OTP$K DES MOIKES: ALGONA, IOWA, WEDNESDAY, JTJNE 8, 1898. SMOKELESS POWDER, CORDITE THE MOST POTENT EXPLOSIVE OF MODERN TIMES. It Is Composed of NltroKlyecrin, Otin Cotton and Vaseline—The Intcrnuting Proc- CM by Which Its Danjrerong Elements Are Combined. Since tho advent of the speedy torpedo boat and since rapid firing guns havo been placed on battleships and cruisers an explosive that would allow to the officers and gunners tin unobstructed view of an enemy nuder all conditions has been sought, and thousands of dollars have been expended in tho effort to obtain a satisfactory substitute for black gunpowder. Cordite, the latest explosive, is said to bo tho most satisfactory propellant of modern tiuu'.K for naval warfare, and the expert opinion seems to be that in a few years gunpowder as now understood will h;we vanished. The earliest records' of established powder mills show tlr.i! t hero was only one in operation in 155)0, this one being in England. During tho year 1787 tho Waltham Abbey Powder mills were purchased by the English government. They are still conducted by it. The Fa- versharn mills, which up to that date were tho largest in the world, passed into tho hands of a private corporation in 1815. The manufacture of powder was continued without much improvement, except in tho efficiency of the grinding and mixing machinery, until about 35 years ago, tho formula for black powder being saltpeter 75 parts, charcoal 15 parts and sulphur 10 parts, tho wholo forming a mechanical mixture and not a chemical compound. Smokeless powder, however, became absolutely a necessity, for tho reason that smoke producing powders masked tho object aimed at, and tho torpedo boat, which was becoming a recognized feature of naval warfare, could dash up and discharge one or more deadly missiles under cover of the smoke. Smokeless powders were first produced in Franco, and for some time tho secret of the manufacture was guarded jealously. As soon as the necessity for this kind of powder became apparent, however, a number of manufacturers devoted attention to it, and as a result various brands of smokeless explosives were placed on tho market. The most satisfactory results eventually made their appearance in cordite, which was produced through experiments made by i D rofossor Dewar and Sir Frederick Abel. Cordite is composed of uitroglycerin 58 per cent, gun cotton 87 per cent and vaseline 5 per cent Nitro- glyceriu is an oily, colorless liquid and. an active poison. It is produced by mixing a quantity of sulphuric acid with almost double tho amount of nitric acid, and allowing it to cool. About one- eighth of the total weight of glycerin is then added gradually, the mixture being kept below a temperature of 70 degrees F. by passing air and cold water through it. After tho mixture has stood a sufficient time the acids aro drawn off, and the residue (nitroglyceriu) is washed and filtered. Nitroglycerin cannot bo ignited easily by a flame, and a lighted match or taper plunged into it would bo extinguished. It is sensitive to friction or percussion, cither of which will detonate it. Another peculiarity is that tho higher the temperature tho more sensitive it becomes. It will solidify at a temperature of 40 degrees, and its explosive forco is estimated to bo about twolva times that of gunpowder. Quo of the most approved methods used in the manufacture of gim cotton is this: The raw cotton is torn into shreds, dried and dipped in a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acids. It is then placed in a stream of running water and washed thoroughly. The cotton is then wrung out, usually in a centrifugal machine. It is afterward boiled, dried, cut into pulp and pressed into disks. When tho gun cotton is finished, there should be no trace of the acids remaining. Vaseline, the other component part of cordite, is tho well known extract from petroleum, and its usefulness is chiefly to lubricate the bore of the guu and thus lessen the friction between it and the projectile. It also has a tendency to im part a waterproof nature to cordite. A colorless liquid prepared from acetate of lime, called acetone, is used as a solvent in the manufacture of cordite. The method of preparing the explosive is: Tho required proportion of uitro glycerin is