The Algona Upper Des Moines from Algona, Iowa on December 28, 1898 · Page 6
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The Algona Upper Des Moines from Algona, Iowa · Page 6

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Algona, Iowa
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Wednesday, December 28, 1898
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.-,. . MM t?l*f*E« ®m MOIM1S; Al^ONA IOWA, WEDNESDAY DECEMBER 28. 1806 1 AftM AND 0ABB1N, Gf» tttftlldn et th« 8otl X1»««-eof— HortlcnlttJM, floHeoUttt*. Atwtrt ftttd The Spotted Apple Tree Borer. A. verjr similar insect to the foufld- hefrded borer, both In appearance and In habits is the spotted apple-tree borer (Saperda cretata). The adult beetle Is ot nearly the same size and form as the round-headed borer, differing BU- jperficially by having two white spots on each elytron instead of the longitudinal white lines which distinguish the latter. The larva and pupa are so similar that no description need be made 6f them. Although the species has a • fairly wide distribution, corresponding somewhat closely to that of the common species, specific injury by it has only been noted In two states, in Michigan by Prof, A. J. Cook and in Iowa ;by Prof. H. Osborn. In the former atate this borer Is reported as quite as common and destructive as Saperda Candida. Its occurrence Is also recorded in Canada, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Ohio, and there are specimens in the National Museum also from Northern Illinois and Texas. It 'has only been observed injuring apple and wild crab, but its occurrence has ialso been noted on June-berry and thora According to Osborn the "eggs are evidently laid in pairs, half an inch or more apart, along the branch, the 'larvae of each pair upon batching gardeners who asked for thcta. Senhof Lecocd, «ho h*d charge of th& work ftt Lisbonfrfctefnlly &eRaowl«dg«s the ln- valuabie benefit done to Portuguese agriculture and norUcuHttf* t>y the introduction 6« the beetle. Later infof- infttion is to the efrect that colonies of the Novlns were established on not less than 4fct estates, whence naturally iaanr others were formed by radiation. Gardens and orchards that were completely infested with the scale and nearly ruined are today entirely clean or well on the way toward becoming so. The entomologist would not have been able to assist the Portuguese government in accomplishing this great work had It not been for the enlightened policy of the State Board, of Horticulture of California in continuing the breeding in confinement of these predaceous beetles long after any apparently urgent necessity for such work had disappeared in California, and for the prompt courtesy of the board in placing living specimens at his disposal. -•—Saperda erefata; female beetle-enlarged one-third (original)., working in opposite directions around the branch, at first just beneath the bark, afterward (probably after the iflrst year) entering the hard wood." The remedies for this species are the same as for the round-headed borer with the extra precaution that the larger branches also be protected by the wash applied. * * * . Note.—A third species of Saperda (fayl), has similar habits and is likely to attack apple and similar cultl- vated pomaceous trees, but is thus far 'known only on thorns. The Novltn Curdlnallg In Portugal. A report sent out by the United States Department of Agriculture says: The Department of Agriculture of Portugal, through Dr. Howard, entomologist of the United-'States 'Department of Agriculture, and the courteous co-operation of the State Board of Horticulture of .California, has succeeded in repeating In Portugal the wonderful success effected in California some years ago partly through the efforts of the department in saving the orange industry of that state from annihilation, owing to the depredations of the white or fluted scale (Icerya purchasi), by the introduction from Australia of the Novlus (Vedalia) cardlnalls, which •preys upon the scale and thus keeps It In check. 1 In September, 1896, Dr. Howard was appealed to by Portuguese authorities for advice as to the most efficacious means of combating the ravages of the ecale which had appeared in disastrous numbers in the orange and lemon groves aiong the river Tagus. Dr. Howard having satisfied himself, by examination of photographs and specimens of the Insect received from Portugal, that it was undoubtedly the Icerya purchasi of California experience, strongly advised bis Portuguese correspondents to.attempt the introduction of the Novius cardinalis and pledged his co-operation in an effort to secure specimens and ship them to Portugal. His advice and proffers of assistance were cordially accepted. In October, 1897, Dr. Howard secured from the State Board of Horticulture of California about sixty specimens of the Novius eardlnalts, In the adult condition, and some larvae, These were packed in moss with a plentiful supply of Icerya as food, and forwarded from Washington by direct mail. Only five of the Novius reached Portugal alive. 