The Algona Upper Des Moines from Algona, Iowa on December 14, 1892 · Page 8
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The Algona Upper Des Moines from Algona, Iowa · Page 8

Algona, Iowa
Issue Date:
Wednesday, December 14, 1892
Page 8
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THE WFER DES M01NES, ALGONA..IOWA* WEDNESDAY. PflCEMBEH 144892 LAST1 MESSAGE fhe President .Reports to Con* gress 6ft the State of '""" the Union, President Harrison's last message tae not completed In time to be doliv* •r6d at the opening of G'ongress, but the document was read before that body it the beginning of tho second day's Mdnlnn The following Is the full text of the message: ' ; In BiiljinittluK myiannunl mcssngc to Conness, the message rends, I have great satisfaction in being able to say that the general conditions nffecthifrtlio commercial ami industrial Interests of the United States are in the high•it degree favorable. A comparison of the {Slating conditions with those ot the most Uvovcd period in the history of the country Will. Pbelleve, show that so hish a degree of prosperity and so general a diffusion of the tomforts of life were never before enjoyed by gur people. The totnl wenltli of tho country PRESIDENT HAUBIflON. In I860 was $lfl,ir,<j,er.),OGH; In is«o it amounted to $62,610,000,000, an increase of 287 per cent. The total mileage of railways in the United Btates In 1800 was 30,080; in IHUO It wan ]07,741, an increase ot 448 percent.; and it is estimated that there will be about 4,000 miles of track added by the close of the year 1892. The official -returns of tho eleventh census »nd those o£ the tenth census for seventy-five leading cities furnish tho basis for the following comparisons: In 18SI) the capital invested in manufacturing was $1,232,832,070. In 18% the capital no in- Tested wasr $2,000,7H5.8H4. In 1880 the number of employes was l.aoi.jws; in 1830, 2,201,134. In 1880 the wages earned were $601,905,778; in 1890, |l,22l,17|),4fi4. In 1880 tho value of the product Was $2,711,079,891); in 1890, $4,8GO,28li,8a7. I am informed by the Superintendent of the census that tho omission of certain industries in 1880 which were Included in 181)0, accounts In part for the remarkable increase thus •Jhown. 13ut, after making full allowances Jor differences of method and deducting the returns for all industries not included in the census of 1^80. there remain in the reports from the seventy-five cities, an increase in the capital employed of $l,522,74n,rA)i; in tho value ol the product ot $2,024,230,11)0; in wages earned of $677,H4a,9i9, and in the number of wage earners employed of 850,029. The wage earnings not only show an increased aggregate, but an increase per capita from Jilsu in 1880 to $047 in 1890, 41.71 per cent. The new industrial plants established since Oct. 0, 1890, and up to Oct. 22, 1892, as partially reported in the American Economist, numbei 845, and the extension of existing plants, 108; the new capital invested amounts to J40,44',l,050, and the number of additional employes to H7.48S. The Textile World for July, 1892, states that during the first six months of the present calendar 135 new factories were built, of which forty me cotton mills, forty-eight knitting mills, twenty-six woolen inlll.s, fifteen silk mills, four plush mills, and two linen mills. Of the forty ootton mills twenty-one havt been built in the Southern Btates. A. 11. flhepperson, of tho New York Ootton Exchange, estimates the number of working spindles in the United States on Sept. 1.1892, at 10,200.000, an increase of 600,000 over the year oC 18iU. The consumption of cotton by American mills in 1K91 was 2,a'.)0,ouu bales, and in 1W.)2, 2,r>84,(xiO bales, an increase of 188,000 bales. Krom the year isr.0 to iw)2 inclusive, there has been an increase in the consumption of cotton in Europe of ii'J v>cr cent., while during the same period the increased consumption In the United States has beeu about loo per cent. Tin Flute iMaiiufiicture.s, The report of Ira Aver, Special Agent of the treaimry .Department, uliows that at the ilate of Sept. mi, 18U2, ll'ere were thirty-two companies manufacturing tin wirt terne plate in the United States and fuuiteou companies building new works for such manufacture. The estimated investment in buildings and plants at the close of the h'soul year, June 30, l&fit, It existing ooudittons vvne to 1m continued, was $s,ooo,0ii{), and the estimated rate of production 200,000,000 pounds per annum. The actual woductiou for the quarter ending Sept. 80, 18111 Vlls lll,H62,125 pounds. Duniv' the last six months of the year 1891 and the first six months of the year iwi'i tho total production of pig iron was 9,710,mil L»ns, as agninst n,20'j,70'J tons in the year IR'JU, which was the largest annual production ever attained. For the same twelve • months of 1891'82 tl.e produotionof ttessemer ingots wai 8.878,f.;i tons, an increase of 189,710 gross tons over the previously unprecedented yearly production of 3,088,871 gross tons in 18UO. The production of Bessemer steel rails for the first six mouths of 1892 was 772,430 gross tons, as against 702,080 gross tons during tho last six mouths of the year is'.il. The total value of our foreign trade (exports and manufactures) during the last fiscal year was $1,807,080,010, an increase oC Ji28,288,coi over the previous fiscal year, The average annual value of our imports and exports of merchandise for the ten lineal years prior to 1891 was $1,407,322,019. It will be observed that our foreign trade for 1892 exceeded this annual average value by J400,358,091, an Increase of 27,47 per cent. The significance and value of this increase are shown by the fact that the excess in the trade of 1892 over 1891 was wholly In the value of exports, for there was a decrease in the value of imports of $17,Oi:f,7(H. The value of oiu exports during the fiscal year 1892, reached the highest figure in the history of the government, amounting to £1,030,873,148, exceeding by $145,797,338 the exports of 1891," and exceeding tho value of tho imports by $202,878,080. A comparison of the value of our exports for 1892 with tho annual average for the ten years prior to I8SU shows an excess of $20.1,142,671, or of 34.0') per ceut. The value of our imports of merchandise for WM, which was Svj'.i,402,402, also exceeded the annual average value of the ten years prior to 1H91 by $135,215,940. During the fiscal year mi'}, tho value of imports tree of duty amounted to |467,«!)