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THE UPPER OfiSMQINES.ALGONA* IOWA, WEPNKSDAY. AUGUST 24,1892. HOME. currant bushes after the leaves , cutting out the oldest wood. the new if who has 0,000 colouies 200,000 pounds of honey is" said to be the largest boo )n thc world. When your birds have bowel disease "' food a day or two and also ; ofie half the troubles are flack'hf sharp, hard grit, groins look:;' sufficiently fair and well flavored for drying nDd too goml for be made into vinegar. Tonnitocx /'oi- -Winter t/.ic. Some gardeners sow seeds of tomatoes in the open ground In July and transplant into lots for winter use. I lind that slips from strong healthy puc 3tH.njoq sinmfl plaints, are heard from Ohio that in radny sections there are few or no of wheat in many heads that unp and promising. "tiooA roads Increase the value of live -.took, land and living generally. If a L rS d can do one-third more work on a good road, then his value is increased cne-tblrd. Have you cut back your tomato Tines? If not and you want a crop of handsome, well-developed tomatoes do It at once, trimming down to about half tlie number of buds. Hens »*.' Coil's, Twenty-five hens are more valuable than a cow, and much less trouble! /cow costs as much as 100 liens and •eats more. We would not deride the family cow, but would make a plea for tlie domestic hon. Give her a place worthy of her valuable product. Itemotittia T'ree Stumps. Hotting tree stumps may be easily removed in Ibis way. With a ono and one-quarter inch auger bore a hole in tlie center of tlie stump about eighteen inches deep and put in twenty ounces of saltpeter, fill tlie hole with water and plug it tight. In the spring take out the plug, pour into tho hole a half pint of crude petroleum and set It on fire. The stump will bum and smoul- der to thc end of the roots, leaving notliing but ashes. give better satisfaction all around than those raised from the scd. When I have a few plants choice high-priced soed that 1 want to raise more and have quicker' returns than I can from tlie slow process of starting thc seed I cuh all side branches from the main stalk and train that one to a stake, and take the branches and set them out, in old pots and pails that I cau command af fc-j filling them .with rich, well sifted soil These I place in some cool, rhady place hud they will never wilt. I cut them off the later part, of August; in about two weeks I bring 'them into tlv; sun and keep them well'watered and once a week I give them a stimulant oi! liquid manure and keep them clip to a stock\ busli that will be easy to carry. • Before the first frost they are carled hi to some Well lighted outbuilding. As a general' thing after the lirst frost in thc fall thoro will be a couple of M'ecks of nice weather withou frost; they can be carried out and put on the south side of the building in the sun, and they ripen their fruit, right along, and when 'frasing weather approaches they aro carried Into a warm building and from there Into a well lighted cellar. Tomatoes raised in this way have a much better flavor thau those that have the vines pulled and hung up. They will ripen until midwinter, and one can have fresh raw te- toes every day. I hope every farmei and every lover of tomatoes will try easy way of having this, luxury on their table this winter. Two or three healthy plants will furnish enough for ono family. If one does not have success with cuttings, try the layering process and sever from tho main stalk himself > and. the rule adopted in fedina has been to obtain the- best results with out injury to bredtng qualities; no forcing or over feeding hns ben allowed, but the study has been the capacity and demand of the individual cow. The .grain rations are carefully handled by one man. The case of Mr. Henry is n striking example of what may be accomplished by a study of the requirements of the animal coupled with intelligent application of tlie ideas discovered in thc process of fc-ding. He gives expression to the truth in saying that farmers usually do not seem to comprehend the fact that it costs no ;nore to bred ami raise the thoroughbred than the grade.' His success, both as a breeder ami as a dairyman, is such as to give great weight to his views upon tho subject oC breeding nud feeding and is worth tlio consideration of all folowlng hi his line of pursuit. , Jtc.