Sterling Standard from Sterling, Illinois on February 18, 1897 · Page 13
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Sterling Standard from Sterling, Illinois · Page 13

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Thursday, February 18, 1897
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of fefs his vn*fc ftgrictiJteral operations tb» s^actaesg tsMd gystena of a met- engaged ^o large Teatares and rich fttgosdes. In ft single year It* tfciftai ?,000 bnaheis «f wheat and 10,060 btishiels of Indian sons, and yet tefespos ^a* *l»e great siapls. Nearfy all $fc«i woolen and lines? necessary for W* army of laborers and dependents $ferc manufactured on jibe .estate, btttthe lte^l«ia«iof cloth and nfojBjing WBTfS (Valued from England. ; The vessels prhtch semiannual!;* took out his toBac- ^O te London and JLiverpOol alww'a oaf • fiedl an extennive order for clothing, im- elefia*als of agriculture and a*tioles of lexary not obtainable on thia side of the 'Atlantic. - He and his wife looked to the tailors and dressmakers of London for their •fashionable garments, which, by the way, were Always of the best material the latest style. "Plain clothes, with gold or silver,, ^iro all/^that I desire^ 1 h« onde ljifftsilojrtarI«nao0r~" M Tl5ebear good enough for him" evidently, he was willing to pay tot it. la perneing his duplicate invoices, Wbioh Jjave been preserved, one, ia to quote the detailed lists en* eo quaint are they, BO complete, BO tllrifltrativo of the methodical character pj the man. The greater part ol these orders perhaps were made up of artiolea for his wife and stepchildren, as for in- atonnei ( , .-.-'• ••; "'. ' .. • "'•: " I salmon colored ttitiby Velvet, of tlieerioloMd bsttem, with satin flowers; 3 flno flowoted JawnapronB; & pairs of woman's •whlto Bilk tiMei 0 pall* flno cotton do.; 0 pounds por- ftinied powdei 1 ; & puckered pettlooat of fashionable color; ** • .a email .Bible, neatly n*mbHr>ft, a fssifa'te ill." Ami, wbJSe W0 are examining whs*' today <f?0tild ba called the "8ennjy" iMo of his life, let us note that foe certainly did use on doossicnjB fety strong language in ttis shaps of an Oocmnioiial ex- pletiva Jttt his letters, "would to God" is »n expression frequently n*ed, and Iteany of bis companions at arms have declared that he coulct swear like a trooper when it was really'neoessttry or at tbo outburst of Botns violent emotion. WASHINGTON'S HJEAnQTJABTER3 BUBO. HEW- • WASBIKGTON BY G. STUART. . • bound In Turkey, and" John Parko Custls 1 ' wrote in gilt letters on .tbo Insldo of the cover; « rieat, small Prayer Book, bound as above, S»ltb "John Parlte Cuatls," oa above. .•*.*• -.''. ' £. jaanB Bible bound In Turkey, and mirked "Martha Parke Custls," wrote on the Inside In gilt letters; ,Bsmall Prayer Book, neat and In the sanse manner; 12 yds. green calllraanoo;' : a. fashionable dressed Poll, to cost ,1 guinea,; end do. at 6 a.; a box of gingerbread, toys hnd augay-lBiageii-and-oomflta. . .* * * Tb«-ttboya- thinga to be sent In d strong trunk separate from y, P. Ctustls'Si yrboso will likewise be put Into a trunk, each having their own nT&mea. One very good spinet. * : * » Books, according to the enclosed list, to bo, charged equally to• •both John Parkeafld^ Martha ParkeCuBtlB- Etc., etc. ' /.'v •••"•• •'.-'-Vv : '."',•'•'•: - Many, if not most, of the'adornments of the Mount Vernon mansion seen there today were thus .ordered 'many months in advance fropa London and only reached thoir destination after perhaps a year o£ delay. And this was necessary, not * because Washington \vas an anglomaniao or preferred to patronize the arts and in^ . dnstries of other nationa in preference to those of hia own country, but because of the dearth of the same this side of the Atlantic. Great Britain had taken good care by vexatious restrictions to prevent 'the jgrowth_ of iAmerioan__.induBtriearof any sort onjil~to~ absblately inhibit the Ia him, in truth,.we find combined two opposite natures, the one calm and dispassionate, the other Violent and ekplo- sive, but which, by Btrong effort, he usually kept tinder firm control. These two diverse natures we sea exemplified in hia conduct of the Revolution. . Hia ardent, even reckless,' nature impelled, him constantly to dash impetuously upon the enemy, but the restraint of cool second thought held him back—at what cost of feeling only one of his temperament can understand.. An to religions convictions, there ifl no certain evidences that Washington was a communicant, though ho was. a vestryman and attended rigidly to his duties, - His Sundays after church wero usually devoted to his correspondence aad,evBn_to^iMfflJ9king out of • his in- voioes.