THE_tJPM)R D&S MOItfEH: ALGOKA, IOWA, WEDNESDAY AtJGtJST 30, Noted Expert Explains How th Bordereau Was Written, SCHNEIDER LEtTEH Proved to Be Authentic ' -—Two Sections ft Day May Ho to Eipefllte tite IVorfc of vhe Conrt Martial. t EMBARRASSED BY OTIS' ACT 0*d«* Esolttdta* Chines* M*jr Lead t« | Important Complication*. | Washington, Aug. 28.— Gen. Otis' order excluding Chinese from the Philippines Is very embarrassing to the ad- j ministration, which ia placed between I two fires— the Chinesp government on AGAIN, the one hand and the British and Oer| man governments on the other, The ^formation in official circles con J cerning Gen. Otis' action comes Heltt through the protest of the Chinese min- Rennes, Aug. 28.—At the opening o the sixth session of the third week o the court-martial of Capt. Dreyfus this morning, M. Bertillon, the handwriting expert, resumed his testimony regarding the handwriting of the accused and his reasons for believing him guilty. The first witness called on Friday •was Rowland Strong, the journalist who has been the recipient of many of Esterhazy's confidences, among others that he had written the bor- dereau. Mr. Strong deposed that Ester hazy had asked for £600 as compensa tion for writing newspaper articles. Witness Weil did not appear, but sent written evidence concerning Esterhazy. Among other things Weil said he had received an anonymous letter Informing him that Esterhazy was going to be accused of complicity with Dreyfus. He further said the general staff never professed anti- Semite feelings while he was there. : The experts on handwriting proved to be Interesting witnesses. M. Oobert attacked the generals, and declared that the bordereau was the work of Esterhazy. He entered upon a long discussion of the bordereaus, winding jup with the statement that the writ•lug had not been traced, but was nat- iiiral writing. • i M. Bertillou, whose name was ;brought prominently before the pub- .lic by his revocation from office, was 'next called. Bertillon explained that |,the bordereau had been tampered ;with, and showed how it was possible Jto make it. He presented the judges (With a facsimile of the bordereau he 'had, made himself. . The conclusions Bertillon tried to idraw were that the bordereau was a 'fabricated document in artificial—that 'is, traced—handwriting, and that the 'affair was the result of the machination of some one having access to the general staff, or else the bordereau was really the work of Alfred Dreyi'us. ,\Vho is the author of the artificial writing it is yet necessary to discover. , It now appears that the Schneicler letter was not a forgery. As cabled .two weeks ago, it was to be expected that the foreign attaches would immediately deny the authorship of any communications made in the Dreyfus case. Schneider now says he will wait until he sees the document in question before he declares it a forgery. During his visit to Paris he learned that the original of his own handwriting was padlocked up with the other documents of the secret dossier. Then he fell back on the statement that the use of his name at the bottom of the document was a forgery. The tone he is now using is more conciliatory lian his abrupt denial. < •Jdvery bit of evidence brings forth denials and counterdcnials, and new hearings each day. The end seems further off, although President Jouaust promises two sittings daily, morning' and afternoon, after the 1st of September. ister. It is stated at the war department that Gen. Otis has sent no notice of his order, although the Chinese government has had time to instruct its representative here to exert his Influence to have the obnoxious decision of the general countermanded. The British and German residents in the Philippines are reported to have called upon their home governments to intervene on the grounds that the order prevents them from bringing Into the islands Chinese laborers, cooks, etc., and interferes with the development of their property. The most important phase of Gen. Otis' action is the complications which it may cause in our friendly relations with China. The administration can take no action until Gen. Otis is heard from, and surprise is expressed that he has not more promptly reported an order which involves our relations with a friendly government. BASEBALL REPORT. Sanies Played Yesterday In the Tiro Leading T.eaeiie*. St. Louis is looming again, its recent victories over Chicago and the Quakers iving it considerable of a boost. Yesterday it took a double header from Philadelphia, and so it required no effort at all on the part of Baltimore to slip ahead of the Quakers. Boston was another of the leaders that fell yesterday, going under to the Pirates in a close game. Scores: At Pi Us burg— ittsburg 00101410 *—7 Boston '. 