!),M>8, the largest aggregate in the history of our commerce. The valuo of the imports of merchandise entered free of duty in i«92 wag CO.30 percent, ol' the total value of imports, as compared with 43.3" prr cent. In 1891 and 33.06 Vel cent, in l.v*i JttfoBperous Nation. Another indication of the general prosperity •of the country is found in the fact that tho number of depositors in savings banks increased from 693,870 in 1800 to t.aas.wia iu 1890. an increase of 513 per cent., and the amount of deposits from $14!>,277,£04 in 1800 to $1.K!4,844,find In 1890, an increase of «2l per cent, in 1891 the amount of deposita in savings banks waa fl,02;j,o79,719. It is estimated that 9u per cent. of these deposits represent the sayings ol wage-earners. Tho bank clearances for nine mouths ending Sept. so, 1891, amounted to i'-ll,- 019,390,808. For the same mouth in 1892, they amounted to $40,189,001,1)47, uu uxccss lor the nine mouths of ft,140,211,139. There never lias been a time in our history wheu work was so abundant or when w so high, whether measured by the tency in >vh1ch they .art paid or by their power to supply the necessaries and comforts of life, ft is true that tho market prices of cotton and wheat have been low. It la one of the unfavorable Incidents of agriculture that the farmer cannot produce npon order. He must sow and reap In ignorance of the aggregate production of the year, fcnd IB peculiarly subject to the depreciation which follow* over-production. But wWJe the fact I have stated .» true, us) to tlie crops mentlonctl, Hie «nii-ral average of prices has been such is to give to agriculture a fair participation In the general prosperity. The value of onr total farm products has increased from $1,- ;&!,<•w.afifi in 18CO to if4,!Mio,ooo,000 In IS'.il, ns es- MniLtcd by statisticians, an Increase of 230 per ••ent. 'I'he number of hops January l, 1891 ( WILI> w,fi-2S,ior>, and tlieir value $210,193,925; on iiiriunry l, isw'2, the number was 62,898,011), and the value .f2l1,ii:)l,415. On January 1, 18!)1, the nnmiier of cattle was 30,875,048, and the value if>M,I27,9U8; on January l,.18U2, the number-was :)7,<;nl,««), and the Value $570,749,155. I believe that the protective system, which now i'or something like thirty years has prevailed In our legislation, has been a mighty Instrument for the development of our national wealth nnd a most powerful agency In protecting the homes of on? workingmen from the invasion of want. J have folt a most solicitous Interest to preserve to our working people rates of wages that would not only give dally bread but supply a comfortable margin tor those home attractions and family uomforts nnd enjoyment without which life Is neither hopeful nor sweet. They are Ameri- eim citizens—a part of the great people for whom our constitution and government were framed nnd Instituted—audit cannot be n perversion of that constitution to no legislate as to preserve in their homes the comfort. Independence, loyalty, and sense of Interest iu the government which are essential to good citizenship in peace, and which will bring this stalwart throng, as in IBlil, to the defense oJ the flag when it is assailed. Hesultg of tho Election. It Is not n.y purpose to renew here the argument in favor of a protective tariff. The result of the recent election must be accepted as having Introduced a new policy. We must assume that tho present tariff, constructed upon the lines of protection, is to be repealed, and that there Is to be substituted for it a tariff low constructed solely with reference to revenue; that the duty is to be higher not because the Increase will keep open an American mill, or keep up the wages of an American workman, but that In every case suoh a rate of duty is to be Imposed as will bring to the Treasury of the United States the largest returns of revenue. The contention has not been between schedules, but between principles, and- It would be offensive to suggest thnt the prevailing party will not carry Into effect the pledges given to the people. The tariff bills passed by the House of Representatives at Its last session were, as I supposed, oven in the opinion of their promoters, inadequate, and justified only by the fact that the Senate and House of Representatives were not In accord, and that a general revision could not, therefore, be undertaken. I recommend that the whole subject of tariff revision be left to the in-coming Congress. It is a matter of regret that this work must be delayed for at least three months; for the threat of great tariff changes introduces so much uncertainty that nu amount, not easily estimated, of business inaction and of diminished production will necessarily result. It is possible, also, that this uncertainty may result In decreased revenues from customs duties, for our merchants will inake cautious orders for foreign goods in view of the prospect of tariff reduction and the uncertainty as to when they will take effect. Those who have advocated a protective tariff can well afford to have their diMiist.roiiH foroaets of a change of policy disappointed. If a system of customs duties can be framed that will set the idle wheels and loom« ot Europe in motion and crowd our warehouses with foreign made goods, and at the same time keep our own mills busy; that will give us an increased participation in the "markets of the world" of greater value than the home market ws surrender; that will give increased work to foreign workmen upon products to be consumed by our people without diminishing the amount of work to be done here; that will enable the American manufacturer to pay to his workmen from W) to a 100 per cent, more in wagea than is paid in the foreign mill and yet to compete in our market and in foreign markets with the foreign producers; thnt will further reduce "the cost of articles of wear and food without reducing the wages of those who produce them; that can be celebrated, after its effects have been realized, as its expectation has been, in European as well as in American cities, the authors aud promoters will be entitled to tho highest praise. We have had in our history several expeiiencea of the contrasted «ffect of a revenue and of a protective tariff, but this generation has not felt them, and