PHILADELPHIA (UPI) - Someone robs a bank, fatally shoots the manager, and: flees with a hostage in a 1 stolen auto: ;•" But unless a suspect is arrested, it is '•' not a recorded crime in the current National'Crime Index. And when it is .- recorded in the index, it is listed as a .. criminal homicide with no mention of .•-robbery or kidnaping or auto> theft. Although only 20 per cent of all ' crimes result in arrest, the index records only those offenses in which people are arrested regardless of convictions or acquittals. The FBI and police departments throughout the country have been using the same national crime scale for the past 45 years. Back in the early 1960s, two University of Pennsylvania officials concluded the index was inadequate and embarked on a study of their own to determine a better way of indexing the ' • severity of crimes. Since then they've • added new crimes evolving from Watergate and pollution. The new scale, called Sellin-Wolfgang, was developed by Dr. Marvin E. Wolfgang, director of the Center for Studies in Criminology and Criminal Law, and Dr. Thorsten Sellin, a professor emeritus. The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration has funded $251,000 to the center to find an effective way of rating the severity of crimes by using the Seliin-Wolfgang scale on a national and regional basis. "The LEAA has been studying victimization with their National Crime ,. Survey," Wolfgang said. "They survey ; 70,000 households on a regular basis and record the crimes the people are : victims of." Once the Sellin-Wolfgang scale is fully developed, the LEAA will use it to compliment its own survey in an- attempt to. come up with a more adequate National Crime Index. According to Wolfgang, the scale currently in use gauges only the following crimes listed in order of severity: • Criminal homicide, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny and auto theft. If several crimes occur in one incident, only the most ''serious" is re, corded for the crime index. If a criminal robs one person and a few minutes .later robs another, it's recorded as two separate incidents. The Sellin-Wolfgang scale, besides reaching a broader segment of the population, takes into account injury, theft •and damage, thus providing a truer picture of the seriousness of the crime. When Wolfgang and Sellin first began developing the scale, they sur. veyed 1,000 persons in Philadelphia, including students, police officers and juvenile judges. .-,-•• : They issued two test booklets. In one, the participants rated the seriousness of the crime oh a 1-to-ll scale, while in the other, called the ratio scale, they rated the severity of the crime as compared to another crime, such as truancy compared to joy riding theft. ' ' •;'•' "The ratio scale proved better," Wolfgang said, "Because it permits mathematical manipulation. '."However, the problem with the Sellin-Wolfgang scale," he said, " is that it requires the participant to be lit: Crate, leaving out a segment of the population." The three-year study, which begins July 1, will try to solve that discrepancy.' "We'll be testing it out on subjects determining whether a ratio scale can be used on a national basis," he said. When the study is completed, it will. be added to the LEAA's two-year-old National Crime Survey, Even without it, Wolfgang said, "The LEAA's study has found more crime than police report, sometimes three times as more." 1 In Philadelphia, for example, Wolfgang said the ratio of the LEAA crime index to the one reported by the FBI was 5-1. : "The new scale will not only construct a better crime index, but we'll • ibe better able to realize the seridus- ;ness of crimes, have better deployment of cops and help judges in sen- fencing." tNow You Know '•: By United Press International V. American presidents have fathered :80 sons but only 57 daughters. , Freeport (III.) Journal-Standard, TuMday, Ju | y 8 , 197S p , fl<( , , Israelis Give Hints Of Mideast Progress Rv ITnlijul D*M&«*« t«A«b__Al • . ^^^ GENERAL' VIEW OF THE NATION'S MAYORS as they listen attentively to speech delivered by U.S. Sen. Edward M. Kennedy Monday at the U.S. Conference of Mayors 43rd annual conference. The senator criticized the Ford administration for paying too much attention to the nation's defense and not enough to the residents of its cities.-UPI Photo 5 Big-City Democratic Mayors Want More Federal Assistance i BOSTON (UPI) - Sen. Edward Kennedy, D-Mass., apparently setting the tone for a major Democratic assault today, says the Ford administration doesn't understand that the health of the nation's cities is as important to the national defense as missiles. Five big-city Democratic mayors called a news conference today amid speculation they would also criticize Ford and Republicans who have fought a plan to give the nation's major cities a larger chunk of federal aid. Kennedy Monday combined his plea for more aid with an impromptu emotional defense of Congress against charges it has failed to act in a time of crisis. "The dominant, overwhelming and basic flaw" in "the President's policy is the acceptance of the worst unemployment since the depression," he told the U.S. Conference of Mayors. "Where is the understanding," he asked, "that the security of the people of Boston and Birmingham and Balti- Gurney Completes Four Days Testifying TAMPA TTla /tTTJT\ i? n «~.