poured over the guu cotton, and the two, with tho addition of acetone, are kneaded together into a stiff paste. Vaseline is then added, and the whole compound, after being thoroughly mixed, is put into a machine and thtt cordite pressed out and cut into lengths, after which it is dried. To the artillerist tho nature of cordite is represented by a fraction whose numerator gives in hundredth^ of an inch the diameter of the die through which the cordite has been pressed, its denominator being the length of the stick in inches. The cordite known as 80-12, which is the size used for tho 6 inch quick filing guns, signifies that its diameter is throe-tenths of an inch, and it is 18 inches long. It is necessary to use a flue grain powder to ignite a charge of cordite, it being secured in such a manner that a flash from the tube firing the gun will cause the explosion of the charge. A full charge of powder for a 1 a-inch* guu is 295 pounds, while the cordite charge, having the same efficiency, is only 167 pounds. Cordite is one of the safest explosives known, and is not dangerous unless it is confined. It can be held in the hand and lighted without danger. It burns slowly and with a bright ftame. Although comparatively a new discovery, it is used extensively in every navy throughout the world. It was mauufac tared first ia Great Britain and was in goueral use on her battleships before adopted by other powers.*-New York Bw- CUSTOMS OF CHRISTMAS. GiftmaklvROne of the Mont Gracious Features of the Season. "Giftmaking is one of the most gracious features of Christmas, and one that I pray may survive all other outgrown customs,'' writes Florence Hull 'Wintorburn in The Woman's Home Companion. "When love and sympathy aro close counselors, there is little fear that we shall make the mistake of leaving out of our little one's stocking the particular thing he has set his heart upon getting. And if his choice is beyond us to gratify, let us come aa near to it as we can, and not convert this season into a sort of convenience for ourselves, thrusting upon his reluctant acceptance such prosaic articles as shoes, hats and other essentials of tho toilet. Far prettier is the Gorman custom of bestowing gaudy trifles that have no use in themselves, but are part of the glitter and fashion of tho holiday. When it is possible, nothing is so good to havo as tho traditional Christmas tree, in after years memory hangs about it fondly, and wo bless in our hearts tho kind hands that took so much trouble to give us pleasure. "Then tho slocking hung up on Christinas eve has a romance all its own. The breakfast table dressed with holly berries and gifts piled under snowy napkins is a graceful custom and is far nicer than tho blunt handing out of our gifts. Some trouble should be taken to create tho welcome element of surprise. We all like it, but it is one of tho greatest delights in a child's experience. Ho finds out before wo would chooso to have him that what is looked forward to most eagerly seldom turns out well. It is sad philosophy, yet true, that it is dangerous to set one's heart on anything in this world. But tho lovo that hides its intention until tho hour of fulfillment and then lets out its secret in an outburst of generosity is tho best substitute that is ever offered for tho special Providence—Santa Claus, and nil other gracious myths. "An example of generosity is seldom lost upon children if it is true, not artificial. They uro very willing to live up to their little knowledge, if wo allow them tho chance, and part of our duty to tho day is to encourage in our young people tho same kindliness wo cultivate in ourselves. It is so much easier to learn in youth to bo genial, sympathetic and generous than it is after embittering experiences havo hardened our hearts." SCOTT'S DEAREST WISH. Frustrated by tlie Fatality Attending tlio Boys Who ISoro His Kiuue. It was Sir Walter Scott's dearest •wish to found a house which should carry on tho traditions of his great ancestors, who were cadets of tho Scotts of Hardou, uow represented by Baron Polwarth. Scott roared Abbotsford at enormous cost, but there his work began and ended. His eldest son, who sue ceeded to the baronetcy, survived him only 15 years and died in 1847, unmarried, at tho Capo, and so tho