- He always ^'eaid grace" at'table and was observant of religions forms. "When his wife's daughter was at the point of death (and whom, being childless, he loved moat tenderly), "the great heart of her guardian was sorely smitten with grief, and, kneeling at her bedside, he audibly and earnestly prayed for her recovery of health." ^ndsb love and death, happiness and sorrow, alternated in the life at Mount'Vernon:: is an ''Ths fl*M¥ litHfl wr»T»ftT5 WB* btisy from morning tratil night wit,h<1f>TOr=Hn dntiw?, but she gave no much time in conversation »nd afforded cs eaterttin- roeni When we set off in thfi morning, she stood in the door and cheered ns with the good words, 'God be with you; gentlemen.'" Thus sent on his nvay with ft god- epeed from his noble helpmeet, Washington journeyed on to Philadelphia with his colleagues to assist at the deliberations of the congress, hia first public an4 prominent appearance to- the people at large since his participation' in the Indian wars. The Virginia delegates arrived at thetr destination on the 4th of September, tne day, before the assembling of the congress at Carpen- ter'fl hall, and assisted in passing those famous state 'papers which have preserved the names of their authors to posterity. Washington's name does not appear prominently in this connection, because, probably, he was less fitted for debate than for hard work in committee and conference. But we have the testi* rflQny_piL,hl8 friend : Pa trick Henry that "for solid information andHSonnd judgment. Colonel Washington was. unquestionably the greatest man on the floor." Ho was no orator; He cpnld not, like hia great colleague, move the hearts of men by appealing to their passions. It ia related that, shortly after his mar riage, when the speaker of the house of burgesses publicly thanked him. for his inestimable services on the frontler'be was so confused ; when he rose to reply that he could hardly speak a word, but stood, stammering and blushing, until the, speaker said: "Sit down, Colonel Washington. Your modesty equals your valor, and that surpasses the power of any language I possess." The delegates at Philadelphia performed what they came for: "To consider the most proper and effectual manner of so co-operating upon the commercial relations of the colonies with the mother ^country "as to procure redreaa for-iha-inBcbr-inJHrot of Massachusetts Bay; to secure British America from tho ravages and ruin o: arbitrary taxes and speedily to procure OHAPTBB XIV. « A CALL FROM HIS COUNTRY. • From his uneventful and prosaic hut paradisaical state of existence at Monnt Vernon \Vnshington was BOOU to be called, owing to his country's needs. The cloud of war gathering on the. horizon promised to* gain portentous proportions. No longer could tho American oolpnista be:.unaware that, dissensions,'possibly bloody conflicts,,impended, and the wiser among them prepared for the predes- -tined—BPpnrnt'"". Among theHfl_w.ng Washington, whose integrity and patriotism, Aa well as sagacity and prescience, it would be no leas than impeaching to admit flora moment that he at first loaned—as haB been^obarged—toward the 'royalist cause..' .Although JIB hnd-monr to lose than many Americans, and although his affiliations had been hitherto with the leaders of royalist society in the most aristocratic province of .the colonies, he without hesitation cast bis lot and his vote with the American patriots. .'«. , , v ',- • In a letter of this time, which he wrote to one of his former companions in arms, then stationed at Boston, be Bays: ->••,--. ',;:•-'. .