~.. TT o " . ^^ Ally TAMPA, Fla. (UPI) - Former U.S. Sen. Edward Gurney says he waited two years to report most of the $100,000 collected for him by fund-raiser Larry Williams in 1971 and 1972 because there was no way to explain it. Gurney completed testimony Monday after four days on the witness stand at his federal bribery-conspiracy trial. The attorney for former Gurney aide Joseph Bastien, one of three co-defendants -in the federal trial,- appeared likelv to begin his case today, although Fr. tawlor Faces Daley In Election CHICAGO (UPI) - Chicago's sprawling 5th Congressional District is Democratic country -home of Mayor Richard J. Daley, one of the country's most powerful Democrats. Today, a maverick priest and a member of the Daley political fold were running in a special election to fill the 5th District left vacant by the Jan. 27 death of Rep. John Kluczynski, D-Ill. , Oddsmakers said the priest, the Rev. Francis X. Lawlor, didn't have a prayer against State Rep. John Fary, a Daley loyalist best known for his successful efforts to legalize bingo. But Lawlor, who has gained national attention in his efforts to maintain the •stability of the white neighborhoods, has been counted out before. Lawlor was refused a position on the Republican primary ballot on a technicality and the election was canceled, since there were, no opposition. But Lawlor went to court, got an order requiring the election to be held, then won as -a write-in candidate, pulling 2,192 votes to his opponent's 2,203. But Fary, running unopposed in the Democratic primary, got 43,235 votes. All the signs point to a resounding win for Fa^y, looked upon by political observers as a caretaker to hold the congressional seat until Daley's son, State Sen. Richard Daley decides he wants to go to Washington. The district is 30 per cent black, and generally votes from 5-to-l to 8-to-l Democratic. Gurney's attorney, C. Harris Dittmar, had not formally rested his case. Under cross-examination by prosecutor Harvey Schlesinger, Gurney said he could not report the funds after hearing of their existence on June 11, 1972, because he had no campaign organization. "I think we reported a part of it after this thing surfaced in 1973," Gurney said. "I had a rundown made of the money spent for expenses of our field offices. We resurrected, a figure of $17,000-plus." "We reported that but not the full $100,000." Gurney said that when he first learned of Williams' activities, he did not recall if he asked James Groot, his former administrative assistant, if he had been aware of the fund-raising. "We didn't go.into specifics," he said of the conversation. "I just asked him to set up a meeting for me with Williams and I told him to stop. "This was a total shock to me." ' Gurney, Bastien and former Federal Housing Administration officials Ralph Koontz and K. Wayne Swiger are charged with raising an illegal political slush fund- through contributions from Florida builders who were promised Federal Housing Authority favors through Gurney's office in return. Gurney, 61, also is charged with bribery, receiving unlawful compensation and four counts of lying to a grand jury. 1 930 Cadillac Series i 353 fl9»t ftomfator ^ ?.•• Typewriter Among cars 9 thereare many famous eights. Among bourbons. there is one. 8*YEAR*OLD WALKERS DELUXE more is not only determined by the number of missiles and submarines, but by the number of policemen and' firemen, the quality of our schools and our medical care, and by the adequacy of housing and employment?" Deviating from his prepared text, Kennedy said charges of an inactive Congress were unfair. "It is the same Congress that has passed a good housing bill" that has been vetoed; that has passed a jobs bill that has been vetoed; passed a strip mining bill that has been vetoed; and passed a farmers bill that has also been vetoed," he said. The struggle over the aid issue surfaced Sunday when the overwhelming Democratic majority at the conference won a preliminary victory in : its effort to place a greater emphasis on relative need in allocating federal revenue sharing funds. The change from the present formula under which allocation is based on need, population and taxing power would help the larger -but in most cases poorer -urban areas. The need proposal was passed 19-14 by the conference's resolutions committee but was expected to face strong opposition when it comes before the full conference Wednesday. Presidential press secretary Ron Nessen said Monday in Washington Ford did not think the program should be "tinkered with." It is expected to have a tough time winning congressional renewal when it runs out in 1977. The current formula, he said, "has worked well," and changing it might further damage chances on Capitol Hill. United Press International An Israeli spokesman said today - "certain progress has been achieved" towards an interim peace agreement with Egypt. But he firmly denied a British Broadcasting Corporation report that final .agreement had been reached. A government • source said the reports of progress included "a concrete possibility" both sides would agree to setting up a U.S.