'They were at once placed In glass jars at the Chemical Agricultural Experiment Station at Lisbon and were so successfully cared for that when heard from In December there was already a numerous progeny. . November 22, a, second colony of the predatory beetles was received from California. In order to hasten the journey of thlfj colpny to Portugal, Dr. jjpward took the packet to New York and placed Jc.in cold storage, awaiting the arrival pf the direct steamer to Lls- b0n, But in spite Pf these precautions, and owjng to several unfortunate delays ip transit, the packet did not reach Wsbon until forty-four d.ays after it left California. One male aud flve females were 8tW altve, and. owing to 'Draining Mack. The great value of these soils when properly reclaimed has led European farmers and investigators to devote much attention to their utilization, and increased attention is being directed to the same subject in this country, says the annual report of the department of Agriculture. The salt marshes, especially along the New England coast, have been extensively used for many years for the production of forage, and in many cases expensive and elaborate systems of reclamation have been carried out on them. Reclaimed swamp or muck soils are being extensively utilized In Michigan, Ohio, and other regions for the production of celery and onions, for which they seem to be peculiarly adapted. Several of the experiment stations, notably those of Wisconsin, Indiana and Michigan, have undertaken to stuay the best means of reclaiming such soils. While the conditions vary considerably in different cases and each soil may present some peculiar conditions of its own, the general principles and practices are the same for all this class of soils. Thorough drainage is the first essential. This is not only necessary for the purpose of removing the excess of water, but to allow the free circulation o" air in the soil, in order that the poisonous compounds which are usually present may be oxidized and thus rendered harmless, and that the processes of decomposition and nitrification so necessary in this class of soil may be set up. The drainage is best accomplished at first by means of open ditches at frequent intervals. Muck soils settle greatly when drained, and If tiles are laid in the soft muck they will rise toward the surface, and thus become ineffective. Draining Is most effective when carried out gradually and the soil should not be allowed to dry out too quickly, since, its mechanical condition may be thus injuriously affected, Its absorptive power for water in many casea Is almost completely destroyed, and the decomposition of the organic matter greatly retarded. After the soil has become firm tiles may be laid, especially if collars are used. The Indiana station has shown that in case of the black soils of that slate, which are probably representative of a class, tile drainage is effective only when the sand and gravel which underlie such soils are tapped. By sinking In thls underlying layer of sand or gravel a series of wells which are connected with tile at the depth at -which it Is desired to maintain the water level, the soils may probably be thoroughly drained without difficulty. On* oi dttr Worst Weeds is Prickly Lettuce, an illustration 6f which we tmblish on this page. On the Pacific Coast the plant Is known quite -widely as Chinese Lettuce, under the misapprehension that it came from China. It 16 in reality a native of Europe. It la not known at what date it was brought to America, as it probably obtained a foothold here long before it was noticed by officials Competent to determine its character It seems to have been first observed In Massachusetts in 1868. Thence it made its way quickly westward, being able to spread rapidly on account of having an awned seed that can travel long distances before the wind. It is now spread all over the country. When it gets into the grain fields it sometimes entirely smothers the grain. This plant grows from one to six feet high, branches laterally, as shown in the cut. The flowers are yellow. The plant has a