-' • •.: •' ' v . '.'I think I can announce it as a fact that it is not th'e jvish nor the interest of the government of' Massachusetts or of any other government upon this con- mn- rris! in the pa"*. Indml, thfro ws* ai- a plethora of generals, trat it- was necessary to gita snprsiae command to i native of the Bontb. As it happened, Washington wftii , the man of men fof his high trust, tint it was not solely be- ntiBG of his fatne or supposed acquirements that he was chosen. He himself Icrabted that hig abilities and experiences "were equal to the extensive and mportant trust," yet he accepts! it, honestly .believing it his duty .scL-t-o dp. 3owever, in whatever manner the ap- rointment had come about, there is no doubt that it Was the very best that could have been made. Althongh still a young man, at least 35 of bis 43 years had been passed in active duties that had peculiarly equipped him for this the greatest task of his life, a quarter century of preparation In the school of experience — first, na an explorer and surveyor of wild landa; second, as a frontier fighter, brought in contact with a wily foe and <)!•» ft! amm'JnsHfw, tit-rr* nwl from Ti"m»-l'' ¥ rr>jzs find (*rwn Aad, again, from fsr'.ff J>rmufl» a stipply of potvclp^Kent by tbft inhftb- Hants, who were *'thn£ time wj!l dife- posed towarcMhe colonies. And on the 4th of March, nfter Dorchester bay had frozen over and everything was ready, the trained eye of the commander told him that now, if eter, success should crown their efforts. The ice waa crossed, and "aa by enchantment" were thrown op those Dorchester breastwork* ia a single night which commanded the town 'of Boston completely aiid optnpeHed the astonished British to evacuate the place. On the 17th of March the redcoatu marched but, and on the 20th Washington and his gallant provincial!) marched Jn. Not a shot was fired, not a building destroyed, yet was New England freed at one stroke from the hateful presence of the enemy, ., CHAPTER XVL ; SNATCHING VICTORIES FROM DEFEAT. ' It has of ten been asserted that Washington did not think highly of the New ......_.. tore! third, a^ -ft stftt{wman7 : in"a"Bm"all- way, when, during 16 years, ho was acquiring a knowledge of legislatien and civil affairs; fourth, as manager of a Vast estate and ample fortune, which. had developed him on the economical and business side and gave him that attention to detail which stood him and the country in suoh good stead during the poveriy stricken period a few years later. He was pre-eminently the map for the occasion and the position, many sided, broad minded.of commanding personal presence and fine mental poise. Nature had endowed him with all the qualifications for a leader of men. His own energies bad snperadded montaf and moral discipline, rigid military drill, an acquaintance with men and affairs and thoroughness of , administration. Even ns the colonial wars had destroyed the prestige of the British sof- In whifh 4o «*ri*w *« Wow, Thi* v«« * h« Rmws*, t£ W* were*!— <to nwftf* *h* light meat f® a blow, tb«u to teftk* W retreat, For rasny mouths after ths Bostoa a* no time were the militia oonttnentftla rtreng euo&gh to xaeet enemy tn open battle, and of the wft* perfonmTery"taa that now waging between toe iarergewts and Spaniards its Cuba. As wrote to congress nfc the owttet : ;' "ff has been demonstrate Ihitf ctf> our side th& war abould be defenBtve. Ifc has ever been called a war of paste— » that we should on all ocoa^ioiia avoM «j general action nor put abytJnng to tftw risk unless compelled by a necessity into which we ought never to be drawn. " How different now, thin prudent g»a- t eral.-from tbo young and fiery frentisrj fighter who lost lirea an4 battles; through mere rashness! "Fabian pol icy" bis domestic enemies called it an4 complained loudly that be did not etnn- late other and more successful general* WASHINGTON AS A VOUNQ UKUTENANT BBmo RECEIVED BY^T «sf AA v ^^ * .