baronetcy became extinct. His second sou died at furoff Teheran, also unmarried. So the name of Scott was left to his daughter Charlotte, who married Lockhart, tho biographer of Sir Walter. Her sou, Walter Scott Lockhart, adopted the name of Scott, but, with all tho extraordinary fatality that had overcome his uncles, he, too, died unmarried at the ago of 20, and so the estate passed to his sister Charlotte, who married ,T. E. Hope, Q. C., a member of tho Hopetouu family, and lie, of course, adopted tho name Scott. They hud three children, but their only son died in childhood, and once attain a woman came to rule. This was Mary Monica. In 1874 she married Hon. Joseph Constable-Maxwell, third sou of Lord Herries, who, as a matter of course, adopted the name Scott. They havo had six children, the oldest of whom, Wai tor Joseph Maxwell-Scott, born in 1875, is in the army. He has two brothers and two sisters living. Mary Josephine, who is married, was bom in 1870. Thus it will be seen that tho present generation of Scotts have been in turn Look- harts, Hopoii and Maxwells. These are all excellent names, with honorable histories behind them, and yet, in stricl genealogical sequence, tho present generation is very far removed from the author of "Waverloy."—London Sketch. Why Birds' Eggs Are Colored. The why and wherefore of the color: of birds' eggs have been a favorite theme for speculation, from the quaint surmis- iugs of Sir Thomas Browne to tho solemn guess work of Shufeldt, in his ten "biological jws explanatory of tho variation in color of the shells of tho eggs in class aves." Hewitsou piously concludes that the beauty of these elegant and often exquisitely attractive objects is intended for the delight of human eyes; hence, as ho says, eggs simply white are put out of sight in holes. Ho also sees in tho larger number of eggs laid by game birds a' provision by a benevolent providence for the joy ol the sportsman and tho delectation oi the epicure. Next comes a man who assures us that the colors of eggs are due toithe influence of their respective surroundings on the imagination of the hen birds—tho old story of Jacob's little trick on Laban in the matter oj young cattle. This school instances as au example the red blotches prevaleni ou the eggs of falcons, regarded by it as n record of the bloody experiences oi tho parents, but it does not explain why the equally rapacious owls produce pure white eggs or the bloodthirsty skuas and shrikes lay greenish oues.<—Eruesl Ingersoll in Harper's Magazine. The Retort. Here is a retort whyjh a "dull student" once made: Professor—You sooia to be very dull, When Alexander the Great was your age, he had already conquered the world. Student—Welli you see, he had Aristotle foy a teacher.— Chambers' Journal. Grunt and General Grant had as ranch to do •with Longstreet's becoming a Bepublic- an as any one else. They had been schoolmates at West Point, had been graduated the same year and received iheir commissions at the same time. They fought among the cactus bushes of VIexico and had drunk mescal from the same jng a thousand times. It was at Jefferson Barracks, near St. Louis, that Liongsrreet introduced his cousin, Miss Julia Dent, to Grant, and it was Long- itreet himself who told tho young lady of tho worth of his friend. They were married, and the Georgian was at tho wedding. When they next saw each other, it was at Appomnttox. After the formalities of tho surrender were over Gteneral Grant took General Longstreet to olio side and said: "Julia wants to see yon. Go homo and see your family and then come to BCO mo, won't you?" Longstreet promised, and ho kept his word. "When General Grant became president, ho asked for his advice and begged that his former adversary now bo one of his advisers. General Grant never had a truer friend during his administration. They knew each other. When the tragedy took place at .Mount McGregor, Lougstrcet suffered as if it were tho loss of a brother. Ho has often visited the tomb on tho Hudson and has laid the gentlest tribute of a friend upon tho marble.