Pampa Daily News from Pampa, Texas on May 31, 1936 · Page 12
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Pampa Daily News from Pampa, Texas · Page 12

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Sunday, May 31, 1936
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THE PAMrA DAILY NEWS, Pampa, Texas SUNDAY MORNING, MAY 31, 1936. INCREDIBLE NUMBER OF MUSTANGS CAME FROM USE OF 1 PERSISTENT HUNTING DECIMATED THEM BY 1857 BY J. FRANK DOKIE "For after God, we owed the victory to the horses." Thus Bernal Diaz, the Homeric chronicler of the Conquest of Mexico. According to Diaz, when Cortes landed on the Mexican coast, 1510, he had with him sixteen horses and mares and one colt, which had been foaled on ship; the male horses were presumably all stallions. Quick to comprehend the extraordinary effect horses had on the Indians, the. Spaniards issued an edict prohibiting a native from mounting one. There may have been more than sixteen horses at the disembarkation of Cortes; if so. not many. At any rate these were the first horses to reach the mainland of the Americas. Others followed. The Spaniards came for gold and they explored for gold. They raised horses to supply the demands of riders. Exploring parties lost now and then mares and stallions. Horsestock strayed from the ranches. Law or no law, Indians learned to ride nnd to value the horse, the acquisition of which so changed their lives that the Plains Indians entered upon what historians call the "Age of Horse Culture." McCKntocV:. the traveler nlrrady cited, noted how in Inn vast,' herd of mustangs that he saw in 1f!40 individual bands maintained their Identity. "On our approach." he says, "the straaplers nnd s'-ntinrls on flanks and outposts retreated to the main bo;iy. which, almost as if by magic, formed on n liin-h piece of ground, with all the precision and rrcularllv cf a wcll-trainrd troop of cavalry. E-u-h band was headed by its own leader." Between itself nnd the bands on the right nnd on the left of it. each '-preserved an open :.pare about equal to the space occupied. This was. in Mexican phrnse. their 'wheeling distance.' When we approached within four hundred yards, the signal of 'bout face' aitd off was Riven. . . . For three miles they were in | full view. losing their proud necks ind flowin;; manes into the air ind coursing with the speed of the wind over their native prairie." One Of City's Finest Stores :By the end of the sixteenth century savage bands mounted on horses were roaming along the Rio Grande. Seventy-live years later the Pawnees and Dakotas and other tribes of the Missouri plains had come to regard horses as a necessity. Before the middle of the eighteenth century Indians in Central Canada were using them, and from the lower Sierra Madre of Mexico to the prairies of Alberta the wild offspring of Spanish stock —the mustangs—Tan loose where buffaloes drifted grazed. The mustangs never became so numerous as the buffalos, but they ranged over Texas and California and other regions in incredible numbers. On the Staked Plains, between the Palo Duro and the Salt This picture, taken in 1!)07, is of one of 1'ampa's parly business lHii]iliii!;s. Hi-fore bciiifr used by .T. N'. Dtuu-an, pioneer inerebaut, for a hardware and furniture store it was occupied by the .lohnstm IMrrciintile company, for which it was built in 1002. It was located at din corner of roster and Ciiy- lor ytrccls, fading cast. country may be inferred from one fact within my certain knowledge. It occurred us late as 1857. ten years _. __ r . .after I first arrived in Texas. A Of these vast congregations of (Mexican of my acquaintance made mustang manadas, there are numerous witnesses. In December, 1852. while John I?,. Bartlett. connected with the United Slates tin;! Mexican Boundary Survey, was proceeding with a wagon train from I he nio Grande to Corpus Christi. he observed that "the ]-.rail-it 1 near the horizon seemed to be moving, with lomt iindulalie.ns. like the "Unable." he noes on lo sny. in his "Personal Narrative." "lo account for Ihb singular appearance. I looked with my tele.seope, when, to my furprisr, I discovered the whole prairie towards the horizon alive with mustangs. Soon after- sen coming the herd wards they could be towards the liain extending as far as the eye could reach across the prairie." Before such a "great .stream" of wild horses some of the mules of the train n contract with me to furnish a considerable number of deerskins in return for some supplies and necessaries. In six months ho killed between (it)O and 700 deer with his own rifle, in i\ distance of less Hum 20 miles, on the road lc:idin<; from Ccipus Christi to Laredo, between the places known as the Palo Alto and the Lasuna Trinidad. "Somelimcs Hie mustangers made .slrr.ng pens of inesquilc or olhe'r durable limber, cut into posts and set upright into the ground, some two and a. half feet deep; these posts projected from six to