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 2 0—6 At Cleveland—• Cleveland 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 *—4 New York 0 0000200 0—2 At St. Louis— St. Louis 0 0120310 *—7 'hiladelphia 00020000 0—2 St. Louis 1 0011000 *—3 hiladelphia 10000000 0—1 Clearing House Payments Larger Than for Many Years, FAILURES SHOW A DECREASE, BASE BALL TOPICS CURRENT NEWS AND NOTES OF THE GAME. BrnclRtr«et's Reports Strength In Prlcei and Steadiness In Demand—Causes for the Recent Rise In Iteef Trices— Wheat and Corn Shipments. Chlfnga Ts Able to Support a Western LPSRUO Team — The Retirement of fiwlng from Hie Management of the Kcds—kittle Sympathy for llergen. Western At Milwaukee—Milwaukee, G; Grand Rapids, 4. At Minneapolis—Minneapolis, 3; Indianapolis, 1.- At St. Paul—Detroit, 8; St. Paul, 5. May Ask the Kuisiu-s's Aid. Reniies, Aug. 28.—The Echo de Paris announced that the counsel of Dreyfus had obtained possession of certain documents mentioned in the bor- dereau, in Esterhazy's writing, which they would produce in court next week as a coup de theatre. Inquiry at the Dreyfusard quarters brought the assurance that the statement was erroneous, but that the defense intended, In the event of Capt. Dreyfus being recondemned, to ask the German government to communicate these documents proving his innocence, and that they had reason to believe such a request would be granted. ' Diplomatic Notes Broken Open, '• London, Aug. 28,—-The Rome correspondent of the Daily Mail says: "Italy and Germany have obtained proofs that diplomatic correspondence passing between Paris and other places is systeraatkally opened. This has been the case particularly since the campaign against Dreyfus began, the French war office having sought proofs to strengthen the accusation against him." Socialist* Threaten KevoluUou. Rennes, Aug. 28.—There are many .sinister rumors in the air as to the action which will be taken by the advanced partisans of both sides in case Dreyfus should be condemned or acquitted. In case of condemnation, it Is asserted by high authority that a revolution in Paris is certain to be Started by socialists. Heavy Trade with Germany. Washington, Aug. 28,-^Trade regions between the United States and Jermany, which are just now the sub- ect of considerable discussion, do not appear to have been seriously affected ip to the present time, if judged by the atest figures of the treasury bureau of tatistics. These show that in both in ports and exports the commerce be- ween the United States and Germany n the fiscal year 1899 was greater than n 1898, and that the grand total of the commerce between the two countries in 1899 was larger than in any preceding year. New York, Aug. 28.—R. G. Dun & Co.'s weekly review of trade says: "Actual payments through the principal clearing houses for the week were 23.1 per cent larger than last year and 56.2 per cent larger than in the same week In 1892. For the month thus far the daily average of payments 1 has been 26.3 per cent larger than, last year and 56 per cent larger than In 1892. Tonnage from Chicago in three weeks has been 80.7 per cent larger than last year and 74.6 per cent larger than in 1892. Failures for the week have been 103 in the United States, against 179 last year, and sixteen in Canada, against twenty-six last year." Bradstreet's says: "Strength In prices and steadiness of demand are still the salient features of the trade situation. Fall demand is expanding at most markets, particularly goq.d reports being received from the northwest and that portion of the corn-growing country which this year seems likely to be notable for surplus production. Wheat has been cjuite firm all the week, partly owing to a whittling down of northwestern estimates, but also due to steady demand for the cash article alike on foreign and domestic account. The relative scarcity of nash corn is responsible for the advuncff shown this week in the face of a concededly large production. "Conditions of supply and demand seem to be at the bottom of the recent rise in beef prices. This advance has attracted increased receipts of grass- fed cattle, and some shading of quotations is noted, but Chicago prices have only been equaled five times in twenty-two years. There are nearly 10,000,000 less beef cattle in the country than there were seven years ago, and, in fact, there are fewer-cattle in the country now than in any year since 1882. "Wheat, including flour, shipments for the week aggregate 3,343,825 bushels, against 4,040,009 bushels last week. 3,563,476 bushels in the corresponding week of 1898, 5,149,053 bushels in 1897, 3,281,854 bushels in 18&6, and 1,871,928 bushels in 1895. "Corn exports for the WP.P!C aggregate 4,590,097 bushels, against 5,531,405 bushels last week, 2,648,933 bushels in this week a year ago, 2,682,452 bushels in 1897, 2,610,309 bushels in 1.S9C, and 1,124,536 bushels in 1895." Guerlii Hoists Hluc-k Vlng. Paris, Aug. 28.