«nn /'or TIornen, There Is no better food for horses than beans They contain more nourishment than oats; and in Spain, Italy and in some parts of Austria horses are fed on beans regularly us we feed oin- stock on com The use of beans for horses and cattle produces a soft, sleek coat; the animals like the beans bettor than they do any other form of diet; can do more work and gain more flesh while doing it than if fed en any other sort of food. 'Fertilize.™ /'<»• Apple Tre.cs. American Gardening: As a fertilizer for'fruit crops we cannot improve on ashes are leached and liberally aplied sny at the rate of even ten tons per acre, nothing more will be neded in most cases. Should yellow foliage and slow growth of wood indicate lack of nitrogen this can be applied hi thc form of nitrate of soda dried blood, ground fish, cotton-seed meal, sulphate of ammonia, etc., whatever is easiest to pro- euro, or cheapest in your particular locality. Bone meal contains over 20 per cent, of phosphoric acid and '1 per cent, of nitrogen, and if added to the unlonchcd ashes at the rate of 200 or 300 pounds to a ton or two of the ashes per acre, will make a complete and weil balanced fertilizer. Usually this combination is one of tiie cheapest and at the same time most effective of all manures available for the purpose. after it has rooted. ifl Jiarley Groining. It is easier to conceal sorrow than joy. , Wo would all do more lifting up if wo would do more looking up. God lias never yet made a .man who could plea so all his neighbors. To want to bo good is tho surest prophesy that we shall be good. Pooplo who do not control their tempers ought to have it done for them. How easily a trade can bo made VitJ a man who pays out another man's cash. A man with a good back bone Avill oT ten win more battles than one who has a bigger head. Tiie mnu who is satisfied with himself is always being dlssappoiutod will other people. Thero are lots of people who wouhl sooner be captain of a rowboat thai mate on a steamer. If Christ lives in your heart the poo plo who live in the same house witl you will not be long in finding it out. The road to heaven is thc best thor oughftire in the universe. It looks hlll> but you will find every foot of it level ground when you get to it. .Kf/f/.i on JC/wiJferf (hrovnds. Tegetmeier, the well known English authority on poultry, saya that thero is but one way in which to get a succession of eggs ir» a run of limited extent and that is -by continually getting rid of the oM lions and supplying their place with fresh bought, healthy young pullets. He says: "If I lived in a village or town and required eggs all the year around I should relinquish the idea of keeping nuy particular bred. Every autumn I should purchase from a healthy country nuias many early hatched pullets as I required, preferrably of non-incubating varieties—Spanish, 1-Ioudan or Hamburg—those would lay during tlw winter. In the spring as the warm weather commenced I would supply their places 'with a number of later hatched chickens, of last season, and those might be jelled upon for laying the second winter. This plan would not be an expensive one, while it would conduce to the health of the stock and secure a good supply of eggs. Barley is the fourth coral crop in the United States iu number of bxishcls produced, but experience has demonstrated that it is a paying crop only when grown in regions adopted to It, says the Orange .Tudd •Farmer. It is, however cultivated in a wild jange of climate. It grows in Iceland as well as in semi-tropical California. It is an important crop in Norway and Sweden and is extensively used by the people on the Mediterranean sea. It is best adopted to a warm, dry climate, th« greatest production being hi countries where there is a small amount of rainfall. Experiments show that barley prefers a rather sandy, well drained soil, 'flic 'ground should be fertile and tlie crop is greatly benefitted by a liberal application of well rotted barnyard manure. It is better to add the manure to tlie crop occupying the ground the previous year as it will then bo in a better condition to be used by thc barley. The soil for barley should be deeply and thoroughly pulver teed, thus necessitating fairly deep plowing. Sow in part of April or first of May. Either drill or put it on broadcast, tlie latter method being the most common in America. In the old world winter barley .is'largely raised, but in this country it'is killed by cold weather. Cut with a self-binder or reaper of any kind. The long beards make it a disagreeable crop to harvest. To secure tlie best results the grain should be cut and left unbound until it is thoroughly cured, but if wanted for feeding to stock only harvesting with the self-binder answers tho purpose. The sis rowed type is practically tho only