tho experience is not highly instructive to the next. The friends of the'pnj- tectlvo system with undiminished confidence In the principles they have advocated, will await the results of the new experiment. Effects of tabor. Strikes. The strained and too often disturbed relations existing between the employers and the employes in our great manufacturing establishments have not been favorable to a calm consideration by the wage earner of the effect upon wages of the protective system. The facts that his wages were the highest paid in like callings in the world, and that a maintenance of this rate of wages, in the absence of protective duties upon the product of his labor, was impossible, were obscured by the passion evoked by these contests. He may now be able to review the queBtiou iu the light' of his personal experience under the operation of a tariff for revenue only. Jf that experience shall demonstrate that f.he present rate of wages are thereby maintained or increased, cither absolutely BO or in their purchasing power, and that the aggregate volume of work to be done in this country is increased, or even maintained, so that there are more or as many days' work in a year at good or better wages for the American workmen as has been the case under the protective system, every out; will rejoice. A general process of wage reduction cannot be contemplated by any patriotic citizen without the greatest apprehension. It may be—in- dee J, 1 believe, is—possible for the American manufacturer to compete successfully with his foreign rival in inuny branches of production without tlie defense of protective duties il the pay-rolls are equalized; hut the eonlliet that stands between tho producer and that result and the ilintress of our working peo;i;e when it Js attained are not pleasant to contemplate. IMO ol' Uajiui-lmoiit KoporU. The reports of the heada of the several executive dcitiartmeuts which are herewith sub- mittfi'l huve very naturally included a resume of the whole work of thn administration with the traiifnctioua of the last fiscal year. The atto'.'i ion not onlyof Congress but of the country if. t'f/ain invited to the methods of administration which have been pursued and to the results which have been attained. Public revenues amounting to $l,4U,in c .v>'j'2.2!j have been collected and disbursed without loss from mis- apprn elation, without a single defalcation of such .mportanoe as to attract the public at- tent'.f n, and at a diminished per cent, of cost for collection. The public business has been transacted not only with fidelity but progressively, and with a view to giving to the people in the fullest possible degree the benefits of a service established and maintained for their protection and comfort. Our relations with other nations aro now undisturbed by any serious controversy. The complicated and threatening differences with Germany and Kngltmd relating to Samoan affairs, with England In relation to the seal fisheries in the Behriug sea, and with Chili, growing out of the Baltimore affair, have been adjusted. There have been negotiated and concluded, under section a of the tariff law, commercial agreements relating to reciprocal trade with the following countries: lirazil, Dominican Republic, Spciiu (for Cuba' and Puerto itico), Guatemala, Salvador, the German empire, Great Britain (for certain West Indian colonies and British Guiana), Nicaragua, Honduras, and Austro-ilungary. Of these those with Guatemala, Salvador, the German Umpire, Great Britain, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Austria-Hungary have been concluded since my lant annual message. Under these trade arrangements, a free favored admission has been secured in every case for an important list o£ American products. Especial care lias been taken to secure markets I'or farm products, in order to relieve that great underlying industry of the depression which the lack of uu iidor quato foreign market for our surplus often brings. An opening haa also been made for manufactured products that will undoubtedly, if this policy Is maintained, greatly augment our export trade. The full benefits of these arrangements cannot be realized instantly. Now Hues of trade are to be onuucil; tho commercial traveler must survey the iields; the manufacturer must adapt his goods to tho new markets, iiii-.l facilities for exchange must be cstabUsln <l. ""is Itulirlug Sea Arbitration, i |A trcuty providing for tho arbitration oC tho dispute between Great Britain and tlio States as to the killing of seals in tho Bchriug Sea was concluded on the '2i)th of February luat. TblB-fcOUity w&s aueo/mpjm.ied bj an agreement prohibiting pelagic scaling petfaing nie arbitration, and a vigorous effort was made during this season to drive out all poaching sealers from the Bchrlug Sea. borne seizures were made and it la believed that the catch iu the Bchrlng- Boa by poachers amounted to less tlinu-nob seals. It is true, however, that iu the north Pacific, while tho seal herds were on their way to the passes between tho Aleutian IsJimd very wife number, pjobubly «6,«X>. were ' ' The existing statutes ot the United States do not restrain our citizens from taking seals in the Pacific Ocean, and perhaps shonld not, nn- le*s the prohibition can be extended to the citizens of other nations. I recommend that power be 'given to the President by' proclamation to prohibit the taking df seals in the north Pacific by American vessels in ctwse, either as the result of the findings -of the tribunal of arbitration or otherwise, the restraints can be applied to the vessels of all countries. '» Commercial Relations with Canada. 'During the past year a suggestion was received through the British Minister that the Canadian Government would like to confer as to the possibility of enlarging upon terms of mutual advantages, the commercial exchanges of Canada and of the United Btates, and a conference was held at Washington, with Mr. Blaine acting for the Government, and the British Minister at this capital, and three members of the -Dominion Cabinet acting al commissioners on the part of Great Britain. The conference developed the fact that the Canadian Government was only prepared to offer to the United States in exchange for the concessions asked the admission of natural products. The statement was frankly made that favored rates could not be given to the United States as against the mother country. This admission, which was foreseen, necessarily terminated the conference upon this question . The benefits ot an exchange of natural products would be almo.