milky juice and by some has been mistaken for a "milkweed." Its production of seed is very prolific, a single plant having been known to produce over 8,000 seeds. The eradication is very difficult, on account of some characteristics of the plant. It SCIENTIFIC TOPIG& CUR«£Nt NOTES OP OJSCOV- ERY AND INVENTION. H*nd? foot for EleetrHslani—H«i"1y Attachment for 81e«H Where Snow is Rare—An Invention That PrM«nti Watte of Soap. • is so deeply rooted that on fair soil I is almost impossible.to pull it up. To cut It off with a mowing machine 01 even with a scythe Is impractical, as the stump sends out new shoots tha soon flower and bear seeds. When land Is badly Infested It may be used for hoed crops or often for pastur age, especially of sheep. The plants must not in any case be allowed to go to seed. Something About ten»e». Very few amateurs have time or opportunity to make a thorough study of optics, but if one wishes to use his camera to get the best results he should understand something about the lens and its action. Light, the agent by which we see consists, like sound, of motion. Sound Is produced or conveyed to the ear by wavelike motions of the air, and light is conveyed to the eye by wavelike motions of a certain ether which fills all space. Sources of light, such as the sun, send off continuous waves, and these "waves, striking against the surface of an object, botfhd back, and striking the eye, convey to it impressions of the object and we have the sensation of sight. The frequency of these light waves is something almost, if not quite, beyond the comprehension. The waves which affect the eye and produce sight move at the rate of from 400 millions to 760 millions per minute. Some surfaces reflect most of the light that reaches themj others absorb most of the light. The waves of light meeting the surface of an object are broken up by the rough particles of the surface, and each particle of the surface becomes a center from which these reflected rays spread 'out in all directions. The eye, receiving these waves from every point of an object, condenses them to corresponding points, and re-arranges them on the retina In the form of the object from which they were reflected, and we,say we see the object. on wheels, -whPfl funning ovet cleared portions of roads, a citizen of Heron Lake, Minn., has devised a novel attachment by means of which the desired end is attained. Of the annexed Illustrations, figure 1 is n perspective view of a sled with the attachment la operative position; figure 2 is a side elevation showing the attachment In inactive position, and figure 3 Is a transverse section of a runner with the attachment applied, says the Scientific American. The attachment consists of a U-shaped axle mounted In a bearing on each end of a runner, and bent down over the sides of the runner, the ends of the axle being formed with outwardly extending spindles on which ribbed wheels are journaled. In order to hold each axle In proper position, the Inventor employs cleats bolt- ud to the sides of the runners. The top edges of these cleats are arranged in allgnnif t with tion of the axle the bottom por- bearings. When swung into the Inoperative position shown in figure 2, the side portions of each axle will rest upon the top edge of a cleat. At their forward end the cleats are provided with ledges, by means of which the side portions of the Rheumatism is caused by acid in the blood. SampaflM neutralises th» act d tad the achea and pains. Do not suffer &nf longer when a reniedy IB at hand, f&tg the great medicine which has cured so man? others, and you may confidently expect ti will give you the relief you so much deslr&j parilla is Ataerica'9 Greatest Medleine. Fries || 1'repared by C. I. Hood & Co., Lowell, Hood's Pills cure sick headache. "Let Vs Have Fence." The Cz-ar—I will build two bisr bat«l tleslrips. John Btill--I will build four Tlie Czar—1 will build eight. .John Bull—I will build sixteen. The Caai-—Let \ls have peace. One of the hardest thinrs in this! world is to "get alonjj v with people. It is said that about 8100,000^000 is spent for Christmas gifts cverv year in this country. * * ' Prevents \Vn.itlng Soap. The wasting of soap and the removal of .toilet articles in public lavatories Is prevented by the device illustrated. It consists of a spring arm attached to the wall for tlie suspension of the articles, which are always in position for use, the spring arm al- the great Pf them by the Portuguese official, these survjve4 and Pwing to the ?reat of ft* NSYlWB. the f,r«Hj» tUe, il* icbiofc reached a |i¥ J»Q®thj