one hi this country and of this Maiisbury, Scotch and Imperial are the leading varieties, and produce 25 to CO bushels per acre. Barley Is exceleiit: stock food but should bo mixed with oats. Prepare much as for wheat the spring during the latter Peril!HO Cuttle. Probably \ery few, if any, better hi general quite a large amount of the fruit of the apple orchard falls off Prematurely from the effect of the winds, and a considerable quantity, usually of a better quality is Knocked off or rejected in the linal gathering ft'om the tree of tho winter apples Wliore such can bo sold in their green condition in near by markets for Ua mediate use, even at low prices it will commonly bo found the most profitable method of disposing of them. Whore no suc h m arkot is near enough a t Imud to l)o available a very common Method is to dry as many as posiblo. in tills way much fruit which otherwise might be lost, can by utilizing a Portion O f th e time of members of thefamiiy, bo manufactured into a tone-keeping product for which thoro >s always a market. For work of this p 1 * 1 IH-opartlons should be made before •""wl; but it won't pay to hire labor to 1? il: ' A W )l0 Parcrs should be provided for expediting tho bushiess, and the inut should, bo pared in such a manor Wt it wil be clean find attractive in when it is dried. Nothing >ts more froi^, tlie value of fruit . eyes of a purchaser than to find "« pieces badly badly pared and with Mtoof core sticking to them. Tu wnug fruit either of apples or of peach w BMtiUd be ripe and cf good flavor, for will not improve the quality poor fruit- Apples not herds of daiiy cows can bo found than that of Hon. B. S. Henry, treasurer oC the state of Connecticut. It consists of twenty-live or more thoroughbred Jerseys of the best of that breed. Mr. Henry Jias been unusualy successful with his herd and also as a butter maker tho making of which has been carried on at his farm, although at tho present time he is a patron of a neighboring creamery. His experience in feeding is valuable to every farmer and stock breeder. All his stock, during winter especially, is carefully bed- tied and groomed. Rations for milch cows during winter aro daily given according to age and condition: Forty to fifty pounds BWCOT ensilage, one to two and a half pound* cotton seed meal, one and a half 10 Hire pounds new process linseed meal, three to torn- pounds corn and cob meal, two to three pounds spring wheat bran. The grain ration is thoroughly mixed with tlie ensilage and fed in two rations supplemented with a Tory light led of early cut hay. He makes the declaration that fo. botli milchs cows and young stock, two full dally feeds are preferable to more frequent feelings. Tlie ration mentioned is believed to be as well bflkinoed as is profitable, having as much highly uitrogenlous matter as can sale y_bo fed, having a duo regard to health Wl h such a feed the dairy product, u With such fmoly flavored and of god coloi. ^ Mr. Henry's cows averaged of milk daily for iclor. Some Mr. from ering the jelly cause by their growth he changes known as souring. The ob- ect is to exclude all micro-organism-?. This may be done in othor ways than .•y th6 use of parafflne. Cut a piece of ivhite paper just large enough to cover lie jelly: cook it iu alcohol for live min- ites, then fit it into tlie tumbler and .>ack over it n. wad of sterilized cotton sitting, let it lill the mouth of the jar ir tumbler like n stopper. This is an effectual means of preserving all kinds of fruit, as uiit-ro-organisms cannot :4'> Ibrough the batting.' ("are must be taken however, to have it properly ster- llzed. This may easily be accomplished by taking wads of the required shape liul size and putting them in a tin plate iu a hot oven for half an hour. When pnting the cotton into jars bo careful not to touch the under side of the wad or allow It to touch anything until it is placed in the jar; each may be wound with a piece of cloth to make it look neat or a piece of paper mav bo tied over it. Origin o/' ttprreti. Prof. M. Jj. Gamer, who has made Kliif/ o/ Alt tlie Tramps. Hassen \Mahomct, the wheulbarow man, spout the Fourth of July iu San Francisco. He is trundling his wheelbarrow on a wager. He has bi't $5,000 that lie will trundle it 10,000 miles in 4t50 days under certain conditions and restrictions. Cincinnati was the starting out place. He left there on Feb. 1 of this year with just four cents, ihreo of which he spent in getting across the bridge. To win the $10,000 he must return to Cincinnati by May 10, with the 1-ccut piece and a wife or !f3,000 iu