- . - • -' . - • ••- ' • YQUK; , tinent, separately or opUeotively, to aet up for independence, but th»a you may —that uone of the^arill ever to the loaa of protiaotitfa of orfidles of injury aa well as of necessity.. , _, ^Though, not highly intelleotual, like ibis great - cornpfttriots jPjanklin and ,„ inhabitants of every free state an«) without ;whioh life* liberty ana property ore rendered totally insecure. Paring thrlS years passed at.Mouct. V«ruo« Washington wa& a mewNr ol the Virginia legislature »nd bid, despite hia lack ol oratorical ability, acquired a reputation for sagacity, prudence, wto- 4am *nd Htoder»lip». Together witb several associate* fee wa» elected delegate to the tort <s*wtiasptel congress and iefe pat ftosa We home, iu ooiapftny with 1 ' W& of of Henry, letter an order to Enitland fir the then et&idard publications/ Still, he was more of a thiakey than a reader and 4row direct from nature mor^ than fr«c» hooka at '», aebondhaua. He xos$ at 4 o'clock in the incwningf throughout the yam, spending the time before b*eakf ast (which was at 7 iu uuiyiuer an,d «t 8 in winter) ia his library. After a fxngal repaai he tuoouted his hoi-ao and rode ov$? his plantation until near time for diiwe?, whioh was at 3. and for which he, dresssML He always retired at 9, summo*, 4md winter, and whother bin hougti eautiuutjd only himself, wife wd Bsrv^nt* or ^m filie4 wWfa guests. « An iadioasion of the cfeswMeia publio epiaien i* e ; \VABJUNGTON BY PBALE. that harmony and union- so beneficent to the whole empire and so ardently desired by all British America." _ They then, went home in ^Oatobgr^ nearly all! of them bearing in tfieUT hearts the conviction voiced by Henry : "We must fight. .An appeal to arms and to the God of hosts is all that is left us." And this sentiment was echoed throughout tho country: ;"Wo must fight. We must'now prepare for the inevitable struggle against British force and tyranny." With Patrick Henry, also, Washington could have exclaimed, •"I am no longer a Virginian, but an American!" _ ' ' • >• Eeturning to Mount Vernon, Washington was 'henceforth 'constantly employed in consultation with the offlceia •of the state and in'drHling troopa^which were being raised in . anticipation , of coming conflict. His new . associate^ iwere men of a .different stamp from .those with whom he had formerly consorted—sturdy yeomen and patriotic .countrymen instead of royalist officials and aristocratic proprietors. It was expected 'that he would assume command of Virginia'a contingent, but his stay at home was • short, as bo was chosen 1 a delegate to the second continental congress, which met at ' Philadelphia in May, 1775. By that time; aa the world knows, the colonies were nil aflame, for patriot blood had been shed at Lexington and Concord on the 19th of the April previous. . .„ . • Driven back to^ Boston, the British were soon cowering within their defenses, blockaded on the land side by 15,000 or 20,000 Massachusetts minute^ men'and volunteers. That.province had been the first to collect the material for war and to arm its population, and consequently, when , the-Brifciflh set out for Concord and before they had accomplished, the object of their march, they were baset by swarms of provincial niinufiemen, who harassed their aiove- mentB, nnaUy brought them to a stand and compelled their disastrous retreat, witu a loss of 278 in killed, wounded and missipg. : - This was the critical condition of affairs th.at confronted the newly assembled congress in May, 1775, The mi- clous of an army had bean suddenly formed, It was besieging tlie, enemy, directed by the Massachusetts provinoial congresa. It was considered desirable that the continental congress 'should as- Bomedireotiou and appoint a commander isji chief. - COMJiiKDUa IN CiUEF. • It \?8& at the inatauce ol tls& Masaa- chuaetts delegation, led by th,e ardent and eloquent John Adams, that Colonel George Washiugtoa of Virginia was called to rite position of coiiiiataisjer ju okief ol tba coutiuontul, or atwy, tbw faoljltet! the Biitoas at Hi Boston twww. the provincial (in these new conditions) so the same conditions bad operated to produce the type of American which the country needed in this emergency in this strnggio for its life. Two happy coincidences attended tbo opening of congress' and .the appointment of the commander in chief. On the.verrday that congress assembled tbo strong British fortress at Ticonder-. oga surrendered to brave Ethan Allen and his "Green Mountain -boys" "in the name of tho great Jehovah and'the continental congress]'' Closely following came the taking of Crown Point, and from both places arms and stores 'were obtained which were extremely opportune. -.