood it 1915, and that probably the 1909 flood damaged the valley in the same amount. The loss caused by these floods cannot be considered as the maximum that may be expected in the valley. With the increased de. ent of the lands along the G r a n d River, the damage to agriculture f r o m similar floods will always become greater, as will also the damage to roads, railroads, and other property. The inconvenience to the business interests along the; Grand River, due to interruption oi communication by the floods, is also a matter of much importance. ""All available records show-that floods 01 similar magnitude to that which occurred in 11S5 may be expected hi the valley at intervals of approximately 10 years, or possibly a Uttl, oftener. Floods of much greate! magnitude will occur at intervals ot perhaps 50 years. The losses incurred during one flood similar tc that of 1915 would go far toward, paying for the cost ot the improvements necessary for preventing damage by floods. It is recommended that a survey be m a d e of the Grand River valley and tributaries, as outlined m a pru- :eding section, and that a report be taries iti the same larger tributaries a plan of improvement very similar to suggested, for the protection of ^the 'lands along the Grand prepared setting forth the i n f o r m s QUICK REPAIRS nut u n i l D ^"hy wait three days, ivhen U N C H U U B J can make it In one IWur.' "IUC » » Why pay two profits, when you ·5ATC + * can Liny f i o m the factory? r V I O T nilDt IPITP SenO the- broken glass, tXACT U U r L I U A I t i guaranlee an c.^ct d u p l l c a t s without your prescription. Frames repaired also. QNE MILLION KINDS l r %S TM^ m Uon kinds of lenses from Lhe rough ^kiss. Come and see. 11 A l l ADHCIK Pack all tl-fce broken parts M A I L UnUtn* i n a strong box. 1 return glasses same day by parcel post C. O. D. Lowest possible charges. C. W. PALM SPECIALIST IN OPTOMETRY 818 Webster St., chlNlcothe. Mo. Phones" o ffl( " (1 - 90S. Residence. 1450M Closed livery Tuesla.v Chillicctht Granite Work? MONUMENTS Best. Work Low Prices Fquiped with Up-to- Date Mach'nery TELEPHONE. 534 506 WASHINGTON ST OSTEOPATH j r. T. G. Phelps Otoce in Gunby Bldg. (nil Stairway nortn or Deeper (fun -- UHllJJiCOTHE, MISSOUK! PHONES--RcsKwiH-B ZOS: Office 1* Calls answcron p r o m p t l y rtar o- n'g* Uon secured as a result of this sur vev and making definite recom m p n t l a t i o n s as to improvr-raents thai t i u u - -- s h o u l d ' b e constructed. This report River (toi ( f h o u l d be placed before the interest- D- W. R Simpson Practice Devoted to General Medicine 25 Tears Experience In Disease of the EYE, EAR and GLASS PITTING Calls Answered Day and Jflgtat TBtEPHONTS 33 Offlce ft Besldence--415 B. Webster CHTLLICOTHB, MO. lEWSPAPERr NEWSPAPER!

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