UPPISH DES M01NEH: ALGONA IOWA, WEDNESDAY 14, 1898 Refef m in Diplomatic and Consular Service. The expansion of the United States territory, and the probability of an increase in American trade in the Orient, have drawn attention to the defects of our diplomatic and consular service. The American policy of avoiding foreign entanglements has heretofore preserved us from those international complications that require the most constant, delicate and skillful diplomacy. But times are changed. We cannot expect to become a factor in European -politics and assume new commercial obligations without finding difficulties as well as advantages, and just in proportion to the extension' of oUr foreign relations, will be the importance of shrewd diplomacy increase. Political economists are beginning to urge the need of a permanent diplomatic service. In the August Forum, George L. Rives, said: in most other branches of the public service the advantages of special train- Ing are less obvious, and in them the "backwoods theory" still survives. That theory, it must be remembered, ! when applied to employment under the government, denies hot merely the value of technical training, but denies also the value o£ experience. Even sixty years ago, in private affairs, the old doctor, the old lawyer and the 'practical builder' were believed to be safer than mere beginners. But for an office In the gift of the president, and especially for any office which requires residence abroad, it has been the constant tradition of our government for more than half a century past that education is useless and experience a bar. If we inquire why a practical nation has permitted so grotesque an anomaly in the conduct of its business, we shall probably flnd that this condition of things endures,.first, because of the general belief that our foreign relations have, on the whole, been pretty well managed; ana, second, because of a general popular misconception of the kind of work to be performed by our diplomatic agents. Whether our foreign relations have, on the whole, been well managed or ill managed is a matter concerning which proof is impossible. The stern tests to which actual warfare subjects military and naval officers cannot be applied to diplomatists. There may be, and there usually are, two opinions as to every diplomatic transaction which is important enough to attract public attention, and it is just as open for one set of people to condemn the conduct of a particular affair as . it is for another set of people to applaud it. No argument can therefore be fairly drawn from history either to prove or to disprove the efficiency of our diplomatists. It is precisely like the ques- ^lon which used to interest people in our larger cities a generation ago as to whether a volunteer fire department was or was not a good thing. Nobody could prove, by any historical example, that a volunteer fire department did not do its work well. In a sense It did excellent work. Its members were undisciplined, but were brave and enthusiastic. The arguments for a paid department were a priori arguments, .based upon analogies more or less im- I; perfect and upon comparisons drawn ferom other like occupations. Fortuu- "j$&ly, the a priori arguments carried ^-day, and discussion ceased when tjl^experiment of a regular organiza- ion was tried. |f%.lilce manner our volunteer diplo- atlb department, if it may be so call- las done excellent work on many Slions. Its successes are due part" inherent adaptiveness of $gj3an citizens, partly to our put- iup our very best men for the real- Pilous work, and partly to the exit' simplicity which has hitherto llially characterized our relations *Tptorelgn countries. fie weaknesses of our present con- Jj$C service are no less apparent and njfiness men are clamoring for re- Im in that branch and for the ap- lintment to such positions of mtelll- fnt well-trained business men who .•111 be alive to all opportunities to •Jctend American trade. This subject Kvas called up at the annual corn-nation of Agricultural Implement and Bicycle : Manufacturers recently held in Philadelphia, and Dr. D. W. Wilson who was one of the speakers said: that If ten of the leading national organizations of the United States took the matter up in earnest and declared that ' the agents for the business men of the B United States who go abroad should be I selected solely for business qualifications after the fashion in which the members of those organizations arrange business in their own offices, and if they would appoint joint committees to confer with each other, throwing the whole matter out of politics, . the entire system could be changed •within three years." This may be a 'rather rash prophecy, but there is no sentiment concerning day. ft would require the Carnegies. for example, the Bethlehem iron works, the manufacturers who furnish clothing for the army and navy, the powder mills, the gun factories, the packing houses which