cash. He must, neither beg, borrow nor steal any money during his tramp, nor use any of his private fortune, but ho must earn the money to pay bin way. He must, put up at tho best hotel iu every place he stops, and pay not less than ?2 a day at each of them. Ho must earn his money as he travels. The route is as follows: From Cincinnati to St. Louis, through Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Missis- sipi and Louisiana to New Orleans,, thi'iico west to Houston, Texas, to Dallas, to El Paso and thence to Sail i Francisco. From San Francisco east to many interesting experiments to determine the language of monkeys and who has now gone to Africa to study tlie speech of the great apes as well as tho native human beings iu the interior, has published many intvivstiug accounts of our simian kinsmen. In tlu> Forum for August lie sums up the si-i- ontilic results lhat lie bus attained thus far in his original and interesting investigations of tho origin of speech, and explains the nature of the experiment?! that ho lias gone to Africa to complete. Prof. Garner's work was made possible only by the discovery of tho phonograph, which lie maintains is yet a very crude instrument for bis use. He has so analyzed tho spocdi of mnnkoys and of man as to convert tin; sounds oJ: ouo into Hie other; and thus he thinks iu v has determined the identity of man. Ho has gone far enough in his t'xporinuiits to ask (lie interesting question. Does this not prove along the line of phonographic development, our descent from monkeysV Ho explains in detail how by use of the phonograph hi- lias taken human sound and analyzed it, and found that: its constituent parts constituent of lower are parts the of same the as UK speech Tho slip clear out from under us, to show , us that he is our strength, but as long ' Boston as we keep our hand in his we aro lets our feet Ogdcn, to Omaha, St. rnt.1 Minnesota nr us. to show Chicago, Cleveland, Bufialo, Albany, Death, Death is like sleep. You do not labor to go to sleep directly. You think nothing about sleep. But you work hard and New York. Thence to I Philadelphia, Washington, Baltimore I and Parkersburg, W. Va., and theiieo to Cincinnati. Ho told an Examiner man ' that he used to travel with Horriman, • the magician, and pays Ins way by ' giving exhibitions of magic and slight. of hand. Tho wheelbarrow is fixed to iini on the rails, which makes it easier. A Vlli. \Jll ll.i\_, 1 tLJ J.J) II Ail v.'** »..n*..%...-' - - ,-,.-. up to the limit of your strength, and Hilsson ls n Turki nll(l suys ]lc tnvus you lie down and somehow, you know ,<|. 50 000 worth of property, all earned as not how, sleep comes 'of itself—and all j ue tlyill£ , to e , lm ttmt $10,000. The the more sweetly if you thing not of it. monoyi ji o snys> is m t ho German Na- lionai bank of New York, having been Trim Wlxiloni. Our expectations, our ideals, our hopes, our intentions in beginning life r ,i e< are all too low. Many a one is but in- put. up by John Avory, William Young and a number of other theatrical peo- Salton he found a man who would low. O«r Alms in life. differently successful iu living a strong so u j lun a bite to eat or oven give him life, because at the start the standard ! a clrink of water, SD he had to trudge of what one ought to be ano the be- I on forty miles over the burning desert lief hi what one may be' were set too | without either food or drink. He had accumulated ?SO at El Paso, but he used all that up in getting across the desert. He finally reached Banning with just 5 cents and the original copper. A great misfortune overtook him between Indio and Seven ' Plains. He was caught in a sandstorm, the bottom of his wheelbarrow dropped out and his provisions were scattered over tho desert. He went back two miles to recover Ills scrapbook, for the newspaper clippings about himself are tho vouchers that show where he has traveled. At Los Angeles he says ho received ten offers from women willing to help him comply with the wife portion of his contract. At Fresno he had two more proposals. As yet, however, he has not found anyone he cares to win tho $10,000 with. animals, particularly of monkeys. The scientific value of tlieso experiments lias been uttested to by all who have made original Investigations into ihe origin of language, including Dr. Alexander G. Bell and Prof. William D. Whitney. "The present state of the speech of monkeys," says Mr. Gainer, "appears to have been reached by development from a lower form. Much race or kind of monkey lias its own peculiar tongue, slightly shaded into dialects, and the radical