—Chicago Times-Herald. Tho Ground IH Alive. Wo aro so used to thinking of tho soil as mere mineral matter that it comes quite as a shock to find this is a mistake. As a matter of fact, the layer of soft mold which clothes tho ground in all cultivable districts and from which vegetation springs is actually in great part a living layer of tiny plants and animals. Interlncing threads of molds and fungi, worms and grubs, creeping insects, tiny root parasites, decaying leaves and tho millions of bacteria which spring from them—all these aro mixed and mingled together for many inches down below our feet in u. confused mass of life. Germs of all sorts swarm in countless millions. Indeed, all tho plants that grow and life that exists on tho faco of the earth owe their being to tho fact that tho ground is alive. You take a shovelful oi tho finest soil in tho world and sterilize it—that is, beat it till all tho life in it is destroyed—and then plant seeds in it. No amount of care or watering will make those seeds grow. Their life depends on tho life in tho soil around them. —London Answers. Glasgow's Family Hornet*. Among the many now things started by the Glasgow corporation is a "fain ily home." It is intended mainly for widowers and widows who go out to work. There are 100 bedrooms, each of which contains a good bed for tho father or mother and a broad cot for the younger children. For these rooms the parents pay 5s. Od. a week, and that sum includes the lighting, heating and cleaning of them. Clean linen is sup plied once a week. In tho home, also, there are dining, recreation and nursery rooms. The children are looked after and cared for while tho parents aro at work for an infinitesimal sum. The cooking, washing and bathing arrangements are excellent, and as the thing is done on a large scale and economically arranged the establishment is expeoter" to pay for itself. Glasgow benevolence is nothing if not practical, and this new home seems a most admirable institution.—St. James Gazette. The I'laco Vendomo In I'uria. The Paris correspondent of a London paper says that, though always stately and imposing, the Place Vendome is by no means a lively part of Paris. It ha? retained through long years the characteristics for which it was noted in the reign of tho grand monarque, Louis XIV, for whom it was planned and laid out. Of late a few good shops have appeared here and thero among tho houses on the place, and it is proposed to adc to tho number of these business establishments. Hence in a comparatively brief space of time the buildings arounc Napoleon's column will bo brilliantly diversified, and stately monotony will disappear. The Place Vcudome may ii a few years, or even less, be able to dis tauco tho Rue do la Paix as a locality for afternoon shopping, tea drinking and flirtation. His Iteasou. "Why is it," they nsked him, "tha you prefer gas to eleoiio light?" "In tho case of electric light," he said, looking at them in astonishment "it can usually be controlled by meant of a button or a spring on the wall with in easy reach.'' They admitted that he spoke truly, "That being so," ho went on, "i: you had over stood over a small bu pretty young woman who with upturn ed and anxious face was striving to reach the chandelier to light the ga you never would have to ask mo tht question you have seen fit to put. "•— Chicago Post. Easy. Cazabou of the Marseilles theater re lates that he learned in two hours am played the same evening tho part o Buridan in "La Tour cle Nesle." "Prodigious I" says a bystander "How could you ever do it?" "Ho, I just read, it carefully au( theu I tied a knot in my haudkorchio to remember it by."—Paris Figaro. The Turk was originally a Tartar with a nose as flat as that of the Hun, i receding chin and squint eyes, bu amalgamation with the nations he ha conquered has elevated his uose, straight eucd his eyes and brought his chin hit a prominence more becoming than, i was before. It is estimated thtit during the preseu century uo less than. 30,000,000 of civi lized xueu have perished iu war. The Wetmore Truss LADENDORFFS THIS TRUSS MUKDBRS Mel I WEAR TUB WBIMORE TRUSS A truss embodying the sym- icity and durability of all other irnsses, and yet unlike any of them. The most simple truss ever made. Is practically indestructible—wears forever. Made on strictly hygienic principles— 10 cumbersome springs to pass around the body. It gives perfect freedom of action without the slightest movc- nent of the truss. Does