—All was quiet in the vicinity of Rue Chabrol throughout the night, but at 4 o'clock this morning a black flag appeared in the attic window. Some days ago M. Guerin stated that in the event of his death the party would hoist the black flag. It is known that two of the party have been ill, one seriously from congestion of the lungs. Communication with the house is still strictly forbidden. Even bearers of ordinary police passes are not allowed to approach. Bryan Will Uo to Kentucky. Frankfort, Ky., Aug. 28.—At a meeting of the democratic campaign committee Senator Blackburn announced that he had received a letter from W. J. Bryan in which he said he would be in the state the latter part of September or the first of October, at a time agreeable to the party leaders. It is stated by members of the committee that Mr. Bryan will make at least one speech in every section of the state, 250,000 PERSONS DESTITUTE. 3,313 Burials of Hurricane Victims IFave Be-on I\Ia<lo In Torto Rico. San Juan, Porto Rico, Aug. 28.—An official report has been issued by the' 1 president of the superior board of health, showing that there have been 2,312 burials of victims of the recent hurricane. One thousand families are missing, together with their houses. The report states that the number of destitute persons is 250,000. It is estimated that it will require 25,000,000 pounds of rice and beans and 4,250,000 pounds of codfish to allow of a ration of a pound a day being issued until the crops can be gathered, seventeen weeks hence. The cost of these supplies would be ?125,000, Testing Anti-Trust taw. Springfield, 111., Aug. 28.—Six test cases were begun in the Circuit court of Sangamon county Friday against corporations which have failed to report to the secretary of state whether they are connected with a trust. The suits in all cases ask for $10,000 damages for failure to comply with the law requiring such reports. The result of the suits will be of national importance. Westerners Want Concessions. The Western league magnates want important concessions from the National league. They wish to add Cleveland and probably Louisville to their circuit, and are desirous of locating-a club In South Chicago. The officials of the Chicago club, it is stated, will not consent to the presence of a rival club even in an inferior organization unless they are Interested in its ownership. President Hart and his associates are within their rights under baseball law, and It Is to be hoped that the parties interested can reach an understanding. Chicago is capable of supporting two clubs and it would be an easy matter to avoid . a clash in schedule dates. There is no better baseball city in the country than Chicago, and the at-home Sunday patronage of the Western League club would more than pay its operating expenses for the season. The only way for the Western league to get a footing in Chicago without bringing on a baseball war is through an arrangement with those in control of the territory under baseball law. President Vanderbeck would not permit a Michigan league club to be located within live miles of Detroit, nor would President Franklin assent to the operation of a New York State league club within the proscribed distance of Buffalo. The Western league magnates are accorded the same territorial rights that they are asked to respect. If they should come to the conclusion that they can do busiueas more satisfactorily and profitably by breaking away from the National agreement, and locating an opposition club in Chicago, there is nothing in their way. But men of the ability and experience of Messrs. Manning. Comiskey, Loftus and other owners of clubs In the Western league want to live at peace with each other and their neighbors. Their Interests are too large to be sacrificed even in a fight for principle, unless it is forced upon them. War would depreciate their property and might wreck the savings of a lifetime. The Western league has grown in strength and Importance in spite of handicaps by the major league magnates. Year after year its teams have had to contend for championship honors with a team composed, in the main, of National league talent, forcing the less favored clubs to increase their salary lists beyond the limit set by prudence. The Indianapolis club is of late run in a far less objectionable manner. Mr. Brush, the most powerful personage in baseball, sought to confiscate the plants of six clubs of the Western league in 1896, but was checkmated for the first time in his baseba.ll experience. The Western league asked for an amendment to the National agreement, permitting its clubs to retain a player for two years. The National league was willing to make this