-)t wholly with the people of Canada. Some other 'topics of interest were considered in the conference, and hove .resulted in the making of a convention for examining the Alaskan boundary and the waters of the Passamaquoddy .) 'ay, adjacent to Eastport, Me., and in the Initiation of an arrangement for the protection offish life iri the I coterminous and neighboring waters of our northern border. Tho controversy as to the tolls npon the Welland Canal, which was presented to Congress at the last session by special message, having failed of adjustment, I felt constrained to exexcise the power conferred by the act of July 20, 1892, and to proclaim a suspension of the free use of St. Mary's Kails Canal to cargoes in transit to ports iu Canada, The Secretary of the Treasury established suoh tolls as were thought to be equivalent to the exactiotri unjustly l^-icd upon ov.r r.-onmierco in tho ..... inn c- of OaHWftanatne of Canadian Government are to remain unchanged, a somewhat radical revision of oui' trade relations should, I think, be made. Our relo- . tions must continue to be Intimate, and they j should be friendly. I regret to say, however, , that in many of the controveisies, notably as those to the fisheries on the Atlantic, the seal- Ing • interests on the Pacific, and ; the canal tolls, your negotiations with Great Britain have continuously been thwarted or retarded by unreasonable and unfriendly objections and protests from Canada. Iu the matter of the canal tolls our treaty rights were flagrantly disregarded. It is hardly too much to say that the Canadian Pacific and other railway lines which parallel our northern boundary are sustained by commerce having either its origin or terminus, or both, in the United States. Canadian railroads compete with those of tho United States for our traffic, and without the restraints of onr interstate commerce act. Their cars „ pass almost without detention iuto and out of ' 5 alls U R? U U8 ',. nr S our territory. The Canadian Pacific Railway ' d ?eree the result of brought into the United States from China and Jnpan, via British Columbia, during the year ended Juno 3j, 1BU2, w,'jas,oso pounds of freight, and It.cairled from the United States to be I ohipped to China and Japan, via British Co| lumbia, 21,068,340 pounds of freight. . There tac extended pension legislation -n HP a public robbery, or that the duties upon sn«ar should bate been maintained, I am content to leave the argument where it now rests, while we wait to see whether these criticisms will take the forin of legislation.,, . . ;. The revenues for the fiscal year ending June BO, 18'Jii from all Sou'rcee were $126,808,260.22, and the expenditures for all purposes were $415,853,800.56, leaving a balance of S9,fll4j453i6fl. There was paid during the year npon the pub- He debt $40.570,467.38. The surplus in the treasury and bank redemption fund, passed by the act of July 14, 1890. to the general fund, furnished iri large part the cash available and used for the payments made upon the public debt. Compared with the year 1891, our receipts from customs rtnt.lfla fnll off Si" r " ! " - 1 ' 1 na wnue our receipts irom internal revenue increased from $8,284,828.13; leaving the net loss ot revenue from these principal sources, $33,784,417.95. The net loss .of reveiiue from all sources wa» '$32,075,972.51. The revenues, ps- limated and actual, for the fiscal year ending June 30,1893, are placed by the Sefcretary at $463.836,3Bp.4i. and the expenditures at $46i;836,- 860.44, showing a surplus of receipts over, ex- .pehditnres of 12,000,000. The cash balance in the treasury at the end of the fiscal year, it is estimated, will be $20,992,377.03. So far as these figures are based upon estimates of receipts and expenditures for the remaining months of the current fiscal year, there are not only the usual elements of uncertainty but some added elements. New revenue legislation, or even the expectation of it, may seriously reduce the public revenues 'during the period , of uncertainty 'and during the process of business adjustment to the hew ; conditious when they become known. But the Secretary has very Wisely refrained from guessing as to the effect of possible changes in our revenue laws, since the scope of those changes and the time of their taking effect can hot in any degree be forecast or foretold by him. His estimates must bo based upon existing laws and upon a continuance of existing business conditions, Except so far as these conditions may be affected by causes other than new legislation, The estimated receipts for the fiscal year ending June, 30,1894, are f490,121,(:6. : >.38, and the estimated appropriations $457,201,33.5.33. leaving an estimated surplus of receipts over the expenditures of $32,800,030.05. This does not include any payment to the sinking fund. In the recommendation of the Secretary that tho sinking fund law bo repealed I concur. The redemption of bonds since the passage of. tho. law to Jxine 30, 18«2, has already exceeded the requirements by the sum of $990,61o,fi81.49. The retirement of bonds in the future before maturity should be a matter of convenience, not of compulsion. We should not collect revenue for that purpose, but only use any casual surplus. To the balance of $32,800,030.05 of receipts over expenditures for the year 189-1 should be added the estimated surplus at the beginning of the year, $20,992,377.03, and from this aggregate there must be deducted, as stated by the Secretary, about $44,000,000 of estimated unexpended appropriations, Sliver Purchases. .