eight t'ei-t above the surface of the earth, each post standing as near as possible next another. To hold the picket.'; more firmly in place, lout' poles laid horizontally were lashed to them with rawhide all around the pen. about two-thirds of the height of the posts above the ground. The. pen had the form of a low the bunch leisurely, not trying lo keep in sight of them at night, often by day trailing them instead cf tiying to keep within sight of them. Not many mustangs would go more than 30 miles from their accustomed range boforc trying to go back to it. Bob would try to keep them in a country unfamiliar to them. In strange environs they would surrender more quickly and more completely than at home. The longest run he recalls ever having made was from the Ana- caeho Hills near Spofford to the Kedado, below Hcbbronvillc, which is over 100 miles as straight as a man could ever ride it—and the mustangs did not run straight. This particular munada he never masler- d. One time Bob Lemons started stampeded. The wagons had to be Horseshoe, but was a placed in corral formation and oval. Wings made of posts wheels lucked; the men even | brush, .sometimes exlending as far as half a mile, were intended to stop the mushing* in their flight, and lo turn them with the assistance of the muslungei-K in the dl- . avalanche «f wild -.uiuvu'.ls sweep in!; like a tornado" in order to deflect it. From the best account T have ever found anywhere of the methods of mustanging and of hor.se- Fork of the Brazos alone, plains-1 ranching, written in the men who suddenly took over that country about 1877 estimated 50.000 head. But probably the greatest wild horse range in the world— with the possible exceptions ot some regions on the pampas of the Argentine or the llanos of Venezuela—was the country between the Nueees river and the Rio Grande. On old maps of Texas this territory is marked "Wild Horses" or "Vast Herds of Mustangs," and it was sometimes known as the "Mustang desert." A traveler named McCHntoek, while traversing the country between the Nueccs and the Rio Grande in 1846, estimated that he saw 5,000 head of mustangs in one esti- herd, while his companion mated 7,000. When Taylor's army broke camp at Corpus Christi the same year and began its march into Mexico, it was accompanied by Lieutenant U. S. Grant. He was not a-.romanticist; yet his 'Personal Memories,' published some forty years later, contained perhaps the . most far-stretched account of the i from La mustangs of "Wild Horse Desert" selves c . seventies by Thomas A. Dv.'yer, I shall further quote, nwyr-r says: well remember when I first: came to Texas, in 1847. seeing "The sometimes caught soveial hundred hor.-:es in their pen at one driv: 1 , nnd as soon as the animals were fo i-iHrapped the open part of the pen.guarcled carefully by mounted nmsUmgers, Ibou.v.xnds and lens of thousands cl v;ni - dosed' up with posts already wild horses, called mustangs, run- pi T pared, so as to form a perfect ninn- in hnmenr.e herds all over the ;iml rtm iinur.us inclosurc. impos- weslcrn country, as far as the eye a manada led by a bay or telescope could sweep the horizon. The whole country scorned to be running! While traveling through it, I have had my gentle led pack mules cut off by mustangs circling and circling around us. and gradually closing in until, by rush, they cut off the mules and darted away with them. . . . "Time and again, in traveling, I have had lo send out my best mounted men to scare away the immense musses of mustang:; (charging around and threatening to rush over us), by yelling and firing at. them. "Many . Mexicans, whose 1'amilios , resided at Corpus Christi. Goliad and San Antonio, and also at the sible for any animal short of Virgil's Tiojan horse, to break through or escape from. The numbers caught were frequently so great, and consequently their value so trivial, that they were often sold for a dollar, or 'a dollor nnd a half a head, taken in quantity, of course some animals, picked out for beauty, or good points, brought more. "Paint, or spotted hcrses, wore quite numerous among the mustangs. The greater number of wild horses were undersized, say under thirteen and a half hands high, showing generally good points in the forequarters, and poor in the hindquarters. But some of the animals were above fifteen hands high, and displayed not only fair stallion. He could see that the stallion was branded and that two or three mares with him were branded also, but he could not get close. enough to them to make out 'the brand. The stallion, closely followed by the branded mares as well as by ;:ome maverick horsestock, made scuthoast. They were very persistent in their direction. After a hundred miles or so of following, Bob found himself in Live Oak county. He saw roads, glimpsed several ranch houses, noted "lots of people" — pi-c.biibly a down. But the bay stallion did not shy from such signs of men. He kept coursing straight. He led his mares and Bob Lemons .'