sounds do appear to have the same meaning in dltt'c-i-ont tongues. Tlie phonetic character of their speech is equally as higi as that of children in a like state of mental development:, and seems to obey the same laws of phonetic growth change and decay as human speech It appears to mo that their speech is ca pablc of communicating tlie ideas thai they are capable of conceiving, and measured by their mental, moral am social status, is as well- developed the speech of man measured by tin same units. In conclusion, I would saj that since the sounds uttered by mon keys pin-form all that speech perform is made of tho same material produce* by the same means, acts to the sann ends and through Hie same media, it is as near an approach to speech as the mental operations by which it is produced are an approach to thought. If it can bo shown that these mental feats are not thought, Hie same process of reasoning could show that these sounds are not speech. If man derived his other faculties from such an ancestry may not his speech have been acquired from such a source? If the prototype of man has survived through all the vicissitudes of time, may not his speech likewise have survived? If tlie races of mankind are the progeny of the simian stock, may not their languages be the progeny of tho simian tongueV" the same character, twelve rapid firing six-pounders, six rapidly-firing ine-pomv.lers, two machine gnus, ono ield gun and six torpedo tubes. TliB ix-inch guns are to be mounted in the ipen deck protected by heavy shields Itnchoil to carriages. The nwnnincnt s intended to be effective for Its rapid- ritig features mthcr than by broadside, 'lie officers and men will have splen- lidly equipped accommodations. Th9 st modern inventions aro to be crrt- tloycd for ventilatk'ii,, and the ship is o be lighted throughout with electrhv ty. The Cramps got .f2,725,000 for milding tlie ship.— Exchange. Unlike >pul is There are tilings that are right to bo done and said in one place which are iu appropriate and wrong in another. Ho is a wise man who knows what is right at tlie right time and in the right place—who knows the proprieties of life. THE KITCHEN. Ha7ie.il Peaches. Peaches whidi are ripe'but too hard for eating are nice baked, pare, remove the stones, and place in loose layers hi a shallow earthen pudcllugdish with a little water. Sprinkle each layer lightly with sugar, cover and bake. Api>lex.Witlt Apricots. Pare core and quarter some nice soar apples, put them to cook with two halves of dried apricot for each apple. When tender make smooth by baking and nibbing through a collander, and sweeten. Dried apples may be used in place of fresh ones. Cream Cabbage. One-half teacupf ul each of sugar and vinegar, 2 eggs, one large spoonful of butter, a pinch of salt and a small pinch of cayenne, stir well together, place hi a double boiler and bring to a boil. Pour over the cabbage after adding half a tea cupful of liot cream. liatic'tl I'citrs, Hard pears make an excellent desert and when they are baked. Pare, aalvo and remove seeds and place In shallow earthen dish with a cup of water to each two quarts of fruit. If the pears are sour a little sugar may bo added. Bake closely covered iu a moderate oveuuntil tender. Serve with sugar and cream. Tart paras are tho best for baking as the sweet varieties aro often tasteless. Tomuto Soup, Uso nearly three quarts of strained beef stock (same as for bean porridge) to one can of tomatoes cok the tomatoo in a separate kettle until nearly all but seeds will pass through a sclvo or; strain, add salt if needed, sugar (black pepper if liked), mix with stock and simmer slowly fcr an hour or so. To be eaten with fancy crackers or toasted bread is nice for a diner course. Sealing of Jelly Jars. Strain jelly into jelly jars which have boon thoroughly washed in soap and water and have been standing in boiling water for half an hour. When tho jelly is cool pom- over it a small quantity. of melted parafline, let it harden then pour in more, for as the flrst hardens it may crack or shrink from the sides and leave spaces where ferments may occur. In other words the jars need to be made ji}r tigjit— tUe air does mischief, but contains tbe organisms wWcb. 90, en >:t -'--' -•--.-'-' - * '-- • , Antique FnrnUiire. Aj.ropoa of the general ignoraiKO about antique furnituro, a writer in tlm Joness Miller Monthly says; Not n oro thau two i oople out of ten cau tell whether a bit of.furmtn.