• The public confidence in the purpose and ability of the Government to maintain the parity of all our money issues, whether coin or paper, must remain unshtiken. .The demand for gold • in Europe, and the consequent in a considerable tho efforts of some of tho European governments to increase their gold reserves, aud these efforts should be met by appropriate legislation upon our part. The conditions that have created this drain of the treasury gold are in an important degree political and not commercial. In view of the fact that a general revision of pur revenue laws in the near future seems to probable, it would bo better that any 1 1U1UU1U, «4,UIX},O4U JJUULlUa Ul HClgHO. . XilCrQ i wore also slapped from the United States I over this road from Eastern ports of the United States Government to Pacific ports . - , •.,, . , . . —' during the same year I3,ur2,013 pounds of changes should be apart of that revision rather ' freight, and there were received over this road thl ™ of n t™ 1 ™™™' nnf.iirn. at the United States eastern ports from ports on the Pacific coast lS,293,i>l5 pounds of freight. Joseph Nimmo, Jr., former chief of the Bureau of Statistics, when before the Senate Select Committee on Relations with Canada, April 26, 1890, said that "the value of goods thus transported between different points in the United States across Canadian territory probably amounts to $100,000,000 a year." There is no dispoaition on the part ol the people or the Government of the United States to interfere in the smallest degree with the political relations of Canada. That question is wholly with her own people. It is time for us, however, to consider whether, if the present state of thiugH aud trend of things is '• to continue, our interchanges upon lines of , laud transportation should not bo put upon a i different basis, and our entire independence of I Canadian canals and of the St. .Lawrence as an outlet to the sea secured by the construction of an American canal around the : falls of Niagara and the opening of ship com; municatiou between the great lakes and one of , our own sea-ports. We.should not hesitate to -_ l avail ourselves of our great natural trade ad- | 000,000 for the taking of or injury to tho prop- j vantages. We should withdraw the support erty of persons claiming to bo loyal during the i which is given to the raiiroads and steamship war are now before that court for examination, lines of Canada by a traffic that properly be- When the others are added, the Indian depre- longs to us, and no longer furnish the earnings I dation claim and the French spolia- which lighten the otherwise crushing weight tion claims, an aggregate is reached of the enormous public subsidies that have i that is indeed startling. In the defense been given to them. The subject of the power I of these claims the Government is at of the treasury to deal with this matter with- a great disadvantage. The claimants have pro- out further legislation has been under consid- served their evidence, whereas the Govern- eration, but circumstances have postponed a ment has to send agents to rumage the field for conclusion. It is probable that a consideration ! what they can find. This difficulty is peculi- than of a temporary During the last fiscal year the Secretary purchased under the act of July 14,1890, 04,35.1,748 ounces of silver, and issued in payment there- for $51,106,468 in notes. The total purchases since the passage of the act have been 120,459,991 ounces, and the aggregate notes issued JllO,- 783,590. The average price paid for silver during the year was 04 cents per ounce, the highest price being S1.02-X July 1,1891, and the lowest 83 cents March 23,18S/2. in view of the fact that the monetary conference is now sitting, and that no conclusion has yet been readied, I Withhold any recommendation as to Uvinlntion npon Hits subject. -- .c . . _.. .., .ana o. _e . .cretary War that the army be reorganized, and that the number of frontier posts be decreased and troops concentrated at such points as posses* strategic advantages are indorsed by the President, aud the woclc of the Department of Justice is particularly commended. Court of olahtiH. The aggregate of claims pending against the Government in the Court of claims is onor- mous. Claims to the amount of nearly £400, of the propriety ot a modification or abrogation of the article of the treaty of Washington relating to tho transit of goods in bond is involved in any complete solution of the question. | The President proceeds to note the amicable adjustment of the controversy with the Chilian • Government over the Baltimore affair and tho ! payment by Chili of indemnity for the attack i upon American sailors in the streets of Valparaiso, and lie continues: 1 have eml°'ivored iu I every way to assure our sister republics of Central and South America that the United I Btates Government and its people have only ' arly great where the fact to be established is the disloyalty of the claimant during the war. If this great threat against our revenues is to have no other check certainly Congress should supply the dopartment of justice with appropriations sufficiently liberal to secure the oest legal talent in the defense of these claims, and to pursue its vague search for evidence effectively. Building Up uu American Marine. Referencing made to ... report of the Post- General, an Abstract of which hai the most friendly-disposition toward thorn all i alreauy been published. The policy yf con- I have believed, however, while holding tructiiig with American snips for the trans- these sentiments in the greatest sincerity, that ' portatlou of foreign mails has borne we must insist upon a just responsibility for i satisiaetory results. Under • the lavr any injuries inflicted upon our official repre- I ° 'uarch 3, 1891, contracts have been Bontutives ov ui>on our citizens. This issist- ' maclc ">' the Postmaster General for eleven ence, kindly and justly, but firmly made will ' mu " routes. Ihe expenditure involved by selves of .the concession made many years ago to this Government for a harbor and naval station at Pearl Uiver." Tho friendly act of this government, the message continues, in expressing to tho government of Italy its reprobatiqn and abhorrence of the lynching of Italian subjects in New Orleans by tho payment of 125,000 francs, $7,4o»,i)oo, have been built or uontiacted to be built iu American shipyards. The estimated tonnage of all stoumships required under existing contracts is inn,902 aud when tho full service required by these contracts is established there will be forty- one miiil. steamers under the American Hag, with the probability of further, necessary ad- or £21,31)0.90. was accepted by the King of Italy', ditlons in the Braziliaii aud Argentine service, •with every manifestation of gracious appro- '•• lne uoniraota recently let for transatlantic elation, and the incident has been highly^pro- ' serv'ue will result in the construction of five motive