concession provided it was given the right of trying out a drafted player before his purchase. This brought about friction and there was no change in the reserve rule. and always at a time when his services were most needed. His grievances 2 fanciful. Of a moody disposition he imagines that his fellow players are leagued against him and are intent on bringing about his downfall. The contrary is the case. Manager Selee anc his players have treated the great backstop with nniisual consideration. This has given him an undue appreciation of his importance and encouraged him to make an exhibition of himself with almost a certainty that his offense would be condoned. His eccentricities were known to Manager Selee before he bought his release from the Kansas City clttb. It will be remembered that he deserted Manning's Western League club, while that team was in Indianapolis and returned home. At the close of that season, his release was purchased by Boston. Suspension for 1899 would bring him to his senses. It is gratifying to know that his brother, who is making such a good record as a catcher with the Fort Wayne club of the Interstate league, is without any of the bad traits of his relative, who is the hardest man in the National league to manage. Brooklyn's ItlRht Fielder. William H. Keeler, the clever right fielder of the Brooklyn club, who has for two successive seasons been the National league's champion batter, began his professional career with the Troy Eastern league team in 1892. Before the season was over his fine fielding; and grant, ut'-ckwork caught the eye • Will Not Itlntc the Kulic. Washington, Aug. 28.— The navy department does not look with favor ou the proposition to have the historic •warship Constitution take part in the Dewey demonstration at New York. It la stated that the venerable craft is not iii a condition to undergo such service, and that she is far too valuable as a relip tP subject her to the risks of a trip fron\ Boston. Held for Husband's Death. Peru, Ind., Aug. 28.—Mrs. Edith Quick and Henry Quick, arrested on the charge of murdering William Quick, husband of the former, by arsenical poisoning, had a preliminary hearing Friday and were bound over without ball. The woman protests her innocence. The evidence was damaging against both defendants. Sulier'8 I'luu of Conciliation. Berin, Aug. 28.—It now appears that the emporor's policy relative to the rejected canal bill is likely to be one of conciliation, it is not now expected that any attempt will be made to discipline conservative deputies who hold office under the government for voting against the canal measure, since this would only arouse antagonism. Army Enlistments 00,071. • Washington, Aug. 28,~-Slnqe the beg letting of the Spanish war there have been enlisted la the regular >|irmy 90,- pft jn,ea, This &clud.es tb 4Jfto&fM:ged. afler the cJp the Leaves Gibraltar Kept. ]O. Nice, Aug. 28.—Owing to the change in Admiral Dewey's program, advancing his arrival at New York by one day, he has decided to sail from Gibraltar, Sept. 10, instead of Sept. 12. The OJympia will flll up with coal at Gibraltar, carrying several hundred tons on deck. Spain FlK'«t« the Barcelona, Aug. 28.—Increasingly rjngejit measures are being taken to prevent the spread of the 'bubonic Oporto Juto the interior and tijug far fljege eKorts Will Raise Army to the I.luilt. Washington, Aug. 28.—President McKinley has decided to enlist the entire force of 35,000 volunteers pro-' vided for by congress. Already 30,507 volunteers have been called for, and an order which will be issued probably to-day will provide for the organization of three more regiments. Vulon Veterans' Union Adjourns. Des Moines, Iowa, Aug. 28.—The' Union Veterans' union closed its annual convention here Friday. The final' reports showed the order prosperous financially and increasing rapidly in piembership. The next meeting will oe held in Washington, October, 1900. Samuel Merrill Is Stricken. Los Angeles, Cal., Aug. 28.— -Former Gov. Samuel Merrill of Iowa, who has resided here for some time, suffered a> stroke of paralysis and is thought to' be dying. He was injured severely in an electric car accident several months ago and has never entirely recovered from that injury. Great Loss by Storm. Lima, Peru (via Galveston), Aug. 28. —According to reliable reports received here from Chile, property valued at awe than £1,500,000 ($7,500,000) has been destroyed during the severe storms that have swept the country during the last fortnight. Waukesha, Wis,, Aug. •28,-rGeorge Bckert shot and killed his sleeping wife Friday morning. The cause given for the, deed Js jealousy, ffckert and his wife often quarreled Q» tMs account. After killing Ijer rendered to Sheriff Ring. Hunk O'l)ay Umpire. Henry O'Day, one of the best umpires of the