EDITORIAL Governmental reforms-! Governmental reorganization is hardly a new story in Louisiana. The state has had no less than 10 constitutions since it was admitted to the Union in 1812. The present constitution, adopted in 1921, has been amended so many times that it is probably the most horrible example of how a constitution should not be written that a political scientist could find. Currently, however, there are a number of reorganization projects now going on that may have results which are not only far-reaching but favorable. A committee, under the chairmanship of former Gov. Sam Jones, is studying ways and means of reducing the powers of the governor. The Louisiana Legislative Council is engaged in a study of needed legislative reforms. One select committee is studying the problem of ad valorem taxes. Another committee is studying the structure of the state's educational system. Studies are being carried on in the field of budget-making, in the field of legislative procedures and efficiency and in the field of constitutional revision. All of these studies, presumably, will come to a head next year, and reports probably will be filed with the Louisiana Legislature. These studies, together with the still- present problem of legislative reapportionment. means that the next session of the legislature may be the most important for Louisiana in decades. Most of the studies are pointed toward s single aim—how to increase efficiency, and responsibility at all levels of the state government. "Better balance" might be another way of putting it. The aim of all these studies is to restore a proper balance between levels of government and between the institutions of. government. The aJni' of the study on gubernatorial powers is not to emasculate the office, but to restore the proper balance between the governor and the legislature, and between the state executive and the organs of local novernment. It has often been said that the Ameri- can form of government is based on a "separation of powers.'' This is an unfortunate phrase, because it has led some to feel that the government functions properly only when the legislative, executive and judicial institutions are all hostile toward one another. As a matter of fact, the American form of government is based on shared rather than separated powers. The powers of government are shared between the legislative, executive and judicial branches. Thus, when a proper balance is maintained between them, no program can be carried out unless there is a broad agreement between the three branches. When the balance between the three is disturbed, however, the power of one increases at the expense of the other two, and at such times the principle of broad agreement may be violated. How can this aim of increased efficiency and responsibility at all levels of government best be achieved? The various committees, in their studies, are developing several approaches. The most fruitful, it sef-ms will be these: 1) A reduction of the appointive power of the aovernor. combined with an increased efficiency and streamlined procedures on the- part of the legislature; _) A rejuvenation of the organs of local government by returning to it some of the appointive functions now exercised by the governor; 3) A reform of the systems of representation and taxation to insure that each citizen is properly represented in the governmental process, and to insure that each citizen bears his fair share—and no more— of the cost of government. Whether these objectives are achieved, of course, will depend upon how well the various committees and study groups do their groundwork, how well the legislative and executive branches apply themselves to the problems, and how much support the reform movements get from the people. In the long run. the success of this pro^ram, like the success of anv r.ther. depends upon the people themselves. 'Down, boy-up, back there-down, over here-hold it--' DREW PEARSON SAYS Nehru's 'Cooperation Year' Signs of the times . . Joli Blon says: It's not rhar I really It's just that I never expected to look n object to these new patterned stockings. legs and think of wallpaper. 50 YEARS AGO Wilson, Mrs. Gait to wed (From the American Press of December 4, 1915) WASHLNGTON — President Wilson and Mrs. Gait will be married on Saturday, December 18 at Mrs. Gait's home here, according to a formal White House announcement today. K company of Lake Charles is about to get a taste of insurrection service in Jefferson Parish. Captain Cockrel! this afternoon received orders to assemble the company and hold it in readiness for service in Jefferson to relieve company G of Bogalusa, now on duty there. New Orleans today indicates that all is quiet in Jefferson. paid lo own a small farm, for this would not only stablize the profession, but also give the teachers an incentive to become actively identified with every interest of his community, which is imperative." Such was the statement of Dr. Philander P. Claxton, United States education commissioner, just returning from a three months lour of the west. Boston society women have introduced moving pictures as an