not take one-half the pressure to hold the rupture that the old styles take. Holds tho rupture easily, yut. llrnily and surely. It stays ,1nst. wliero It IH placed. Tho cheapest liiKli-Knulo trussyet produced. It Is absolutely guaranteed to lit and hold .he hernia with comfort, or money refunded. Don't buy liny other trusc before trying tills For sale and guaranteed by W. J. Studley, PHARMACIST, Boston Block, ALGONA, IA. Ice Cream Parlor And Lunch Room. Now located in old postoffice building, one door west of Jas. Taylor's. FURNITURE. Finest Stock iti the State. Best Quality, Most Artistic Lowest Prices. DRAPERIES. LATEST IMPORTATIONS in laces and muslins. Silks for portiers and draperies. Tapestry and rope curtains. CHASE & WEST, 712-714 Walnut Street. DES MOINES, IOWA. Refrigerators, Baby Carriages, Stoves, Carpets. The Jones Lever Binder Don't Do It. The policeman has an eye on you and might got you With a Club. We mean that you who have horses Hhnuld never let tliem KO into the warm weather without being clipped. WE CLIP HORSES >y machinery and do It properly and at right iriees. Your hovso will I hank you for roinov rig his long coat of hair for the summer. CHAS. J. BROWN. PROFESSIONAL. CLARKE & COHENOUR, ATTORNEYS AT LAW. Olllco over First National bank, Algoua, la. A Macliine ol Unparalleled Popularity. Sales of March, 1898, more than double those of March, 1897. E. H. CLARKE, ATTORNEY AT LAW. Collection agent. Jloston blocU, DANSON & BUTLER, LA W. LOANS. LAND. Collections a specialty. Olllco over Galbralth's. SULLIVAN & MeMAHON, ATTORN E YS A T L A W, Ofllce In Iloxio-l-'erguson bl jok. E. V. SWETT1NG, A TTON EY AT LA W, Algorm, lown. J. C. HAYMOND. Jl. I'. ItKlil). B. C. IIAYMQNU Raymond, Reed & Raymond, ATTORNEYS AT LAW, Ol'llco over TJiinlall'H store, Algonn, Iowa. FREDERICK M. CURT1SS, ATTORNEY AT LA W. Ol'tlce over Konsuth County State Hunk, Algona, Iowa, F. L. TR1BON, M. D,, Homeopathic. PHYSICIAN ANV SURGEON. Olllco and residences In tha Uoston Hlock. (lu the new block.) H. C. McCOY, M. D., PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON, Olllce at residence, McGregor street. PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON, Algona, Iowa. . TOISTE3S, ALGONA, IOWA. Bicycles Repaired, Lawn Mowers " E " A """' A!i " Sharpened, Saws Filed. J. L. EDMONDS, ALGONA, IOWA. Two Itnol-s ftolttll of u. D. M. olllce. Tas. ^-. Orr, Painter, Paper Hanger KALSOMINER, SIGN AND CARRIAGE PAINTER. Postal card orders will receive prompt attention. JAS. A. OKU. CLEAN, PURE- M. J. K.ENEFICK, PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON. Olllce and residence over Taylor's. H. D. SPENCER, M. D., PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON, Sexton, Iowa. DR. MARGARET E. COLES, Homeopathic Physician and Snryeon. Ofllce and residence hi liostou Uloek, ALGdNA, IOWA. E. S. GLASIER, D. D. S., SURGEON DENTIST. Otllce over the State Bank, Algona, Iowa. DENTIST. A. L. HIST, D. D, S, Local anaesthetic loi deadening pain ia gums wlwn extracting teeth. FLAX SEED Can bo obtained from tlio Algona Milling Co, M.P. IIAOGAHD. O. F. PEEK Haggard & Peek, [Successors to Jones & Smith.1 Abstracts, Real Estate, AN y Collections, ALGONA, IOWA. Don't take any chance on Abstracts of Title. My books are thoroughly complete. None but experienced abstractors have ever written a word In them. My work Is done by competent persons and Is guaranteed. Anything entrusted to mo will have prompt and careful attention. REAL ESTATE LOANS, FARMS AND WILD LANDS. C. C. SAMSON, Algona, Iowa. Opera House Block. One Hundred Dollars . Is offered to any person who can duplicate the WATER OR NO PAY, Artesian wen contractor. J. Have the only cable steam drilling machine owueu in the county; sink wells for water supply for towns, cities, and railroads. Special attention to farm well work, Kstimutes made. 1 employ .only expert drillers. Address A. F Palley, Algojia, Io\ya. L ,EG CIGAR FOR 5 CENTS. SCHU & WATERHOUSE, LOOK TO YOUR EYES. . 35". zvGF&av, OpthiUnilo Optician. The most miUoult cases of cMiare,n a specialty. Do youv eyes ache, smart, wato, hecoone tent optician, with the la.te« soleSti... . ol correcting »a gran'S o| I'ejyaptJlQa. ttpn alia, C^asaifettPft ftm. Omce over B. '
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