furnish the beef and pork, the bakeries which make the hardtack, the factories which produce the shoes for the soldiers and the sailors, the men who build wagons for the government, the miners who furnish coal for the men of war and the government transports to adopt the eight* hour system, except in extraordinary emergencies. It would practically prohibit the government from buying anything from anybody whose employes worked more than eight hours. As a rule the manufacturers opposed £he proposition. They claimed it would make it necessary for them to put their whole establishment upon an eight- hour basis and that the men would not permit a reduction of wages to correspond. They asserted also that a majority of the men would not approve an eight-hour day. They did not want it, and if it were left to a vote from 80 to 90 per cent would oppose it. It also interfered with piece work. Mr. Gompers, however, presented petitions from about 620,000 worklngmen, who represented every trade in the United States, asking for the passage of the bill. Mr. Cramp of the great Philadelphia ship building company, made a remarkable assertion at the investigation. He said notwithstanding the fact that the mechanics in the shipyards of France work cloven and twelve hours a day, while the workingmen in the United States work nine hours, the French shipbuilders would not build warships for Russia in less than five years, while his company gave a guarantee to furnish them in thirty months. At the same time, although wages in France were much lower than in the United States, Mr. Cramp offered to build ships -for Russia cheaper than they can be built in France. Fffbrt to Remove Alleged Flaws in the Measure. MANY CHANGES SUGGESTED, CommlflRtoiter of Internal Revenue Jf. B. Scott Sngscnts Improvement* In the Act of Jnne 1:1. 1808—tetter Sent Chairman Dingley. doubt if ou this matter is frankly expressed and concerted action is taken by those : most interested in finding new markets j for American produce, much can be ac- i complisbed. to Washington corre- j Federation of Labor will ZTdet-ermined effort at the ap- session to secure action by upon a bill which passed k the house" without a dissenting vote last summer. It provides for the amendment of the eight-hour law so as to include all contractors doing work for the government and all em- ployes manufacturing material used 1 by the government. If this bill should IEO into effect it would be a long step howard a general eight-hour working Franco u» « Market. Under this heading, United States Consul Brunot of St. Etlenne says: "In a recent publication on the extension of markets for American goods, it was alleged in effect that the older European countries might be considered as exploited territory already well supplied, and but little likely to return a reward for the efforts of Americans seeking new outlets for their products. It is to be hoped that such a statement will not be generally accepted. It is far from being true in this section of France, at least, and doubtless in other parts of Europe as well. The success achieved in many well- known lines indicates altogether a contrary state of affairs. Europe needs the best goods in the world's market, and in many instances the superiority of American manufactures is not to be longer questioned. "As long as farming is carried on with wooden plows and ox carts made after the style of Caesar's time, there is room for modern utensils. Plows and ditching machines are needed here. The modern wagon would accomplish more towards relieving the agricultural depression than will government subsidies. If there is any good reason why American light road vehicles should not be preferred to the.weighty carriages now in use, it is not apparent. The French two-wheeled freight cart drawn by two horses, hitched tandem, is so heavy that the full strength of one animal is required to support the ponderous shafts and to steady the ungainly vehicle. The other must draw the load alone, the waste of power being evident. Were it not for the excellence of the almost level roads such means of transport would be impracticable. "Wooden shoes are the usual foot- wfear in the interior of France, and are not an exception even in the towns." John C. Covert, American consul at Lyons, says that boards, planed about one-half Inch thick, regardless of length or width, would find a large market in Lyons. At present they are brought from Switzerland, where the price is fixed by the Forestry commission every year. These boards are used for silk packing boxes. The wine and liquor interests of France necessitate the use of over a million barrels every year, and the consul thinks that American staves would flnd a market. FrogreBSlve Legislation. While there has been no official return made on any of the three constitutional amendments voted on by the people of South Dakota at the late election, it is generally conceded that they have all carried. The