< Tho second coincidence, or favorable augury, was tho issuing of Washington's commission on the .very day of that victorious defeat at Bunker Hill, June 17, 1776. News of this latter event reached him aa he was on his way to take command of the army .before Boston. He arrived at Cambriaglfon lho"2tr of July and next day assumed command of the , undisciplined force gathered to beard the British lion in his chosen stronghold.' Hia headquarters were es- ruade famous,'as the home, of the poet Longfellow, and there, nfter the summer was past and it became certain th/tt winter would wear away before the British -could bo dislodged, ho was joined by his wife, who made the long jour- jiey from Mount Vernon in her own "chariot" drawn by four spirited bays and arrived on a cold December day. Massachusetts had responded nobly to the call to arms, and something like 20,000 men were in the field, but many of them had enlisted for a short period only, and many more had not enlisted at alL... Consequently Washington,..Boon_ found himself confronted with one of the grayest of. problems. Writing to congresa in January, 1776, hesaya: "It is not in the pages of history to furnish a. oaso like ours._ To maintain a posli within musket 'shot of, tho enemy for eix months together without ammn- njtiofa, and ut the same time to disband one 'army and' recruit another within that distance of twenty odd British reg- imonta, w more, possibly, than was ever attempted beforp. But if we succeed iu the lost SB well as we have heretofore in the first I shall think it the most fortunate event of my whole life." There was alack of everything. Powder was so scarce that barrels of sand were daily rolled into camp in order to jjeoeiva the American epldiera thern- Euglund militia and spoke disparagingly of them, hut in the letter informing congress that he had communicated their veto of thanks to the army he observes : "They were indeed at first a band of undisciplined husbandmen, but it is under God to their bravery and attention to duty that I am indebted for that whioh has procured me the only reward I wish to receive—the afroction and esteem of my countrymen.' 1 - . From Boston the British sailed for Halifax, but Washington divined, however, that their next objective would be New York and thither led bis little army in April, 1770. By the middle of that month v;o find' him established at New York and disposing his motley forces for the defense of that city and its neighborhood. And on the very day tho Declaration- of Independence was first designated as the "United States of America," the 4th of July, 1776, the British began to disembark their troops at Staten Island. . , .'. .'. . in a "victory—a~~diplomati<r-one—and was a revelation to the British Lord Howe, inasmuch as he found the leader of the tatterdemalion Yankeea possessed of a perfect acquaintance with military and social etiquette. He addressed an official' letter to "Mr. Washington," which the latter refnsed to receive. Then to "George Washington, -Esq., Etc.," which was likewise declined, for the reason that while, aa the British claimed, tho et oeteraa might mean everything they also m'ight and did. mean anything. It was a bitter pill; bnt the noble Briton bad to swallow it, and But no one whom they might name. ever doubted his bravery. '' " It was fa November that Washington; abandoned tbo east bank of the Hudson] and began his masterly retreat across New Jersey, reaching and throwing his little army across the Delaware only in time to escape total annihilation. ^Thia haa been declared to have been, th'e mostj gloomy period of -Jb'e \ Bevolotioaaty| war. Bnt how 'quickly, once hS«. exhausted troops wero recuperated, ^Tash ington • turned upon the British and wrested