of mutual respect aud good-will. ships ot 10,000 toii« each, costing $9,1,00,01)0 or The message touches briefly npon the recent "o.owi.ouo, and will add, with the City of Xow " "" "nan border which afford- Yoi ' k al "J the City of i'aria, to which the Treas- au opportunity to show i m 'y Department w&s authorized by legislation the sister republic, and to ' at the last-session t,- give American registry, ; with Spain for the pro- 8eve11 °* " le swiftest vessels on the sea to our missionaries In the Caro- n . av <" reserve. The contracts made with the Isfactory termination of , lmes sailing to Central and South American ports have increased the frequency and shortened the time of the trips, added new ports of call and sustained some lines that otherwise would almost certainly have been withdrawn. The service to Buenos Ayres is the first to the Argentine republic under the American Hag. The neve th»s tms'process i'.a» yet reached a point with onr people that would sustain the policy •*/•* ... IV-. - ._.-.__« i l. -_* r 1l»«l,1 Arl *rn£ nfttrttt troubles on the Mexic: ed tliis Government an opportunity to show its good-will toward the sister republic, and to negotiations pending •-•-•- tection of American i line islands, a satisfactory termination of Whlbh is anticipated. I repeat with great earnestness the recommendation which I have made in several previous messages that prompt and adequate support bo given ,to the American company engaged in the construction of tho Nicaragua ship canal. It is impossible to overstate the -4,0*1 . T "• —value from every standpoint of this great en- service to Southampton Boulogne.and Antwerp terprise, and I hope that there may be time, ^!_. also ,., Iiew ',,,j lu ' :i J H tP be Jbegun with_tha even in this Congress, to give it an impetus that will insure tho ourly completion of the canal and secure to the United States its proper relation to it when comploted. The Brussels Conf'rrcnco. The Congress has been already advised that the invitations of this government for the assembling of an international monetary conference to consider the question of an enlarged Issue of silver was accepted by the nations to which they wore issued. I hove not doubted, and have taker, occasion to express that belief, as well in the invitations issued for this conference as In my public message, that the free coinage of silver upon an agreed international ratio would greatly promote the interests of our people and equally those of other nations. It is too early to predict what result may be accomplished by the coniereu •teamships City <«f New York and Olty Of Paris in February next. I earnestly urge a continuance of the policy inaugurated by this legislation, and that tho appropriations required to meet the obligations of the Government under the contracts may be made promptly, so that the lines that have entered Into these engagements may not be em- harVassed. AWiifItut aa t> Navjii x ower. After noting the increase in the American navy during.tho past year the President directs attention to tho improvement in naval construction, It is believed, he says, that a* the vesult <jf new procoses in the construction of armoi plate our later ships will be Clothed with defensive plates of higher resisting power than are found in any war vessel afloat. We were without torpedoes. Tests have boon made to ascertain tho relative eltlcieucy of different con'* " with our people tnas wumu auBiuuji *m [/«..«, Of remitting the oare of these disabled veterans to the inadequate agencies provided joy local laws. The parade on the 20th! oi last upon the streets of this tottchine and thrllllnwcpisodo. fin e c graoioni welcome extended to them by the District of Columbia, arid the npplnu!" that greet, ed their progress from tens of thonscnda ol people from all tao States did much to rcvlvn the recollections of the grand review, when these men, and many t housands of others How in their graves, were welcomed with grateful joy »s victors in a struggle in which the na« tional unity, honor, and wealth were all, at The Pacific .Railway*. , In my last annual message I called attention to the fact that some legislative action wa« necessary in order to protect the Interests oj tlft Government in Its relations with tho Union Pacific Bailway. Wo must donl with tho question as we find It nhd titkn that .course which will, underBxiotingconilit'ons, best secure th« Interests of the Umtc.t Si-tM. : ; Quarantine After reviewing the work of the A Department and Its bearings npon the export* Of provisions and brcadstulTs. the President takes up the subjsct of quarantine regulations, and says: Tho subject of quaranMnc regulation!), in- npeetlon and control' was bronght suddenly ^LU^mrtoau -o"'VwBBoih' inreo'too' witn onoioral Quarantine regulations should bo uniform at Jfll our ports. Under the Constitution they are plainly within tho exclusive Federal jurisdiction when and so far as Congress shall legislate. In inn opinion, tho whole subject should be token Into notional control and adequ.'itelpower glvon to tho executive to protect people against plnguo invasions. On the 1st of September last i approved regulations establishing a twenty-day rmariuitlne for all vessels bringing Immigrants from foreign ports. This order will bo continued In force. Some .loss aud suffering have resulted to passengers, but a duo care for tho homes of 'our people justifies in such cases the utmost precaution. Tkero Is danger thnt with the coming of spring cholera will appear and a liberal appropriation should be made at this session to enable our quarantine and port officers to exclude the deiidly phiguo. But the most careful and stringent quarantine regulations may not be sufficient absolutely to. exclude the dlse,iso. The progress of medical and sanitary nolence has boon such, however, that if approved precautions are taken at once to put all of our cities and towns In the best sanitary condition and a provision is mado for isolating any sporadic coses and for a, thorough disinfection, in epidemic can, I • am sure, be avoided. we are peculiarly subject in onr (Treat ports to the spread of infectious disease By reason of the fact thnt unrestricted iniml- rrotlon brings to us ort of European cities, in Ihe overcrowded steerrges ot groat steam- ihlps, la large number m persons whose surroundings make them' tho easy victims of the