initiative and referendum was a measure of the populists, and the amendment was passed at the legislative session of 1897, which was strongly populist. So passed it provides that at any time when 5 per cent of the voters of the state shall sign a bill and the same be presented to the legislature that body shall enact the bill as presented into a law Then it is to be submitted to the people at the following regular election. The passage of any act so presented is made mandatory on the legislature, and the governor is prohibited from exercising the veto power upon such a law. It further provides that on petition of 5 per cent of the voters of the state any law passed by the legislature must be presented to the people at the next general election before it becomes operative. Another amendment adopted provides for state control of the liquor traffic under a dispensary system, the manner of operation to be provided by the coming session of the legislature. A law will undoubtedly be framed somewhat like the Carolina system. The only other amendment submitted was for equal suffrage and provided only that every person of requisite age and qualification shall be a voter. Washington, Dec. 12.—Chairman Dingley of the ways and means committee has received a letter from the commissioner of internal revenue, N. B. Scott, recommending a number* of amendments to the act of June 13,1898, known as the war-revenue act. The recommendations cover changes of an administrative character under schedules A and B, also for the monthly payment of excise taxes on sugar refineries and for a penalty for failing to stamp parlor-car tickets. Further provisions are suggested as to the examinations by internal-revenue officers of articles subject to internal-revenue taxes. The following are the proposed changes to the war-revenue act: In paragraph 1. section 2, relative to bankers, insert in the proper place the following: "Undivided profits shall be considered as surplus In estimating the tax due from banks, the amount to be estimated by taking the average for the preceding year; provided, that the word 'capital' shall not bo understood to mean money borrowed or received from time to time, as deposits In the usual course of business, from any person not a partner of nor interested in the bank, association or firm." The suggestions propose that lectures, local clubs and amateur performers be not subject to tax. Papers used as bank cheeks and orders for the payment of money to be taxable except in case of withdrawal of funds from savings banks. Recommendation is made that the .stamp tax on mortgages! or pledges, leases, insurance policies and deeds of release be removed. The provision taxing brokers' notes or memoranda of sale of goods, stocks, bonds, exchange, etc., to be removed. Persons or firms engaged in refining petroleum or sugar and subject, to the act to be required to pay the tax monthly. ' Penalty to be provided for not amx- ing stamps to parlor and sleeping car tickets. Aliens or persons having resided outside the United States for five years to pay a tax of $5 on every ?100 of money that is received as legacy. Packages of tobacco, in whatever form, it is suggested, shall not contain any printed offer of prize, gift or premium. Revenue collectors are to be authorized to examine national banks to ascertain whether the law is being complied with in regard to checks and otlrer papers of documents. Army Illll In tho Commit too. Washington, Dec. 12.—The house committee on military affairs began consideration Friday of the important measures for the reorganization and increase of the army, to meet the conditions arising out of the war. Such progress was made that Chairman Hull said at the close of the meeting he expected not only to report the bill to the house before the holidays but also to pass It by that time. Democratic CHUCUH Cull. Washington, Dec. 11.—To obviate all doubt as to the holding of tho caucus of democratic representatives notice has been given to each democratic member that the original programme would be carried out. The question which it is generally understood will be considered will be the binding force of a decision of a democratic caucus. AHEAD OF HIS ftECORD. Miller Leads the Kldet* In the Slx Bicycle Race. New York, Dec. 12.—Before midnight in the six-day bicycle race Miller had beaten the world's record made by himself a year ago, and his friends believe that he will be able to remain ahead of his own record until the race is ended. That the first money will go to Miller has been the opinion of racing men ever since the first day. Waller, time after time, by splendid intervals of speed, made himself a possibility for first, prize, but, as has always been the case with him, a fall at a critical time gave him a set-back, which his own trainer says will make it Impossible for him to get better than second place. The score at 2 a, m. was: M. Miller 1,808 Wallet- 1,778 Pierce 1.73B Albert 1.G69 Gimm 1.616 Lawson 1,598 Aaronson 1,55!) Nawn 1,520 Forster 1,500 Stevens < 1,481 Hale 1,384 Julius 1,180 Business for the Week Has Been , Very Large, ACTIVITY IN RETAIL TRADE, L. Sato* of Holiday Ooo«U Protnlsfi to Con- dtltute n ittcortl IJrcakCr—Meeting of Cons-rend FMlrd to Canao *ler*on8" ness In Huslnoss Circles. POWOEK MILLS WRECKED. Men K 1 116rt nml Ihrc* FrtthilJ (illicit Agnln l.