[might into the corrals at a ranch house. A man came out. He asked the .strange mustanger what ho meant by driving those horses. Ihen he showed Bob the brand on the .stallion and the maies and assured him that the brand was his. He had not seen these horses for three years. The supposition was that Indians or other horse thieves had driven them far out of the country and lost them and that then the escaped horses had remained on the new range, taking uj) with the mustangs. All Bob asked of the Live Oak county ranch- man, who gave his name as Brown, was that he write a note to his (Bob's) boss explaining the situation. • As a general rule, after a man- ada of mustangs had been dogged for a week, Bob Lemons found them tamed down enough for him to somewhat direct their course. Within another week he WHS usually able to take charge, assuming the leadership that their stallion formerly bore. His aim now was to thoroughly ingrain his mastership. This might take him two more weeks. Instead of following the mustangs and driving them, he gradually came to lead them. He knew their wants and habits, nnd he sought to lead them in such a manner that they would trust his judgment. He led them to the bc<;t waterings and to the greenest and choicest range. At night he unsaddled in front of them and, with his horse picketed right at his saddle or pallet, lay clown to sleep. The mustangs had a great desire always to get up to his horse. He knew well that if the stallion got to his horse he would kill him or run him off. The niuHnngs, though they had grown so used to this man on horseback that he could move very near them and among them so long as he remained mounted, would keep their distance when they saw him afoot. Nor would they attack the saddle horse so long as the man was upon him. Now and then, however, some old fierce stallion would rush upon a horseman. Bob slept lightly. Many a time he was aawkened at night by a nicker. He could tell that either the stallion or some of the mares were trying to leave and were calling the other mustangs to come along. Generally .some of the others, would not want to leave. They had given— in the manner of females—loyal allegiance to this leader on horseback and were not willing to turn from him. When Bob was awakened by a restless nicker, he would at. once saddle, round up the man- ada—as a stallion rounds up his bunch—and go "pa'ahi." Thus day after clay and night after night the lone man and his miuiada lived upon piairie and in thickets. If they came near something suspicious like a road that held the smell of a human being, Bob would appear to be as much excited as the mustangs and lead them away in a run. At last, after weeks of living in solitude with the wild horses and having so mastered them that he felt confident of being able to lead them where ho wished, Bob would communicate to some rider lurking on the range that on a certain day he would take the manada into the Old Buildings In this Skyline Although the skyline has changed since 1907, some of the buildings in this picture still stand on C'uylcr street. The wooden struc- tures in the right foreground are still lo be seen where the street starts north from the railroad. in- but i'ood blood, as fine Amor- P ' IU W115> iUWUo m»- iu n ». i. *.«.••-• • . . _ „!->-, ej from Laredo down, supported, them- lean ^'-J'^™^ &» = C d •p^aps>o ! lownS T a,ong flower Rio^rande, hiefly'by •running'—that is, I time t< -., , ...;,, j u., ,.-,i,c-_! r-.u^m-^ and joined the mustang-that has come down. "A few clays out from he says, "the |catching wild cattle and by mus-i owners . or hunting, wild horses. . .[ and bird amongst them. Whsrc such on the side opposite the gate by which they had entered. To prevent this, three or four men would suddenly arise from behind the fence, where they had been lying in wait, and standing upon the fence wave blankets and shout. Meantime the wide gate behind the mustangs had been closed. The object was to make them mill—circle —and thus break their headlong running. If the bunch was not too big and everything went as planned, every animal in it might be roped and captured. After the mustangs had milled until they were tired, ropers would enter the ' corral and proceed to throw them down. Each one was then clogged and led out. In this fettered condition they were held n few days and then driven off to market. The! rutilmatc destination would very likely be many hundreds of miles away from the free and wide-open range upon which they had been reared. AtB SPACE Flat roofs should have a ventilated air space between the roof rafters and the top celing joists to prevent condensation in this space and to allow the heated air to escape in summer. Insulation of attics without ventailation is of little use. Hamilton Will Nominate Landon For Presidency TOPEKA, Ktm., May 30 (IP)Gov. Alf M. Landon announced Pri day that John D. M. Hamilton Kansas national committeeman, wil place his name in nomination fo the presidency at the rcpublicai national convention at Cleveland. Hamilton, national organizer fo the Landon-for-presiclent commit tee, is a district delegate to the convention. He is also is general counsel for the republican national committee. Calling reporters to his office, Governor Landon said in an "informal statement: "John Hamilton will make the nominating speech at Cleveland." asked about seconding speeches, the Kansas governor said he did not know who would make them. "I suppose that's to be worked out yet at Cleveland," he said. Petroleum and its products constitute more than 10 per cent of U. S. exports. 