plague. This consideration, as well as those iffccting the political, moral, and Industrial interests of our country, li'ad mo to renew the luggestlon that admission to our country and ',o tho high privileges nf its citizenship shonld to moro restricted and more carefully guarded. We have, I think, a rislit and owe a duty to DUI- own people, and especially to our working Jeoplo, not only to ki-r-p out the vicious, the Ignorant, the eivil disturber, tho pauper, and (ho contract laborer, but to check the too great Sow of immigration now coming by further Imitations. The Worl.i's Fair. The report of the World's Columbian Expo- iltion has not heen submitted. That of the Board of Management of tha Government ox- ilbit has been rcoolrpd. nnd is herewith transmitted. The work of construction and of jreparatlon for the opening of the Exposition p May nest has progressed most satisfactori- y, and upon a scale of liberality and magnifl- jenoe that will worthily sustain tho honor of \he United States. . In reviewing the recommendation which I Save made in three preceding annual mos- (ages that Congress should legislate for tho protection of railroad employes against the langors incident to the old and inadequate nethods of braking and coupling cars which iro still in use upon freight business, I do so vith the hope that this Congress may take lotion on the subject. (iorrymmidors Considered. I have, in the three annual messages which t has oeen my duty to submit to Congress tailed attention to tho evils aud dangers con- tected with our election methods and practices an thsy aro related to the choice of offl- ler.s of the National Government. In my last tnnual message I endeavored to invoke serious /ttontion to the evils of unfair (pportionments for Congress. I cannot lloso this message without again call- ng attention to these gravo and ihreatenlng evils. I had hoped that it was >ossible to secure a non-partisan Inquiry by neons of a commission into evils the ex- ^tenae of which is known to all, nnd that int of this might grow legislation from vhioh ad thought of partisan advantage hould be eliminated, and only the higher bought appear of maintaining the recdom and purity of tho ballot, and the jquality of tho elector without the guar- jnty of which tjie government could (ever have been formed and without the ontlnuanco of which it cannot continue o exist in peaoo and prosperity. It Is jlme that mutual charges of unfairness md fraud between tho groat parties should ease and that the sincerity of those who pro. eon a desire for pure and honest elections hould he brought to tho test of their willing- less to free oui legislation and our election ttethols from everything that tends to impal' he public confidence in the announced re- ult. rhe necessity for nn inquiry and ior legislation by Congress npon this subject is mphasized by the fact that the tendency ol the fcgislation In some States in recent years has n KOino important particulars, been •way Irom and not toward free nnd fair lections and emml apportionments. Is it not Ime that we 'should come together on lie high piano of i.iui.dotisin while wo devise ^ethods that shall secure the right of every »an qualified by law to cast a freo ballot and vojjvery nuoh ballot ao, eaual vaiu* In,, .MU puuUi«iuli:cra umi In dirBotlne he poliuy of the government? Outrage.* )>y .Hobs. Lawlessness is not loss such, hut more There it usurps the functions of peace ollicors ml of the courts. The frequent lynching of olored people accused of crime is without tho accuse which has sometimes been urged by lobs for a failure to pursue tho appointed lethods for the punishment of crime that the ocusedhavoan undue influence over courts Buch acts are a reproach to the community There they occur, and so far an th«v , .-.n ho The is Still an tgly Confusion] at the" French i .,. Capital. '. Cavnot Said to H>ive ^refcc,hed, tei-soflal Prejudices too '-, Greatly. ,___.__._ What English People Tliink of President Harrison's , .'••:,. ' Message. rave discharge of thl 8 " duty' is worthy of peclal honor. No leasou needs to be BO ur- ently Improved upon our poople as this that .o wortJiy end or cause can be promoted by In Conclusion. This exhibit of tho work of the Executive •epartments is submitted to Congress and to ' aUb ' intho hope that * h «™ will be ,i! , e pund In it a due sense of responsibility and ft earnest purpose to maintain tho national onor and to promote the happiness and pros' erity o t all our people. And this brief oxhlb- I of the growth and prosperity of the country 'ill give us a level from which to note tho jorease or decadence that new legislative olioioa may bring to us. There Is no rea- on why tho national influence, power and ' to unite with us in this movement to secure the enlargement of the volume of money needed for the transaction of the business of the world. Fiscal Condition of the Government. The report of the Secretary of the Treasury will attract especial interest in view of the many misleading statements that have been made as to tho state of the public revenues. Three preliminary facts ahould not only la i — — — ——-i-- -,-,.. ~~, *,j v«w vui.ii i/iiu i\ reuco. if any temporary check or delay struotions. A torpedo has been adopted "and •onus,,1 believe that vorv soon eommer- the work oi cc ---i—— •-"-- •''• una now .reluctant ried on succc armor piercing shells and without constructed and equipped for the con- Btrucr.lou of them. We are now making what is believed to be a projectile superior to any before in use. A smokeless powder has been developed and a slow bum- ing powder for guus«of large caliber. The development of a naval militia, wfiioh has been organized in eight States aud brought into cordial and co-operative relation with tho navy 1? another important achievement, I rucom- , crosp.rity «hould not observe the sam ate. of Increase .that have • characterized lie past thirty years. We carry tho reat impulse and Increase of these yearn jto tho future. There is no reason wiry in •any lines of production wo should not «ur- ass all other nations as wo have already done i some. There aro no near frontiers to our ossililo development. Hetrogressiou w»ulri ) stated, but emphasized, before look- ^ another important achievement. I recom- iug into details: I'lrst, that the public nl , e , na BU(JU legislation and appropriations as debt has been reduced since March i, 1889, w "' encourage and develop this movement. |209,074,aon, and the annual interest sharge! ' Tho 1'uu.siou Ituronu. Mr^w-dX'^s SfeAT^ b ^s w ^^^^wa rw te ^t ft nl i 8 uu to Nov. l. ld'J2 W;j' J 5C4 17H 70 im pvi-nun nt P,»f0u up.oii rcpqit in tlie oecrotftry pub- f ita.