adjunct to dance parties. WASHINGTON - "We need more men teachers for our children; men teachers well enough 4 SATURDAY, DEC. 4, 1965, Lake Charles American Press tlXTY-NINTH YEAR Published W«k Day ond Sunday Marnlnst The Boston English Opera Co. offers for the first time outside of New York and Chicago the original All Star revival of the "Bohemian Girl," the world's greatest comic opera to be at Pearce's Arcade theater on Dec. 14. Notice has been received here that Dr. Wilbur F. Crafts, superintendent of the International Reform Bureau with headquarters at Philadelphia, will begin a tour of Louisiana cities and will speak at Lake Charles Friday evening, December 17. Dr. Crafts comes to Louisiana to assist the Citizen's League to keep out the demoralizing race horse gambling, which was banished five or six years ago. but has never ceased efforts to "Come Back." MEMBER ASSOCIATED PRESS The Msocloled Prej» It entirtrf e«(uslv»ty to The ui« tor r»- ouolicorlon of all tne local nrwt printed In ttiii ntwwooer at well o> all AP n»w» dispolchn. Main Offlc*—?IO B»bo~Sf., Lot* Chartti, Lo.. TOKt—Pn. 4M-T7I I »y Corrlw P«r~Weel( 4Sc By Carrier Pf Year tZMO 8* Moll In Alien, Bwureggrrf. Coka«t««, Cameron ond JfHtnoa Doyl» (xjrlsnei. Dally ond Sundcy B*r year J17J6; Dolly oflly. txr year tlo.CO; Sundoy only, per yeor tJM, All ether moll per vwr K3.40, Entered at take Choi-let Post Of1ic» o» Second Clow Moll Matter WASHINGTON - The democratic senators in conference agreed this afternoon that the fight to restrict debate in the senate will not be urged on the opening day in congress will be postponed until later in the week. The caucus announced that the idea to make the cloture resolution a party measure has been abandoned. By DREW PEARSON iCopyright. 1965, By Beil-McCiure Syndicate) WASHINGTON-THERE'S BEEN SPECU- lation as to how the idea of the "International Cooperation Year" got started. The inside story goes back to Nov. 7, 1961, when I arranged a meeting between three Americans and Prime Minister Nehru of India, then in Washington on a visit to President Kennedy. The three of us had tea with Nehru at Blair House, just across from the White House. 1 remember he looked very tired. He had been on a hectic schedule and had just got up from an afternoon nap. Those attending the conference were Clarence Pickctt. Quaker elder statesman and former head of the American Friends Service Committee, Professor Roger Fisher of Harvard Law School, and this writer. \Ve suggested to Nehru that since the scientists of the world had organized the International Geophysical Year in which each country had tried to achieve a new milestone in science, the statesmen of the world organize an International Cooperation Year in which each would try to achieve new milestones for peace. > + > NEHRU LISTENED CAREFULLY, SYM- pathetically, but made no promise to promote the idea. When we left, I was not at all sure that we had made any impact. He seemed dreadfully tired. Three days later, however, in a full dress speech before the U.N. assembly, he officially launched the idea of an International Cooperation year. "A proposal has been made by various people to the effect that more attention should be directed to cooperative ventures in the interest of peace so that more positive thinking may take place on this subject," Nehru said. ""Some years ago it was resolved to have nn International Geophysical Year. That was a .specific subject. ••Now it has been suggested that perhaps this assembly might resolve to call upon all countries of the world to devote this year not to speeches about peace, but to furtherance of cooperative activities in any field." Nehru went on to suggest that the assembly appoint a committee to consider an International Cooperation Year. He spoke at some length and most eloquently. "We have to undertake this vast task of encouraging this new thinking, this new approach, THE WORLD TODAY Peace talk is confusing By JAMES MARLOW AP Newt Analyst WASHINGTON (AP) - Talk about peace talks on Viet Nam is a bag of confusion and the more the talk the bigger the bag. Just last Friday Secretary of State Dean Rusk said peace talks with the Communists without preconditions would be accepted now but he said he did not expect such talks soon because: "Tnere has not been and there is not now wy indication from Hanoi (in North, Viet Nera) that they are prepared to accept the self-determination and independent existence of their neighbors (meaning South Viet Nam; as free countries." Thus, although saying this country was willing to talk without precondition*, he was also saying that no matter how long the talks lasted oae precondition to toy talk was the independ- eoc* ol South Viet Nam. TbJjs was, in effect, a repeti- tiojj ojfwbat President Johnson April when be an- DEAN RUSK nounced the United States was willing to have unconditional discussions with the Communists. Meanwhile, the North Vietnamese Reds have laid down condition* ol their owa lor any settlement, one being that the United States would have to clear all its troops and bases out ol South Viet Nam. Rusk also refused to say last Friday whether