-j is Louis X'Y., XV., or XVI., rococo or sa'cc. As a general rule whoti.ih»y don't know they (all it jp-.piro, as ihi' ili ccors call things grip whua no diagnosis is posible. Chairs are tho most cli.v.,-(teristic pieces of fu-i "^ of all tin se periods, as they do not admit of s i much complicall >a of ti.nail, and arc umilly carried out willi more conscr- •VXHAO attention to the salient points. Louis XIV. has lyro shaped logs, often with an effect of network carried through the decorati-ju; his predecessor is very much thi name, save that the network is never seen, Louis XVI. furniture has straight turned legs, and rococo partakes of tho same characteristics of all, with the addition of shell or scroll patterns wherever they can be introduced. The empire style, pure and simple, consists of dark woods inlaid. The inlaying was originally of brass but that used to come loose and disturb thc equanimity of the court ladies by catching in their gowns, so that what is now known as marqueterre, inlaying with mother-of-pearl and different colored woods was introduced in its place. Em piro style and tlie modern Adams aro so alike that it takes a keen observer to see the difference. There Is one tiuy, Infallible sign: In tlie Adams evry- thtug is angular; there is not a curve to bo seen. Renaissance furniture is all heavy and massive, totally unrelieved by any thing save tho most ponderous carvings that only emphasize tlie glooai they were supposed to lighten. r.. It Can Sweep tltit Si-tin, The fleetest, most destructive and Tli9 oldest capital in the United States is Santa Fo, which was the seat of government in New Mexico as far back as 1640, and yet its population is only 0,185 according to Porter's ceu- sus. Tlie plwnes te line hefauets of tho Fi-ench, dragoons are rnado <rf Juiir, probably the most dread-inspiring warship yet floated is that launched at Philadelphia Tuesday. Tlie name first given to it was the Pirate. It was christened Columbia.. As a destroyer of commerce it is intended to surpass any vessel heretofore constructed. Neither England nor Franco, nor, indeed, any of the other great naval powers possess such a sea terror. Tho Columbia, and a sister ship »ow being constructed by the Cramps, are destined to bo more feared than tlio most formidable of all the sea kings owned by the belligerent nations across the big pond. When the contract for the Columbia was'lot in October, 1800, the Cramps agreed to produce a vessel whi'.'.h would sail around tho world without recoiling in 100 days. The plans called for a ship of 400 feet long on the moan load Hue; beam molded, 58 feet; draft, moan normal, 2!5 feot;extromc normal, 24 foot; displacement normal, about 7,300 tons; speed sustained, 21 knots; and indicated horse power, 20,500. Tlie ship was to make twenty-two knots on her trial trip. Palling in this it was to bo rejected and made subject to a heavy penalty. The Cramps predict that the Columbia will excel in all points the requirements stipulated in the in the contract; that it will beat transatlantic greyhounds like the Teutonic, Ma jostle City of Now York and City of Paris, out of sight, and that it will keep up her twenty-two knots for twenty-four hours at a stretch. Its coal bunkers are to hold 2,00 tons, or much moro than those of any other stomship in the world. There are ten boilers. Six of thorn are double-enders, 15 1-2 foot in diameter by 21 1-4 feet long, Two others aro 11 2-3 feet in diameter by IK 1-4 feet in length, while the two remaining are 10 by 8. All tho boilers <iro of stool and can easily sustain a pressure of 1(50 pounds. Thero are three triple-expansion engines, each of which works a screw- one on either side of the rudder and the third just above it. These screws, under high pressure, are expected to develop 128 revolutions a minute. This rate exceeds that of the City of Paris screws by thirty-eight) revolutions a minute. Chief Engineer Melville originated tho three-screw Idea with the pur- nrmo of avoiding the tremendous weight v, ^ting which would have boon uocc ^fl-y for two screws. Each of tho three Shafts Is so equipped that one, two or three screws cnn*be used at will. The Columbia is protected in its vital portions by an armored deck four inches thick on the* slopes and two and a half inches on the flat. It caries no big guns. Those used are to be of light caliber and out of sight- A. single eJgW-incb. gun |s |Q £,e xrdl- " 0,8 i), ho,w-ehaser. JIP tQ ™.