JW*«» m W and pQjQBjea were established •bp» A Cheap Ice Houge. No expensive structure Is needed for an ice house, though there is an object to have no wasting away, It should be made tighter than where this does not matter so much, says a writer In Country Gentleman. Slabs from the saw mill do very nicely for the roof, and the sides may also be of rough boards. ..Where desired the Ice house may be one corner of the woodshed partitioned off, in which Ice will keep quite as well as In a more costly structure. Even stacking Is often resorted to, by laying down rails for a floor, on which to stack the blocks comparatively. Cover heavily with some material which Is non-conducting, such as straw, hay, etc., finishing the top so as to shed rain, bracing the sides with boards and rails to keep covering in position. Care must be taken In getting at the ice, always to open at same place and cover up thoroughly, or gome hot day will turn it to water. In putting in the ice no matter where It may be, always surround it with non-conducting material like sawdust. Too Late Melons.—Every year, when frost cuts the tender leaves o£ melons and stops further growth, the cultivator finds a great number o£ melons unripe, and therefore worthless. ' For *an nnripe melon, being mostly water, and having very little substance, isn't worth much as feed for stock and Is not. Indeed, as good as a green pumpkin of the same weight. Of cquyse all this extra growth of vine and the unripe melons ou it Is wasted plant food. If concentrated on the melons earlier started, it would, wake them larger and also make them ripen earlier. With a, small amount of trouble both, the number and value of ripe melons may be thus increased.—Ex. , , r . , 4 Reports received, by Pf. Howard last were tc> j«w effect ttyrt »aoy °l tUe beetles, b^d hejm Qrp.Wl* Pf Strawberry mints,— As t}je njant increases It? ro.pt eves t n CPW weather, when is not frpsen, fl n() its |FU)V early In, the spring, »• part of tfee sbQUld be applied |n the H >?e stable manure. ItenellU of Spraying. Readers of the Farmers' Review have frequently had their attentioi called to the necessity and advantage of spraying, but we doubt if a grea many appreciate It fully. 'Only- thos that have continuously sprayed can comprehend the possibilities of the process. During the season just past h. M. Dunlap, a horticulturist well known to many of our readers, made some comparative tests on spraying pears. The variety sprayed was the Keifer. The work was done in such a manner that a part of the trees left unsprayed were a very effective "check" on the whole process. The results' showed most conclusively the good results obtained by the process. The pears on the unsprayed trees were very scabby, and some of them poorly or Irregularly developed. The pears on the sprayed trees were well-formed^ well- developed and free from scab. Both kinds were exhibited as an object lesson at the last meeting o£ the Central Illinois Horticultural society. The foliage of the trees also showed the effects of spraying. On the unsprayed trees the leaves fell early, and on the sprayed trees held on till the fruit had received the full benefit of their func-, tions. This Is one of the best results of spraying. As the fruit buds are formed a year previous to their fruitage, anything that hurts the foliage one year will hurt the fruit the next, year, as tne fruit buds will be either poorly developed or not developed at all. Every man that has even, a small orchard should hav.e a spraying outfit. Raspberries.—Rows should be at least seven feet apart and plants three feet apart In the row. Having fitted the ground as for strawberries, plow a furrow about flve Inches deep for blackcaps, set the plants flat in the furrow with roots spread out in every direction, taking the greatest care to get fresh earth in contact with all the roots and cover Immediately. Cultivation should be thorough and frequent until the last berries are all picked, when the old wood should be cut out. It Is the greatest blunder to stop cultivating in the driest part of the season, when the bushes are bringing their great loads of fruit to perfection. The feet of the pickers tramp the ground down hard an0 capillary action brings the water to the surface, where It is carried off by wind and sun very rapidly. Let the cultivator go through them after every picking.