any peace, contacts were under way now with North Viet Nam, noting that private diplomatic channels between governments had to be protected by secrecy to prove useful. But last Monday he said there have been contacts every week with Hanoi. Thursday in Moscow, Britain's foreign secretary, Michael Stewart, called on the Soviet Union to Join his country in calling a conference to arrange a cease-fire in Viet Nam and bring about a peaceful settlement. And Thursday Rusk, after talking with Johnson in Texas, said the United States is willing to attend a conference on Southeast Asia of the sort proposed by Britain But in 1954 the United States joined Britain, France and Russia in calling a meeting lo settle the war then going on between the French and the Vietnamese under thft Communist leader- ship of Ho Chi Minh. The conference was held, the French agreed to get out, Viet Nam was divided into Communist North and non-Communist South, but the United States refused lo sign the agreement. (Just a few days ago the United State J joined in a vote at the United Nations — there were no dissenting votes — to call a disarmament conference, which would include Red China. (But the United States refused to say whether it would take part — it said it might take part in preliminary sessions — and ihen Red China said it wouldn't take part at all unless admitted to the United Nations.) Last April North Viet Nam turned down an appeal by 17 nonaligned nations for unconditional negotiates on Viet Narn. And last month (he Stale Department admitted it had rejected la.st autumn what Rusk called "so-called peace-feeler?" from North Viet Nam. Rusk explained the Communists "undoubtedly felt they were on the threshold ol victory." the approach of cooperation, and not on a mere ideological basis but on the practical basis of sheer survival in this world. "I would beg the assembly io consider (his, and not from the point of view of profit or less to this nation or that nation; because the choice before us is not profit or loss but of survival or Joss to everybody." '*•>•> THE ASSEMBLY ACTED. IT PRO- nounced 1965 as International Cooperation Year. It has not been a very happy year from the point of view of accomplishment. The United States contributed intervention in the Dominican Republic and the war in Viet Nam became intensified. Nevertheless President Johnson started oft last week's White House conference with a constructive statement calling on the nation's best minds and boldest spirits to join the quest for a "new order of world cooperation." Later, the White House staff got cold feet. When they saw the "boldness" of certain committees' recommendations they stamped them: "This is not an official conference document." Boldest and most significant report filed at the White House bore the. signature of Johnson's former under secretary of defense, Roswell Gilpatric; Eisenhower's former special assistant, Harold E. Stassen, and Kennedy's former science assistant, Jerome B. Wiesner. It was a vigorous recommendation that President Johnson make an all-out effort (o settle American differences with Russia. The report urged that Johnson adopt some of the exact policies proposed by N i k i t a Khrushchev when he was at the helm in the Kremlin. >• >• K THEY INCLUDED A NON-AGGRESSION pact between the NATO nations of Western Europe and the Communist nations of the Warsaw Pact—Poland, Rumania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, et al — a pact which West Germany emphatically disapproves. This committee also proposed Russian troop reductions in P^ast Germany, together with American troop reductions in West Germany — another move which West Germany emphatically disapproves. The committee also proposed putting military observers in Western Europe where NATO is strong, and in Eastern Europe where the Red Army is strong, to guard against surprise attack. This was exactly what Khrushchev prn- po^erl in the summer of 1963 to continue thn •,'oofl will started by the test ban treaty. The committee 1 also urged President Johnson to veto any new nuclear forces, which West Germany, a seeker of participation in nuclear weanons, also disapproves. In brief, the International Cooperation Year Committee struck at some of the obstacles which have been disrupting cooperation between the world's two most powerful nations— the USA and the USSR - which hold the key to world peace. Nehru did not live to see his dream come true. He died eighteen months ago. Perhaps it was just as well. For with his country in a precarious truce with Pakistan, and a hostile Red Army on its northern border, 1965 was not a year of very great international cooperation. HISTORY Hail, farewell JJy THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Today is Saturday, Dec. 4, the :)38th day of 1965 There are 27 days left in the year. Today's h ghlij>ht in hisiory. Cm this date in 1783, George Washing 1 "" bade farewell lo hi* ofiici-rs in New York City. On this date: In 1776. the first American warship entered European waters; it carried Benjamin Franklin on a mission seeking help from France. In 181)3, Napoleon entered the city of Madrid and suppressed the inquisition. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson sailed fur France at the end of World War I. PUBLIC SPEAKS Let's save our trees! In this the age of protestations, I would like to add mine. Our city is spending a lot of money to beautify Itself by the planning of Intersection gardens and the planting of trees. Isn't it ironic that a company can come in here and buy some of the prettiest section of Ryan St. and then plan to obliterate all of the trees? They will then put in pa vir| g and steel . an f concrete and no doubt neon and strings of colored plastic streamers. 1 can't think of anything of which Ryan Street needs more. You know, with a little planning and nge- nuity, a park-like atmosphere could be retained. Of course I know that industry and business are the sacred cows of this area but is this PROGRESS? Sincerely, MRS. JAMES F. WRIGHT, 3129 W. Prien Lake Rd. Lake Charles, La. Mailmen defended I have been reading with interest the recently published "Letter to the Editor," criticizing the Post Office Department, and I think it is time someone took up for the department and its employes. . Certainly there are areas which need improvement, as in any type of business — alter all, no one is perfect. Why should we etpect postal employes to be? In your paper someone suggested that maybe with the "big raise civil service employes are getting, some could go back to school and learn how to read." The postal employe has to take and pass a rigid civil service test before he can quaufy as a possible substitute employe, so he certainly has to be able to read. However, the way some people write its easy to see how it would be hard to read correctly. Many people seem to think the mailman's job is a breeze. Well, I for one, as a postman's wife, know different. The mail carrier's day starts around 4 or 5 a.m. Then most of them walk 7-8 miles per day and carry bags weighing approximately 30 pounds. In reference to the past several years' raises for postal workers, this has been to try to equalize the postman's salary with that of workers In private industry, and it still has not been accomplished. We should be careful in criticizing others, unless we have walked in their shoes for several days. MRS. LUTHER D. HOLLADAY 1807 Sarah Lane Lake Charles, La. On chiropractors In regard to the AMA's issue with the chiropractors: Any one who has ever been under chiropractic care or has gone to a chiropractor knows they do not prescribe medicine, nor do they perform surgery. I was employed by a chiropractor in Lake Charles for a number of years, and have seen the results obtained by hundreds of people. My family has been greatly helped through chiropractic. If we are in need of medicine or surgery, we go to a medical doctor. Chiropractic is a licensed method of drugless healing in 47 states. Why doesn't the AMA of Louisiana believe in the practice of the rights and privileges of other people as set forth in our Constitution? Does the AMA think the average citizen is incapable of making the decision as to who will attend their needs? What is the real difference between the AMA and the chiropractors? Every day we as American citizens are losing our rights and privileges as a free people. Where is the stopping point? MRS. ALFRED L. GUY SR. .1722 Circle St. Lake Charles, La. Heart Assn: 'Thanks' The Louisiana Heart Association has long appreciated the generous cooperation of the American Press in Lake Charles. However, during the occasion of the statewide gathering of Heart Association leaders, thp coverage given to the various events taking place at that time, was much more than generous. 1 wish to take this opportunity to thank you arid your staff members who worked so hard and who did such a fine reporting job. John Brundage, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the American Heart Association, who was our guest speaker in Lake Charles, was deeply impressed by the cooperation of the media In Lake Charles. He asked me to be sure to express to you his gratitude. Please accept the sincere appreciation of all of the members of the Louisiana Heart Association. DAVID BUTTROSS JR., M.D. President, Predicting future Regarding Joli Eton's editorial quip of Nov. 13: Who told you people should be happy (thankful) that they can't see into the future? Did you surmise on your own this "fact?" Ignorance may be bliss. If so, I'm glad I'm not completely blissful. I can tell you future facts the Bible makes plain and dare you to call God a liar. They've been in your Bible same as mine, for ages, and never once has God made a mistake in predicting the future. Past history proves this. Being able lo understand Bible prophecy isn't too frightening when you realize the ultimate outcome, past the future trials and tribulations, will be the glorious return of Jesus Christ and a happy world tomorrow. A real Utopia, not a manfancied one! Oh yes, the future is revealed in Bible prophecy. And whether we like it or not, it is going to happen as God says. MRS. LUTHER MURPHY SR, P. 0. BOX 6 Longville, La.
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