National league, is a Chi- •cagoan by birth. Honest, fearless and intelligent in the discharge of the trying duties of his onerous position, he gives the plays as he sees them regardless of consequences and influences. Before beginning his career with the indicator, O'Day was one of the most prominent pitchers of the game, and this experience has made him an expert in judging balls and strikes. His retirement as a player was not due to trouble with his arm, but the hardships of training down to weight. In addition to long and honorable service on the National league staff of umpires, O'Day made a creditable record ia the Western league. Partisan patrons and players -do not always agree with the decisions given by Umpire O'Day, but they unite In paying tribute to his in- UMPIRE O'DAY. tegrity and impartiality. He insists on the players conducting themselves becomingly, and while tolerant to a degree, when the zeal of the players Inspires them to protest, he rules the kickers with a nrm hand and removes them from the game when their actions justify it. Ted Sullivan, who managed the Washington club of which team O'Day was a member, declares that he had the. best "break" ball ever pitched. His record as a pitcher entitled him to class as a top-notcher among the twirlers. WJtliout Sympathy. Those who protest against the treatment of Amos Rusie by the New York lub, have no sympathy for Martin 3ergep, the erratic catcher of the Boston club, who hag deserted that club annually slace big connection with it WILLIAM KEELER. of Manager Pat Powers, of the New York club, and he finished the season in that city. He was utility man for the Giuuts for several months, and wag then sold to Brooklyn for $800. Owing to his being handicapped by his left- handed throwing, he was farmed out, and he closed that season with Binghampton in 'the Eastern league. Mau- ager Hanlon traded Shindle and Treadway for Keeler and D-in Brouthers. Keeler developed into one of the most artistic and valuable players in the profession, and his great iielding, superior base running, and fine stickwork were of great value to the Orioles and contributed largely to the success of the Brooklyn Superbas. He is earnest, but well behaved on the diamond, and during his career with the scrappy Orioles, has never been accused of dirty bull playing. Retirement of Kwiug. Tile retirement of Buck Ewlng from the management of the Reds is positively settled. In'all probability, he will not be displaced before the closq of the season, but it is reasonably sure that his successor will begin the reorganization of the Reds for the 1900 campaign. His opposition to young blood ami his inability to control the older players have brought about his undoing. He lacks the initiative faculty and ia content to follow theories that have long been out of date. Hi,' one great failing as a manager is lit-, ter helplessness when his team gets in the rut of defeat. Instead of enthusing his men, he resorts to charges oi robbery against the umpires and seek! refuge behind threadbare hard luc!, stories. His policy of playing favorite) creates trouble in the ranks and handl, caps his team. He has laid all the cor. dial support of that great quartet cl baseball writers, Messrs. Orillo, Mulford, Zuber and Weldon, until his mal- administration of the management be. came so palpable that the three formei deserted his standard and demandei) bis retirement. They have shown t« the satisfaction of patrons that he. ii| incompetent and the indications ara that Messrs, Brush and Lloyd havij reached the same conclusion. W. H. Watkins will, it is said, be entrusted with the control of the players, Tm| neither Mr. Brush or Mr. Lloyd' wll| confirm or deny this. R. G. Allen, tho manager of the Indianapolis club and Walter H. Wilmot, the manager of th« Minneapolis club, have also been mentioned as Ewiug'B successor, but theni is little ground for belief that the 'lab ter has been perlously considered. Cincinnati is not the only National leagui club that could advance its Interests'bv changing its manager. Kast ami West. The western clubs won 21 and losi 34 of tlie games played on their last eastern trip, leaving: a balance of IS games to the credit of sectional rivals, St. Louis made the creditable record o: five victories and four defeats, but Ui< Louisvilles did even better, as the Colonels captured five and lost onlj two games. Cincinnati came next wit); an even break in eight games. Chicagc made a capital start at Boston, but fei; down badly at Brooklyn and New Yorli and dropped six of the nine games, Pittsburg did even worse, the Pirates' record being seven defeats and two vie-, tories. Cleveland hud 13 chances to win, but only took advantage of twq of them. Brooklyn and Philadelphia did the best of the eastern clubs, each winning