193S TEXAS CROP <WAS THE LARGEST ON RECORD BROWNWOOD, May 30 (/P)—H. G.^ s, president of the Texas Agricultural association, has been advised from Washington the • secretary of agriculture had approved a 4 ' program suggested had approved a growers to encourage export of a imited quantity of the nuts. Under the plan, first suggested by Lucas, the secretary of agriculture would invite exporters to submit offers to sell for -export, between the date the offer was accepted and June 30, 1936, pecans of the 1936 crop that are not below the medium size and No. '2 quality specified in United States standards for unshelled pecans. Each exporter would be required to agree to export at least 1,000 pounds of nuts and specify the maximum volume he expected to export. The secretary of agriculture would determine the total quantity on 'the basis of the effect- such exports ,, would have in improving returns to growers. - - ••-"•'• Exporters would be paid n 'benefit of five cents a pound on the pecans >. sold abroad under terms of the offer accepted by the secretary. -Pecans for export would have to be : sold between the date of acceptance-of the offer by the secretary, and June 30, next, and exported prior to October 1. Lucas, C. H. Matthews of Eagle Lake, and E. W. Harrison of Graham went to Washington last fall'and worked out the plan with dep'art- ment of agriculture officials. They believe foreign markets should absorb much of the surplus production as pecans are not produced commercially in other-countries excepting Mexico where .production is confined to the seedling type., pen. On the appointed day Bob would lead the mustangs to the corrals. These had long wings semi-hidden in brush. Back of the wings would be waiting lidcrs to close in,behind the mustangs. As they came near the pen, Bob—still in the lead- would increase his gait, finally entering the pen in a long run. Immediately after entering the gate, he would go out through a small gate held open in readiness and closed as soon as he had passed through it. Realizing that they were trapped, the 'mustangs, terrorized into insanity, would more than likely dash head on into the corral fence •f j "I V^ ' n-— ~ '^IHJITfRIT ' % ' ' (~JOVI~>\1S i t/tXllClllt-i' ul m-lii^i'-'t)' n-*" - i - -- •• i ,,,,,,=,, TI»- hri-ned cattle were never found had been the ea-;e a vast improve- Christi," he says, "the "mmcnsc | Iht^hcinLcl caiui^ we ^ a , m0st | ment in height, weight, power and ai^n^^S^a^^ilmSny ran together in large. Rio Grande was seen directly in ad- \ herds, in the course ol a lew ^wis. vance of the head of the column and but a few miles off. ... As far as the eye could reach to our right tymmotry was observed immediately. Tills result Induced me as ell as others to breed lint 1 Amcri- times between ... „„„., ^J,„*,,.! I,, in •],!_ ' 1JLi ^,. J . .... . -say by 1857. very lew herds of mus- well as others to breed lint' Amcri- tanq'i were to be met, and almost can blouled stallions and jacks to no 'wild cattle, so persistently andj nitiM.ang mares. iLTherd extended. TolhY'Vri; it j extensively hadill ffl^/K^r-tT^'S, '£«£ hunted for their no idea that been corralled Island, or Deli • animals in t; I ha\e grown i-nu;u wt_-ic- imin...... ^» «•-•• 'they could all have!hides, which were then sold at a in the State of Rhode hall dollar apiccn by Mexicai s-o -ware at one time. It the young cattle were caught to be , u hev would have gentled and soh! at a dollar a head. they had been, they been so thick that the p;\stur,M',e, would have given out the iirst day People who saw the Southern hwcl of buffalo, fifteen or twenty yea: ago can appreciate the size ol the Texas band of wild horses in 18-10." Yet contrary to what seems to be Grant's conception, mustangs did not like buffaloes, habitually run in vast herds. Their usual habit was to. range in small bunches, each commanded by a stallion. Men who nuisUngea yet hve, and while the present century was I heard old "wn, VMO since made their last all their move ol hcrsu hunters they been hunteil j T)l( , nle (noris nnd experiences of j or killed. The; nmsl!in ,, prs W ould fill bocks. A good [ d-?al has been printed, scatieringly, on the subject, and I have talked with various men who OUCH made capturing mustangs a