victory from defeat. Witness, tho crossing of the Delaware that bitteVj Christmas' night of 1776 amid floatijofe ice and in etonnof sleet and within twoi hours after dawn the descent like a*' thunderbolt upon the Hessians at Tren-! ton, taking 1,000 prisoners, 0 fleldpl and 1,200 stands of arms, and then again over the river , through enow covered from their surprise. •: On American sido • a Joss of. bnt four, two of these (sad commentary on thi sufferings) were frozen to death. \ t Then followed the surprise at Prinee- dead and 800 prisoners in Americauj hands. Ib was within a week of Tren-, ton, and, as, there, he had fallen upon! tbo foe liko the lightning from heaven,) leaving him. stricken and demoralized. CHAPTER XVIL HIS FABIAN POLK??. General Howe was astonished afc thoi display of vigor in a foe he had consid-j ered crushed beyond the possibility of j recovery.. After the daring adventure''^! Trenton he sent Lord Oornwallis to oap-j IN 1T06, BY pelves and prevent them from knowing the poverty in thia respect«A provincial colonel wrot» about this time.: *'Tho bay ia still opea. ^Sversthiug thaws exoeut Old Put.- He ia utill us hard aaevsar, cry ing oats 'Powder, powder! Ye gods, give »s powdarl*" Bu*8* Iwt.lhe deflcitijitiy wa* sap- plied. 0»^ «l on» jwivate«t» caplwed » Bristta} wtowjca eiiip, "lad«a with a letter directed to a public character should have, an address descriptive of that character,", etc.', which was What the British wished to avoid—a recognition .of Washington's military title and status. This may have seemed at the timfl a small affair, but in reality it was important as giving a status for further negotiation. l But he was not BO fortunate on Long Island, when the hireling Hessians frightened the raw troops by mere up» -pearauce and. perfect discipline. The British possessed every advantage. They, bad overwhelming numbers of veteran soldiers, inured to war and under perfect control, and ships at their command with which to.remove their troops from and concentrate them at any given point they desired. Thus, while Washington and his weary soldiers were painfully crawling across tho country, ragged and half starved, the British were transported without fatigue and could fall upon the worn and harried Americana with freshness and vigor. .New York presented different conditions from Boston. Being impossible, to fortify it and foreseeing that should he . remain there his forces would be entirely surrounded, Washington sullenly withdrew, yielding only when competed and at the last moment the coveted «ity and Island to his opponentar~To faia fe- . luotanoe to Heave the eneray in posses- lion of the east bank of the Hudson are •flue the disastrous defeats of Long Island and White Plains and the retention till the last tapmtmt and the subsequent. lods of. Fort Washington, with its 9,000 men and valuable stores. That be might have extricated bis command from their perilous positions with less loss, particularly at Fort Washington, is undeniable, but it waa due to bis reluotauoe to withdraw from territory •which ooald only be reclaimed after mouths of fighting, Hoaoe he held en to the last, and it was at the oroasing of the Hudson thatj bis tinny OHJH And let vu toota right JBHtoe fafttl aliei l«Mg FROM BT. MEMHf '8 CRAYON.. tare that "old fox, Washington,?' tufdcuity the evening of the 1 2d of the two armies were, opposed 1 , overwhelmingly in favor of theBrj! Then it was the "old fox" showed superior strategy, an,d, leaving bis camp fires brightly burning and sentinels gao- ing at their posts, be slipped pfif ' Princeton and got in the rear of wallis, where be bagged a " . t as already mentioned, and then slipped .off'again'to the Jersey .bills, fos tbe time sofa from attook-, • - -'-. Agoia the British oomm&iwlea been outgeneraled and a seooadl cotapelled to revise their plains sad eume the defensive \vhau. tbey planued to curry on au offensive paigii. By bis co&eamnj&lia W»«ihiogkin fa«a flaakad Ojqga^j^lte got between We plias at Haw eiiffii and tlici'B 410 xianott: tfaa war bad witueas^a at Sis ol *•*,*'

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