<mt SlRht Of. Kansas City, Mo., Dec. 12.—A dispatch from Chihuahua, Mexico, says Glllett, the absconding cattle king, has spent the last ten days nt the camp of ,T. M. Fisher, formerly a Kansas friend of Gllletfs. C. A. Schaefer of Kansas City has succeeded in tying up several thousands of dollars deposited by Glllett In Durango, and has also gained possession of the fugitive's trunks left at that place. These proceedings gave the alarm and both Gillett and Troxell are again lost sight of. It is believed they have gone to Mazntlan on the Pacific coast, where they can secure passage to South America. To End Shore Coiitrovemy. St. John's, N, F., Dec. 12.—Reliable reports have reached here to the effect that the British government, during the coming session of parliament, will take vigorous action to bring about a speedy settlement of the French shore controversy. It said that the leaders of both political parties in the house of commons have agreed upon united action in upholding the case of Newfoundland, owing to the revelations of French aggressions contained in the report of the royal commission recently in Newfoundland for the investigation of the whole subject. CnrllHts Arc In EurnoHt. Madrid, Dec. 12.—It is at last evident that tho Carlists are now really In earnest. An unsuccessful attempt has been made by soldiers of Don Carlos to seize the fortifications of Cartagena, on tho southeastern const of the peninsula, in the province of Murcla. Although the attempt failed the censor has forbidden all mention of the enterprise in the newspapers. Much anxiety is aroused by the news that Great Britain is sending fresh reinforcements to Gibraltar. New York, Dec. 12.—Brartstreet's says: "Business conditions continue of a ,most encouraging character. A very satisfactory feature, and one full of encouragement to all wholesale lines of trade, is the activity shown In retail trade In nearly all markets. Reports received as to the holiday trade proper, too, point to the present year as- constituting a record-maker in this respect. The Importance of the early arrival of real winter weather to the re- tall distribution of heavy clothing and similar seasonable goods can hardly be overestimated. In the wider domain of general trade and Industry perhaps the most, notable feature has been the continued activity at advancing prices shown for most classes of Iron and steel, but, particularly pig iron and ateel billets. Features of tho week have been immense sales of Bessemer pig iron, largo Bales of steel billets and heavy orders for ship plates, tho, latter at western points. Export trade continues encouraging. Cotton Is again higher. Rather more Is doing in raw wool at slightly lower quotations. "Wheat, including flour, shipments for tho week aggregate 6,758,952 bushels, against 7,483,950 bushels last week. Corn exports for the week aggregate 4,388,535 bushels, against 4,623,988 bushels last week." R. G. Dunn & CO'H weekly review of trade says: "The most significant thing this week has been the entire absence of uie customary nervous fright before or after the meeting of congress, the president's message and tho treasurer's report. No one showed the least alarm, and nobody could find a reason for any. Money and stocks and grain markets moved on exactly UH if tho government were automatic, certain to do or say no more thap the people had already decided and expected, and so tho gradual betterment since October continues. There is n larger demand for products in nearly nil tho great industries, larger export demand for foreign needs, a more healthy domestic demand since seasonable weather arrived, and a comforting conviction that November business, tho biggest over done In this country in any month, was but a stop toward something better. "This week's failures have boon 248 In tho United States, against 312 lost year, and 22 In Canada, against 29 last year." Injcrert at Wllmlhftton, Uel. Wilmington* Del., Dec. 12.— Three men were killed and eight injured, three of them probably fatally, by the explosion of a press mill and four grinding mills in the Hagley yard of the Dupont Powder works Friday. The dead are: M'lLHENNY, ROBERT, 45 years old, married, leaves widow and four children; WRIGHT, JOHN, 50 years old, married, MOORE, JOHN, 40 years old, married, leaves widow and five children. The fatally Injured are: Thomas McCann, John Mulhern, Samuel Stewart, Others also seriously Injured are: Thomas Knox, James McLaughlln, Michael Maloney. The explosion occurred in the pressroom of the Hagley, or lower yard, works. A car load of powder that waa being wheeled into the room was accidentally overturned and the cat wheels running into the loose powder caused a friction that set the powder afire. The explosions quickly followed, all the powder that was In the pressroom going off in flve successive detonations. HOW MONEY WAS TAKEN, In Militia Will Rule. Washington, Dec. 12.