-*r btf&as*! A Tli truly ffrwN the other "noble" gems, tho not a crystal. "Unclcnvablo liiarl//' it: is called by those who know he proper momonclature of things iiinouilogical, and its composition os from 82,75 to 05.82 of pure silica. What causes the wonderful play of olor and Iridescent loveliness whlcb gives tills beautiful gom its value is still not quite determined. Some say ho play comes from water which la usldo the stone, KOIUO from films of air, others again from fissures and cracks, and no one really knows. Anyway. It. is a thirsty stone," says tho London Queen, and when it groAVS & little dull and dim can bo brought back to its full beauty by lotting it drink. There aro several varieties of opal, and therefore several degrees of merit. Tho precious, or noble, or oriental opal is the supremo. This lias all tho colors] and when these colors are broken into spangles it is then called the harlequin opal. Then comes tho fire opal or so), with hyacinth red and. yellow reflections. Tho former comes from Hungary, the later from Mexico. common or semi-opals ore noii-opaloB- cent. Tho hydrophone' or oculis miuidl is non-transparent, but becomes so by immersion iu water or any transparent fluid. The cachalong Is nearly opaque, and of a bluish-white color. The opal jasper or wood opal is the petrlfica- tion of wood, opalescent, but without the coloring which uakes tho "noblj" gem so precious. Tho ancients prized the opal as they prized diamonds and pearls, and tho story of the senator, Nonius, is well known—how lie went into exile rather than part with Ills beautiful opal, valued, according to two different authorities consulted, at £10,000 or £100,000. There is the same discrepancy among those writers of books of reference aa to tlie "Caesar" who required thig sturdy veteran to give up his joweL Tlie reader may make his choice a inong .these: Marc Anthony, Augua tus, M. Antonlus. It is to bo wondered whether that opal was as flue as, or superior to, tho Great Mountain of Light, that Hungarian opal which tho older among us can remember In tho groat exhibition of 1851, winch was es- inforior to ono kept at Vienna, and not timatod as worth £4,000 but which waa .sent over to become the marvel of millions—an opal weighing 17 ounces, an-1 for which a merchant in Amsterdam offered 500,000 florins—and was refused. Now 500,000 florins sum's up abovt £50,000. Those thin slabs of white stone.semi- transparent, which look red when held against tho light, aro opals of a kind; but they are not: prized as jewels, and are kept in cabinets as curiosities. All sorts of superstitions have gathered round the opal, and to this day it is considered an unlucky stone, Woo to the bride-expectant who receives this stone as her engagement ring! Sho might as well leave a fan of peacock's feathers presented to her. And these feathers, wo all know, bring disaster and misfortune about tho house whore they are harbored as certainly as ba*- teria and bacilli bring -disease. But formerly, when precious stones had their functions moro precisely formulated than now, this lovely gom wan said to "recreate tho heart; to bo ft preservative against poison and acrid contagion; to banish sorrow, prevent faintlngs, and to cure the heartache and evil affections." 'Ilicre are also black onals, which aro very rare. They come from Egypt, and "have a glow of the ruby seen through a vapor, liko a coal ignited at one end." Tho opal is exceedingly soft and requires tha greatest care in manipulating. It hardens and also diminishes in size when exposed to the air;but at all times it has to bo treated with tenderness and care, else it. will lose in luster and value, and perhaps polish of surface. As it stands, it is one of the loveliest of all stones—with the purity of a pGM'l and the luster of a diamond. It goes best with the diamonds. Indeed, no other stone matches it harmoniously. But diamonds and opals together look as If they were two presentations of the same original Idea—the ono transparent and tho other opaque and merely translucent. New Trees of Purls. York Herald: Paris contains more trees than any city in the world, which is the reason why its strets and avenues aro so beautiful. Those treea are principally of three kinds—tho chestnuts and acacias, such as line tho Champs Elysees, and the lime trees, which grow iu such abundance in tha Bols do Bourlogue and on certain of the other boulevardjs. Statistics show that the parks and gardens of Paris number not less than 290,204 shrubs and 22,038 largo woes. The number of trees which line the streets is considerably over 100,000. The quarter of Paris which is most abundant in treea is that of Pussy, just beyond the Trocadero, and just across the Seine from , ,> what was the site of the groat exposl- " y tlon of 1889. Gas was flrst made from coal by Clayton in 1730, and used for illumiaa- Won in 1660.