seven and losing two games! Boston, Washington and New York each put five in their win and four in their lost column respectively and the BalUnioves made a standoff with theli visitors in 10 Su*plt>l«m "What makes you think- she is tet* ting- along in years?" "The only bii-tbda.jr parties, tlier haye at their house- now a-re for heV husband. Tlie i»«w Torpedo. A Swede has invented one operated by invisible rays- of light, which, enables it to explode- at will. In lilce manner Mostetter's Stomneh Bitters conquers all stomach troubles. When a sufferer from constipation, dyspepsia or liver complaint takes tlie Bltfei-s he is stive of a cure. A private Revenue Stamp covers the node of the bottle. The duchess d'Uzes bas 28,.(>00,00f) bottles of eharnpaorne stored hi- her cellars at Paris and Rheiins. "You Never Miss the Water Till the Well Runs Dr^* We never realize the value of health antil it is gone. When old time strength And vigor are wanting, purify tlie blood by taking Hood's Sarsaparillar soon f*. stored appetite, perfect digestion, steady nerves and even tempe* tuitt prove it is bringing back the gfow of perfect health. STORYETTES. Beeeher and lufrcrsoll we to always great friends. Mr. Beecher had n ce- leati,al globe in his study, a'present from some manufacturer. On it was nn excellent representation of the con- stelhitions and stars which compose them Ing-orsoll wan delighted witli tnefrlobe. He examined it closely and turned it, round and round. "Jt,' s -just i ho mnde it?" repeated Beecher, •vvl.o made this globe? Oh, nobody, colonel, it just happened!" Judg-e Martin fit-over, of Troy, N. Y.. \vns atone Mine approached by a young citizen who wished to be nominated to the stnte assembly. The. shrewd ™« judge had certain doubts about urn, which be expressed somewhat freely, and yet be was willing to afford him n trial. He therefore ad- iressed the aspirant in this way: Young- man, if you will give me your word'(.hat you won't steni when'you get to Albany, I'll see what Iciii be lone about semi in' you there." "Judge Si-over," replied the young man, draw* ng himself up with great dignity "I go to Albany unpledged, or 1 don't go it nil. An Australian, coming- up on a recent steamer, fell in with two sharp- 3r.s who led him into many wafers. 1 bey were so invariably'successful liat he been me suspicions that tliev vere "fixing-" the bets, but each new 3i-opo.sit.ion wns so temptiuo- that be •ould not resist it. At hist, as tbev vc-i-c approaching- tlie Golden Gnte, he will let me name this hist bet." 'The others wore curious, nnd. Icnowin" that they could not lose much, consented, ami iislted what bis proposition was •H is this," he said, "I'll bet you S22 that I en n yell louder than the ship's steimi-whistle. Of course, I'll lose" lieruMed, "bill,, by jinq-o, I know tlie \vlu.slle can't be. fixed." Are y oa l] s i n ., AUou .,, ir oor . rr 8 U « O " ly CUre for , ling Burning, Sweating Feet. "" 1 Ullnions - Ask 'or Allen's ase, a powder to be shaken into Sorn or A J a11 ^"S^ts and Shoe Stoics, 25c. Sample sent FREE Address Allen S. OlmstcdJ^Uoy, N. Y. J nines Clark, of Quincey, 111., w ho celebrated Ids lOOtli birthday last week, i ? no»v the only boiia fide oldest JMuson 111 Atuei icn, Chicago <Jreat Western Increase. The earnings of the Chicago Great Western Railway, "Maple Leaf Route," for, the second week of August, 1899, show an increase of $12,341.57. Total increase since beginning of Hscal year .(July 1st) to date, $97.788.60, Vegetables are lilce fresh air—indispensable for oiu 1 health; they cool and purify the blood and add a necessary acid to it. An Excellent Combination, The pleasant method and beneficial effects of the well known remedy, &TBUP OF PIGS, manufactured by the CAMFOHNIA Fio SVBUP Co., illustrate the value of obtaining the liqxiid laxative principles of plants known to be medicinally laxative and presenting 1 them m the form most refreshing to the taste and acceptable to the system. It is the one perfect strengthening laxa. tive, clean sinpr the system effectually, dispelling colds, headaches and levers gently yet promptly and enabling one to overcome habitual constipation permanently. Its perfect freedom from every objectionable qxiality and substance, and its acting on tlie kidneys. liver and bowels, without weakening or irritating them, make it the ideal laxative. In the process of manufacturing flgg are used, as they are pleasant to the taste, but the medicinal qualities of the remedy are obtained from senna and other aromatic plants, by a method known to the CALIFORNIA FIG ' SYRUP u>. only. Jn order to get its bene0cial effects and to avoid imitations, please remember the full name of the Company printed on the frpnt of every package, CQ. jr. v« ire.
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