—It is understood that a determination has been reached by the president not to send a commission to the Philippines to report the conditions and to submit a plan of a form of government, as was done in the case of Hawaii, but to place the Islands under combined military and civil authority, such as exists in Porto Rico. Spanluh Troops mutiny, Madrid, Dec. 12.—Gen. Rlos, governor of the Visaya islands, cables that the troops at Minas rebelled anil that six of the soldiers had been shot. A similar rebellion at Tumbac was also suppressed, eight of the troops there being shot. The garrison at Bilbao has also revolted. Gen. Rios is shipping reinforcements to that place. Pope ou Americun Catholic*, Rome, Dec. 12.—It is announced that the pope will shortly cause to be published the text of the letter addressed to Cardinal Gibbons at Baltimore, which is believed to contain his holiness' full approbation of the political conduct of the Catholic church In America^ Have Landed In Cuba. Havana, Dec. 12.—The Two Hundred and Second New York regiment, under Gen. Davies, numbering 1,500 men, arrived here Friday morning. The men are all in good condition and have greatly Impressed tho Havanese by their military appearance. A (idi I loa to l''vcnch Navy. Paris, Dec. 12.—M. Lockroy, minister of marine, has ordered the construction of six submarine boats, at a cost of 000,000 francs each. They will be completed in 1000. The type adopted la La'jeuf'B Narval. Will T«Ke TroopH to Miinllu. Washington, Dec. 12.—The war department has in contemplation the use of the two big transports now being fitted out at Cramps' for the conveyance of troops on the Pacific service. It is probable that when they have served their purpose in conveying the permanent garrisons to Cuba they will be dispatched to Manila by way of the Suez canal. In such case they will take several thousand regulars to replace the volunteers there. llryaii Will Oo to Uulm. Lincoln, Neb., Dec. 12.—Advices from Congressman Stark, Gov. Holcomb's military representative at Washington, say that Col. Bryan's regiment will in all probability go to Cuba and will be among the last volunteers to be mustered out. There \K no longer any talk at Col. Bryan's home of his resigning his commission, and efforts are being made by his Nebraska friends, as well as those at Washington, to have him made a brigadier general. Illume In Theater IJlsaHter. Detroit, Mich., Dec. 12.—The coroner's investigation of the cause of the collapse of the roof of the Wonderland theater, by which a dozen lives were lost, returned a verdict to the effect that too heavy a weight was placed upon the roof. Responsibility for the disaster is placed upon the firm of John Scott & Co., architects of the building. Karl Honker Gold Seven Years. San Francisco, Cal., Dec. 12.—Karl Decker, known to the police all over the country as the prince of forgers, was sentenced to serve Haven years In San Quentln for defrauding the Nevada bank of this city out of over $20,000 by means of a raised check, which he and three others presented to the bank for payment. Kent- Leaven Ills lll'liuy; Pinna. Carliriville, 111., Dec. 12.—Will Kent is known to have left his hiding place, and Is believed to have gone to New York. The sheriff received authentic news of the exit Friday and did not make an investigation. The letter mailed on a train has been compared with others and is known to be his Cattle Dylin? of Strange WinCim*. Moweaqua, 111., Dec. 12,—J. B. Lanta of Ridge township reports that a large number of cattle are dying with a peculiar disease that affects their hind legs and stiffens them. Ho thinks it is caused by eating rotten corn in, tho fields. . (Jon. Uurcla in I Jolt or. Washington, Dec. 12.—Gon. Garcla's condition is reported to be much proved, Flour Mills Noon to Combine. Cleveland, O., Dec. 12.—In an Interview here Clement B. Stern of the Atlas flour-mills of Milwaukee stated that he expected the big flour combination would be in operation shortly. The combine will have a capitalization of $30,000,000. A syndicate of English and American capitalists has been negotiating with tho owners of the mills looking to tho formation of a trust for some time past. Coal Mlnori*' Btrllce Not Mltely. Brazil, Incl., Dec, 12.—A committee of block-coal operators and a miners' committee held a secret session here Friday, discussing tho mining situation In this district and adjusting the grovances that exist. After tho conference a prominent operator said ho was of the opinion that the talked-of strike to take effect tho first of next month, would not materialize. Will !>!