^ ov^ toii'^n^tSriw ^KJ?&^^^SS^^^S^ ideut, tlie Indian Bureau's efforts for the atl- " nit of the Indians particularly eliciting dutiou. Tho 1'i'caiiieut expresses a it legislation will come which shall . tho administration • of Indian affairs , party strife, particularly iu the selection pf agents at the several resorvatipiis.. As to pensions, tlie President says' I adhere to tho views expressed in previous messages that the care of the disabled soldiers of the war of tUo reb&lUi'.u is a matter o< national the period from March 1, 1885, to March 1, 1889; and, third, that under the oj have been collected _.._ if the duty had boon maintained, has gone into the pockets of tho people, and not Into the public Treasury as before! If there aro any who still think that tho surplus should have been kept out of circulation by hoarding it iu the treasury, or deposited in favored banks without interest, while tU» Government continued to pay to these very banks interest upon ' JL - *—-*- ^—..-^-n—.»..- ii, a .j 0 _ ,.I?^y ?W' In the superstitions of the Mohainme- cliui the Mahdi occupies tho same place as the Christ to come In orthodox Judaism. It was tills superstition that that gave his power to the "Malull" who worked such havoc with the British troops In Upper lOgypt anil left Hiig- land the loss of a Gordon. It is now reported that tho Mahdl is momentarily expected to arrive in Persia and tho populace is in the greatest possible state of excitement In eouso(paeuce. The Mohammedan clergy fire urging the feeling on find it la thought probable that a general insurrection may do- veiopoal; any moment. Doc 1 . ; 7.—The Chronicle'* correspondent, says: The adver- tai'ies of the IVesulpnt assert tttat .'resident Carnot stretched his personal prejudices to an almost unconstitutional point, and that M. Urisson and j M. Pcrier were unduly imbcded iu | their efforts to 'form a ministry.' A Presidential crisis is by no means"an i unlucky contingency if the present •onfusion continues. | The Paris correspondent of the Daily i News says the new ministers are both honorably known. Mr. Siegfried is an Alsacian, who made a fortune in cotton. Although he desires to stand well with the Melinites, he is really a much less pronounced protectionist. As a whole the ministry is highly respectable, with a Premier of great personal distinction. Mr. Bourgeois'" is disposed to co-operate to tho fullest extent with M. Brissbn in the exposure of the Panama canal scandal. The Paris correspondent of the Times says: The new Minister is a better result than.could have been expected from the harassing muddle. The join-: >ng of the premiership with the foreign portfolio is not a happy idea, for! j '.he foreign office ought to be as stable : as possible and not placed at the mercy of a fidgety chamber. The removal of M. Bourgeois from the Ministry ol Public Worship must be a concession to the Pope's new republican attitude. It is impossible to imagine that the tainistry has accepted power without a firm decision to keep the Panama canal I .ommittce without constitutional ; tights. ' ••; !lKWS OF THE LONDON PRESS, Comments and CritiuiHinx of President IIurrlKon'a jMcsHiiuc. LONDON, Dec. 7.—The Times says: Mr. Harrison ascribes the drain of gola from America to political movements in Europe. By many Republican: leaders, however, nothing of the hind is required to explain a phenomenon which everybody acquainted with the first principles of currency legislation • could predict with absolute confidence; when America first undertook to control the market, ^j--^. America may reverse its policy, but the world will soon suffer froinits; effects. Reversion to a sound policy may disturb the silver market, as an ineviiable result of blundering legislav tion, but it will puve the way to a; healthier st-.ite of affairs. . The Standard says: Not every one Is privileged'to vent his spleen in the- form of a state paper. Mr. Harrison's message is not meant to be gracious. Neither is it the epistle of the rejected lover, sincerely trusting that she will not rue bitterly tho preference accorded to one unworthy of her protection. Tho warning to Canada is polite compared• with the threat once hurled at Chile, but- has flavor, nevertheless, Thiire is an, unwelcome ambiguity in the reference to the Bering sea matter. But it inat-I tors little what ho bays. Ichabod is-J written in every sentence. f Tlie Chronicle says: Mr. Harrison's tariff remarks reminds one of the ichoolboy maxim: If you tell a lie tell. a big 'mi and stick to it. It may now bo regarded as certain that America will maktt tho Nicaragua canal and thus prevent France from reviving the Panama scheme. Anhl\vardt Muy lie ICeleiised. LONDON, Dec. 7.—The Berlin correspondent of the Times says: "If the law's delays only avail to tide Herr Ashlwardt over the next two months without a fresh sentence he will leave his cell at Poltzence to adorn the conservative benches iri the district. Grave as is this symptom of demoralization from anti-Semitism, which is spreading with the irresistibility of a prairie fire, it may be hoped that the very enormity of the mental aberration which his success betrays will bio followed by a reaction in favor of couv uaon sense and political decency." BIG PROFITS FOR SMUGGLERS' An Old Vo-iHol Oflluxr Tells of Pl»i>» ou the 1'itcUlo Count. PORT TOWNSENII, Dec. 7.—Charles Johnson, late master of the British smuggling schooner Halcyon, which was seized and sold a few days ago, says that tho vessel is bein£ elaborr ately refitted for smuggling ventures uoxt season. He said the owners of the vessel realised $50,000 profit out of one voyage last August. The Brittish schooner Cornelius sailed from Victoria, U. C., l?rida,y l&st with sixty Chinese. The destination of thp vessel is supposed to be Sputh.i «ru Oregon or thu northern California uoast. tho Treasury Department has ordered revenue cutters to patrol the coast and every oil'o.rt will, fee waj® & capture the vessel, as it is UuQW» she hut) u large quantity }p| opium PB board.

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