business. The mast unusual and interesting of these muMangei-s nv.it by me— either in life cr books—was Bob Lemons, a negro rancher living near Cariizo Springs. I don't know whether he is living yet or not. When I talked with him in 1031 he had completed his eighty-fourth "Mexicans from the towns before named, and from the settlements formed themselves into regularly organiwd companies, with a -iplain at their head who directed ill their movements. The companies numbered as yet young have long ride describe the mustang sights ot their youth; but to know the herd habits of the wild horses at a when they literally possessed land, we must so the to such testimony , as has come down from decades preceding the civil war. E H. Wightman, an observant man who made notes while .surveying for Stephen P. Austin in the twenties, notes that the mustangs were not numerous grass country above Prairies and that they ranged "m " varying in number from from one to two hundred! mi-ii Each man had one or more l/untlc running horses, generally kept in the best of condition. . . . "The greatest mustanger in the vhole country was a Laredo Mexi- an named Hoque. Who had been nany years u captive among the Jomitntihi.' Indians. He was not only i dexterous lun'suiuui, roper »n:l hot using almost invariably a bow ind arrows whilst his companions isod firearms, but also a remark- ibly brave and able louder, full of hu'ing tempered by judgment. . . . Uoque's brother, Momano. was uU'.:> i famous captain among the nniK- grass country above the coastal Prairies and that they ra gangs" varying in numb twenty head to three and four hundred. Each "gang," he says, 'seems to have & cpmmaucler-in-ehief wi an adjutant h his subalterns, who , brines up the rear, and a sentine and a spy. The sentinel gives the alarm, and a spy is sent to reeon- noiter and examine the nature anc force of an enemy. Coming withh distance deemed prudent, he stpps and looks; if he scents dan gerT he makes a circuitous run back towards the herd. Then "with a snort and a flourish of the tail, the wfiole force break and flee." Wigm man records an interesting illustra Lt^r.. _» *t,«, iW<T*imnra»*c! rvf nna in I IS fl| JJw "spy" of one mus angers, but he was by the equal of Roque. ... "The aculeness and skill of these men In striking a trail or in following a trail, was marvelous. It appeared to be almost an animal instinct. Others, claiming skill ai woodsmen and hunters, could Imd a scarcely perceptible trail and follow it through all kinds of diUicult ground and concealments resortw to by wily Indians, during the daytime- but Roque and Romano coult strike a trail and follow it by deceptive moonlight and .starlight. "With simple and Slight fielc equipment parties of mustangers, were wont to go forth and reman in the field for months, winter a well as summer. They had fresl meat in the greatest abundance on all sides to bu had merely for the killing. . . "The quantity of deer all over th Hi; had come into the Brush Country—the f.real range between he Nueees and the Rio Grande— i.-. a .sluv. 1 with Levi English. After he Civil War, working for a horse •anchei numud Dunham, he did a deal of muslanjjini'. jiob JMIIO.'IS developed a technique of ii c ; own. He would p;o out and locate a nanada, Ihe ideal size of which fcr management was about 25 iracl. A bunch of mustangs less thiin 20 in number would hardly pay fur the trouble of catching them; on; 1 numbering over 3D was umvielilly, anil when n bunch beyond that size was corralled, (he muMangs were likely to tear down tin! linee and kill each other. In following the manada he had selected, the mustang: 1 !- had to guard ai'.iiinst picking up additional mustangs. Bob Lemons would locate his manada and then begin dogging it. He always went alone. He rode a iiood ho'.sc. and he planned to ride this one horse the entire time he was mil attt'i- the one manada. To change mounts, lo vary his uniform, to attach to himself any novelty, would infallibly arouse the suspicions of the animals, which, before he could manage them, must .accept him as a familiar part of naturs. His whole purpose was to get the wild horses used to him and his mount and to show them that he was master, For perhaps a week he would fol- G-E FLAT PLATE IRONER It irons while you rest! Fully automatic. Costs no more to operate than your present electric iron 104 SO G-E WASHERS For quick, convenient laundering. Quiet. No oiling i Priced from G-E REFRIGERATORS $O750 up The world's lowest cost refrigeration. Unconditionally giuuunlsed 5 years G-E RADIOS With the famous all-metal tubes. Brings you the best in world-wide reception , up Terms To Suit Your Convenience Combs-Worley Pampa Goes Forward With A Great State! The foundation of the Pioneers has stood the test of time .. Jto them it is fittjhg and proper to dedicate the Texas Centennial! CUT RATE DRUG STORES I, IN PAMPA SINCE 1920

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