(; tar Galil 111 Ohio. Toledo, O., Dec. 12.—A company has been organized to develop a vein o£ gold discovered in Auburndale by a workman who was digging a sewer. The discovery has caused some excitement here, and an assay of the flnd shows the vein to bo richer than some Colorado mines, yielding $500 a ton. Ueohel'H Ohlof Clerk on tho Stumi Omaha Kmbexxlomcnt CIIHO. ' Omaha, Dec. 12.—Andrew J. Hunt was put on tho stand by tho state In tho Bechcl embezzlement case Friday. Hunt was Auditor Bechol's chief clerk and was arrested with Bechel, but was permitted to turn state's evidence. His testimony referred mainly to the manner In which ho had covered up by fictitious credit vouchers tho amounts that he had paid Bechel aside from his salary. The witness said that in 1895 he had naked Bechel what lie should do with the expense envelopes, us Bechel had drawn on him, and was told to charge them to the refund account. Tho effect of this was to reduce the earnings of the company by tho amounts charged off". Hunt also declared certain credit let- tors were raised under Instructions from Bechel. liig Coal Uoelc SU11 Ablaze. .Superior, Wls., Dec. 12.—The fire In the Lehlgh dock coal piles is- burning more fiercely than ever, and a section of about 300 feet now seems doomed. A dozen streams -of water have been poured over the burning pile all day, but they apparently have no further effect than to add to the thickness of tho crust of Ice. The dock has. been cut through in one place anil the fire can be stopped there, but great damage will be done if the fiames run to this point'. Will Heport on Army Camps. Washington, Dec. 12.—Surgeon-General Sternberg has Issued a detailed letter of instruction to Col. Charles R. Greenleaf, who has started for Savannah on a general tour of the large winter camps In the south. The inspection is Intended to guard against a repetition of the evils arising from defective food, quarters or medical attendance, such as gave rise to criticism of the department during and after the Spanish war. CoiuinlMlons Are Far Apart. Washington, Doc. 12.—The meeting of tho Canadian joint high commission at the Arlington Friday was followed by a long session of the Canadian commissioners at their own quarters. It is now stated that owing to tho unsettled condition of the commission's work it is impossible to say positively whether or not the commission will adjourn over for the holidays. lillz/.urd lu Texan. Dallas, Tex,, Dec. 32.—Tho snovv^ storm and blizzard here is the worst experienced In Texas in many years. The snow is four inches deep on the level. Farther north and In the Panhandle It Is much deeper. All railway trains are from one to six hours late. The storm extends practically all over tho state. Italy's 1'rotcst Hucuegiful, Rome, Dec. 12.—Tho sultan of Morocco has complied with the demands of the Italian government regarding the detention and Ill-treatment of Italian proteges, and the Italian cruiser which was sent to Tangier to receive the sultan's answer to Italy's ultimatum has sailed for Brindisl. O.UH.Y SubpoenaoH Wuuumuker. Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 12.—Counsel for Senator Quay in the conspiracy charges, for which he is to be tried next week, have subpoenaed ex-Common Pleas Judge James G. Gordon and ex-Postmaster-General John Wuna- mnker as witnesses for the defense. Keport ou Ollelilguu Wheat. Lansing, Mich., Dec. 12.— The ofliclal crop report makes a wonderful showing for Michigan wheat, its condition Dec. 1 being reported at 100 per cent. The crop had made an unusual fall growth, but was looking yellow when the snow came. , In »a Indiana Towu. Seymour, Ind., Dec. 12.— The second disastrous fire within a month visited Browuatowu Thursday night, destroying the IJetUou hjpck and a building owned by Mrs. Clara Stillwell. loss is ?20,OOQ, The A Friend to France. Paris, Dec. 12.—King Menelek has assented to the establishment of a French college at Addis Abebba, Abys- siauja. France hopes thus to counter;' act the influence of Lord Kitchener's English university at Khartoum. nicKlnley Hun Accepted. • Montgomery, Ala., Dec. 12.—President McKinley has wired Gov. Johnston that he will accept tho Invitation of the general assembly and will be the guest of the luwmaking bodies in this city Dec. 1?. Urout Storm In Houthweat. St. Louis, Dec. 12.—From the southwest, the south and the west come reports of tho worst snowstorm which has visited those sections for years, and It IB feared that much damage has been done. Peace ApentH Coming Homo. London, Dec, 10,—The members of the American peace commission are blocked to sail from Southampton for New York on board the American line steamship St. Louis on Deo, 17. McJSluley Ooluif to Cybn. New York, Pec. 12.—The Tribune's Washington special Bays: "There is a report that the president intends to, vlatt Cuba and Porto Rico at the first favorable opportunity,"
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