—R. M. Kellogg, r Utilizing Bog Lands,—Covering boga with a layer ol sand or gi'avej * to- fl Inches thick has been successfully praci ticed In Ireland and European countries, but it is doubtful whether this method is generally applicable in the United > States. Oats, potatoes and buckwheat have been found to tbrlvo better than wheat or clover pn recently reclaimed bogs, The grasses generally have been syccessfuly grown °P soils, and, as already stated, they seem to be well adapted tp celery and onions an<J are extensively used for tb,e growth of these jcyops. In Europe sugar beets grown with good results on such "in 1$ Department of * "" axles, when in operative position, may be held vertically, as shown in figure 1. When the sled is running over snow or Ice and a cleared portion of the road is reached the driver throws the axles forward so as to bring the wheels on the ground. The sled upon being pulled onward will rise upon the wheels and swing the axles against the forward ledges of the cleats. The sled is now mounted upon wheels and can be readily moved over the cleared portion of the road. When snow or ice is again reached, the sled is backed, thus causing the wheels to move forward and enabling the driver to swing into the inoperative position shown In figure 2. The generous burdens that nre car-' vied daily away from tlie stoves settle beyond a peradventure whether there ] is si Santa Glaus or not. A shee-pkillinsr dog seldom kills I sheep at home. A catalogue of ;tOO prizes suitable to evor.v taste and condition mailed on inquiry. Prizes given for saving Diamond "C" Sonp wrappers. Address' C'ndiihy Soap Works, South Omiiha, ?"cbnis>ka. Heading a person like a book toinost puople means skipping' the surface, CilKAl'KST DA1LV IN THK The IJpsMolnes DAIIA" NEWS Is tile only dollar iui!ly In the world. Its subscription prico Is II a year. 75 cents for six months. »U cents for three ilium V». 2,"i eonti a. month. The dollar rale hasbeen In force over tliroc years, nnd Is no experiment, iinil It HUH Increased the circulation of the NHVVH tn £UiUU. far the largest of uny Iowa d(illy. I'ha DAILY NKWS Is a member of I lie Associated Press, and idvesu dally telegriiphlo nmikn report.undall' the news of Iowa and the world, condensed for busy people. Us Saturday Issue contains ;ii tractive pujros for women and children, and valuable liter* ury mutter. The Sutiirday Issue Is alone north the price of the paper. Boup wlt.h the rlivns, read a' dally paper and keep posted. Address. TUB N'KVVS, lies Molnes. Iowa. lowing free access to the bowl and drawing them out of the way as soon as released. 1'iieumatlc Qraln Elevotors. A grain elevator operated by suction has been tried and exhibited in England. Air is exhausted through the pipes which take in the grain, and the grain is delivered by the air draught through other pipes to any desired place. Several pipes may be Introduced Into a vessel's hold, and will remove the grain therefrom. An automatic scales is part of the system, so that the grain is weighed during the process of elevating and delivery. Quite a complicated system of exhausting and delivery pipes were connected, aud the plant worked to great perfection, delivering the grain to a number of places with the one installation of pipes. Tlie first lire insurance company in ; | America was established iu Pliilade]-: phi a in .1752. Diamond "C" Soap is a wash-day";] friend. Cultivate Its acquaintance. There nve no professional women dkl vers. It is impossible to tallc under water. Moulding Steel Like Dough. The moulding of steel like so much dough Is one of the remarkable mechanical feats of the day, made possible by fiercely hot furnaces and huge hydraulic presses. Thus, for the production of shells, a solid cylinder of glowing white metal is carefully adjusted on the die of .a hydraulic press. The press operator pulls down a lever with an easy movement of one hand, and down comes a mighty mandrel, exerting a pressure of hundreds of tons upon the mass of hot steel. On the mandrel being withdrawn the piece is automatically ejected from the die, the form of It being slightly conical, having been squeezed Into such shape by the great pressure as easily as If it had been putty or dough. Immediately It goes to another of the great presses, where it is held in a die with the thicker end up; here, when the mandrel has silently applied Its force and been withdrawn, the piece shows a deep hole punched In the center, and has taken a form resembling the prospective, finished product; without reheating — so rapid is the process — the shell now goes into a third press; from which it comes still more nearly shaped to the proper pattern, and a fourth forming operation makes It ready for the finishing room, where the products are finished and trued in