-operated electronic early warning system between the two forces at the Gidi and Mitla Passes in the Sinai Desert. "The talks regarding an agreement with Egypt are still in a, stage of questions and clarifications on central Issues," the foreign ministry spokesman said, "Although certain progress has been achieved in these clarifications, by no means can an agreement be seen as concluded -not theoretically and not practically." He called the BBC report "incorrect both as a whole and in many of its specific details." As to the passes, he said, "No lines have been drawn to determine just what points of the slopes will remain in Israeli hands." A further indication of progress came from Israeli Ambassador Simcha .Dlnltz following a two-hour conference in Washington Monday night with Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger. ':,. Dinltz, talking to reporters, Indicated he may have achieved "some progress" in securing clarifications of the formula Kissinger ha^been able to get Egypt to propose. The main topic of their talks was the political price Israel should pay to get both a pledge from Egypt against further warfare and a U.S. pledge of new arms aid. Israel insists on U.S. guarantees of its security if it makes further concessions to Egypt. There was no indication the difference was narrowed between what Kissinger believes Israel ought to offer Egypt and what the Israeli government thinks ought to be offered as concessions in the search for a secure peace. Rabin's remarks also indicated there will be a session between Kissinger and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin Saturday when both will be in Germany on other matters. Rabin left Tel Aviv today on the first official visit to West Germany by an Israeli Prime Minister In order to improve already existing diplomatic and economic relations between the two countries. He said if he met Kissinger "we shall discuss the efforts to reach an Interim agreement." Egypt's President Anwar Sadat has asked Israel to pull back to the passes and give up captured oil fields. In return, Sadat is offering to guarantee hostilities will not be resumed, that passage of Israeli cargoes through the newly reopehed Suez Canal will be allowed and that a neutral force will be stationed between the opposing forces to make certain there Is no resumption of hostilities. The Israelis are reported to have said these guarantees were not enough. They want the United States to guarantee a specific continuation of American military and economic aid, to provide an early warning system detection system In the desert and to replace the amount of oil Israel now Is getting from the Sinai fields. Rabin left today on the first official visit to West Germany by an Israeli prime minister. He said there was a chance he might meet Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, who was expected to be In Bonn about the same time. Anti-U.S. Protest Held In New Delhi NEW DELHI, India (UPI) - About 150 persons staged an anti-American protest outside a U.S. building today in violation of India's state of emergency decree. U.S. officials said the group was linked to Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's political party and police made no move to stop them. "We were told by our security people that some were identified In one way or another with (Mrs. Gandhi's) Congress party," a spokesman for the U.S. Information Service said after the two-hour demonstration outside the service's building. "We will be making a protest." The protest came shortly after trucks and jeeps filled with uniformed officers pulled into the campus of Jawaharlal Nehru University before dawn, lined up 50 male post-graduate students and took about 15 of them off for questioning, students reported. There is a known radical element at the university and students said most of those police took away had Marxist affiliations. Said one student, "They got the right ones." Mrs. Gandhi's June 26 emergency decree specifically forbids the public gathering of five or more persons at one time. It also bans shouting of slogans, but the USIS spokesman said the protesters yelled anti-CIA epithets, The demonstrators, who carried placards reading "CIA- agent enemies of the country" and "Down with the CIA," caused some property damage, the U.S. spokesman said, and jostled about three USIS employes and visitors, stopping them from entering the building. What to look for wh looking for an air cond u're the dealer for its energy efficiency ratio. This number tells you the efficiency of a unit. An air conditioner with an EER number of 8 or above will be thrifty for you electrically. The EER number is computed by dividing the BTUs by the watts. A 12,000-BTU unit that uses 1500 watts will rate an 8. If the EER doesn't appear on the tag or metal nameplate, use this simple formula yourself. It's a worthwhile exercise that can pay off in electric dollar savings over the long run. Don't buy too much capacity. Surprisingly, an air conditioner that's too big usually won't keep you as comfortable as a smaller unit. So measure the space to be cooled before you go to the dealer. Also note any doors that might let cool air escape, br windows that might let direct sunlight in. The dealer will have charts to translate your notes into the right air conditioner selection. . -f ~ • — ——— — ™ —^ wv «•••£• ^WMWWt Keep the warm air out and the cool air in with proper insulation and weather stripping where you need it. Block out the sun by drawing drapes. And locate the air conditioner on the shady side of your house, making sure to seal any leaks in the window after you put it in. It makes a lot of sense to buy an air conditioner that starts efficient and stays efficient. Saving energy always makes sense. And when summer's over, you'll find the extra care was worth it—in dollars and cents. IOOK FOR AN EER OF 8 OR ABOVE | Commonwealth Edison Working for you.
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