lathes. Sailing: by Cyclone, Considerable interest has bean aroused In the proposition of Capt. Fieron, a French mariner who thinks that advantage may be taken of the favorable winds at the edge of a cyclone for facilitating navigation. By means of observations with the barometer and other Instruments, he would ascertain the direction In which the storm is going, and so shape the course of his ship that it WQUld be carried along by the sweep of the atmosphere, without becoming involved IB tba dangerous cen* ter of the storm. TWa proposal to treat cyclones as fdeadly aids to aavl? gation may strike the reader as au extravagant play of fancy, but It is soberly Intended by Capt. Fieron, whp, In, a little book on tlve subject recently published In Paris, describes his own successful experiments in lh.is new method of sailing the sea. Transmission of Kartliqunko Shook. When an earthquake occurs, the entire crust, or surface, of the earth experiences some effects of the disturbance. An earthquake in Calcutta which was accurately recorded gave a basis for determining the speed ol transmission of the wave of disturbance due to the shock. The disturbance was registered at the Edinburgh observatory, thousands of miles distant, and gave a speed of transmission of six and two-tenths miles per second for the heavier shocks, -and less than two miles per second for the lighter ones. Fills u LoiiR-Felt Want. Any one who has ever been called upon to Insert a fuse Into a fuse block located on a celling or some other place difficult of access, especially when the place was dark, has felt the necessity for a handy tool and a light to aid him In performing this tedious operation. Such a tool, which seems to fill this long-felt want most admirably, has lately been placed on the market by a southern electrician, says the Electrical Engineer. It includes all of the requisites for enabling an operator to tap a live wire In order to give light during the making of branch connections and the effecting of repairs. It consists of a screw driver, which has a detachable base. The handle, which Is hollow, contains the necessary fuses and clamps for tap- IMITA1 TBE EXCELLENCE OF SIRUP OF FIGS is due not only to the originality and simplicity of the combination, but also to thfc care aud skill with which it is manufactured by scientific processes known to the CALIFORNIA Fio SYRUP Co. only, and we wish to impress upon all the importance of purchasing 1 the { true and original remedy. As the genuine Syrup of Pigs is manufactured ] by the CALIFORNIA FIG SYRUP Co. I only, a knowledge of that fact assist one in avoiding' the worthless! imitations manufactured by other par-1 ties. The high standing of the CAU-] FORNIA FIG SYRUP Co. with the medi-1 cal profession, and the satisfactioaj which the genuine Syrup of Figs " given to millions of families, makes! the name of the Company a guaranty! of the excellence of its remedy. It isi far in advance of all other laxatives,I as it acts on the^SJdneys, liver ancjj bowels without irriwEt^ng or weakeaT ing them, and it does not gripe not I nauseate. In order to get its beneficiall effects, please remember the name ol| the Company— .CALIFORNIA FIG SYRUP CO. SAN FUANCISCO, Col. (.OtTTHVIT.T.w, rv vww. vn«nr. 1 DON'* DEL-AY --.t+. Sucnv I* IUro. order to pr9vWe a Device by means s« which, cap mounted ping the legs of the circuit. These clamps can be connected to the lamp- plug socket, which is the base of the handle itself, by means of plugs, and the operation, by Inserting.a.'lamp into this socket, will have the advantage qf a light even during the operation of inserting a fuse. The tool has been constructed with the end In view of embodying In tne smallest possible space all the necessary implements. It Cure? Colds, Coughs, Sore Throat, Croup, I tluenza. Whopping Cough, Bronchitijand A»»M A certain cure lor Consumption in nrst stags arid a sure relief in advanced stages. Useatone You will see the excellent effect after taking IW first dose. Sold by dealers everywhere, bottles 25 cents and 80 cent*. WHAT TO EA IS A SERIOUS QUESTION FLOUI WIU SOLVE THIi PHQBI.EM, It I, At>*0<Wl«lyJ Try M. ttSpaaM,Forl|self,. Those "Kitty says she cvled for help when he kissed her," "She didn't do any such thing. cried for joy."-- Cincinnati Enquirer. Aeat mtoked in a lew boars witli KRAUSERS' tlQMtO EXTRACT OF 8 Made from .Wcdpw wood. PJ»<>»P w '<iSj! sweeter, and surer thau tbe old A WEEK, steafly CTOPios Peerless Flavoring Po guaranteed. 10VU 80PPU DM»i 'V, :<v -'% • , '',..' ' -" • • • - f J -

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