THE tiPPEH DES MOINES, ALGONA, KM A MAJROH A. STUDY IN MEN'S BACKS CHARACTER is SHOWN THERE A3 WELL AS IN THE FACE. A DlMortntlon on the Vnrlon* Kinds of lineldt 1 tint One la Accustomed to Bfie. npucrlpMonn of the Thoughtful Hack, the Purse Proud Hack nml Otliorg. The back of nn Individual is nn easy itudy—tho whole of birn, his figure nnd Walk, his shoulders molded bythohnbita df hiR life, the carriage of tho lioad, the wearing of tho clothing. Face to face Wo see tho man as lie desires to bo seen; but behind his back we tako him by surprise, nnd ciitcli sight of his character. Follow tho thoughtful num as lie wanders through tho streets, seeing nothing. While ho walks his head and shoulders bend; otic knows that his eyes seek the ground just as 0110 BOOB his feet linger on it. In this manner it must have been that Macnuliiy walked in his famous j night wanderings, when ho traversed the London streets and saw nothing, a contrast to the night walks of Charles Dickens, who trod the same streets and tew everything, with head characteristically hold back and slightly to one side, an energetic observer rather than a deep thinker. Very different from what wo may call the refined and intellectual back is the back of the broad and vulgar figure who Btrnts past us as if ho owned the street. His glory is not in Ids mind or heart, but in his pockets. Ho has a habit of •ticking up for his rights. Even his collar sticks tip, and his hnir, to corra- •pond with his inner self, is bristling. He thinks lie can buy anything, from a picture, of which lie knows nothing, to iin elector, who knows nothing of him. The pur.se proud man will never hand money out of that pocket for charity, unless he is prutty sure that his name is in a printed list of subscribers. Till! HOGUE'S HACK. Mot so the wealthy man who lias a heart above gold. Look ut him, a back view, us he stands at a public meeting called at some time of calamity or need. He is sun; to be there. If tho hall is overcrowded yon can see him standing, never complaining of tho lack of seats; he is there for tbe comfort of others; he forgets liis own. Ho is a largo hearted man, and everything about him is large. The big hands are only waiting behind him to give freely, tho broad back win bear a goodly share of others' burdens. As for the back of the rogue, it is of infinite variety. If there were- only one sort we might all make what soldiers would call a roconnoissauce to tho rear and detect and outwit him. There is | the sharp dealer of the business world, who is remarkably spruce at the back, and the adventurer of society, who can bow like the first gentleman in Europe, and ten thousand more varieties, from the welcher on tho turf up to the gentleman who ought to be a baronet, and who has lived for the last thirty years on that statement and on charitably collecting for the savages of Borriobonhi He could straighten his body if he liked, but his mind is fixed in curves of cunning. HP and his principles are as crooked as wriggling eels. He can press others to his will, too, as he presses his cane to a, curve like himself. His spam form is not tho thin, bunt back of the student. The back of a bookworm is another kind of bend—a' curve to bt> respected. Nor is it the, Btoop of old age The back is an index '' • of ago as well as of charartcr The '• email cliil ! cianda a square, upright ' atom of humanity. The man grows straight to his full height; then his shoulders broaden; then his shoulders .coino forward, and his head goes down. UACKBON1C. There is an old saying to describe a •man of weak character that ho has "no backbone." Thoro is not much backbone in tho man who walks as if not quite sure where ho is going to, who drops Ilia letters and never cares to! Btraighten his shoulders. Follow him and note how his hat points backward, a?d yon know from tho angles to which he has set his hat and his whiskers that, ' seen front face, his aspect is not wise, Still he is a good naturod follow, and by Boine instinct wo read on his buck that he has an ambition to be amusing. One is perfectly certain that the man with such a book sings comic songs, and equally curtain that ho never knows when people cease to lungh at tho song and begin to laugh at himself. But there is such a thing as having '•too much backbone, and that is rather worse than having too little. When a man has too much backbone his heart is not, as people say, "in tho right place." Sometimes thoro is no room in him for a heart ut all Now, there nro some men in whom force of character is carried into the extreme, and becomes hardness and habitual severity. A severe back is a pleasanter sight to see than a severe face. It is not what wo would call the just and righteously indignant back, which is straight and noble, a lino thing and a venerable. It is tho bulldog shouldered back that denotes tho domestic oger. Ilia bald head shines. One knows that in the front the veins are burstinjA His mustache has been twisted to sljurpuesa by angry fingers. His hands ani clinched or pushing mightily against his liardset kneo. lie could strike, but lie has too much pride, and his orders are harder than blows. Ho . has a habit ut' getting his arm crookedly bent to his kneo in self restrained wrath. There are, indeed, many backs that are more gladly seen than the corresponding faces. Tho bjick of the bore is a goodly sight, while, on tho other hand, when gooij-by is grievous, how much precious regard is wasted on tho dear characteristic, well known buck that never knows what loving looks wout after it.—Toronto Truth. Chinese Money. One of the most troublesome questions to contend with in traveling in China is that of money. As is well" known tho Chinese have no other currency than tho copper cash, about fifteen hundred of Wliich are worth at Peking a Chinese b<tircc 01 [Kirc stiver, called oy foreigners a "tael of sycee." Silver is naturally nsed in commercial transactions, but aa bullion only, and by weight, so every one has to have a eet of small scales. The inconvenience that this weighing entails would bo comparatively small wore all the scales throughout the empire uniform; but such is not the case. They differ considerably from one town to another, and even in tho flame locality. Thus at Peking there is a government standard, a maritime customs standard and a commercial standard. The same diversity is found over all the empire, and tlio consequent complications and even Serious loss in exchange arn n, continual vexation. Nor is it nai- slble to escape this loss by carrying copper cash with one, for, putting aside their CXCOHHJVO weight, there in not even a standard rash in China. Those used at T'icn-tain aro not used at Poking; those at Peking are not current, except at a discount, at T'ai-yuan. Hero I bought a very debased kind of cash, giving one "large cash" for four of them. A hundred miles farther south these small carh were at par, and even, in a few cases, at a plight premium over the intrinsically more valuable largo one. , The Mongols, Thibetans and Turke- stanese havo never consented to use the Chinese copper cash, although it is the standard money of tho realm. Tho first named people use silver ingots or bricll. tea; tho others havo a silver currency of their own.—Cor. Century. • ' A RAILWAY BLACK LlSt. Killed ut 8. C. Bowen, of Nashville, Tcnn., say The true story of the death of Go! Ewell is known only to a few. As young man he was quite a dandy, and continued to pay a great deal of attention to his dross until August, 1803, when ho lost a leg at tho battle of Groveton, Ho recovered in n few months and led hia troops until the close of tho war, but with the loss of his leg ho also Ht'Ctned to lose all interest in his personal appearance, and after ho went back to hia farm in Tennessee was in the habit of wearing tho most dreadful old garments imaginable, saying that it made no difference how a one-legged man looked. A year or two after the close of tho war there was a sale of quartermaster's stores, and (Jen. Ewell bought a quantity of military trousers for which there was no longer any use. " Ho issued them to his workmen, and at last took up the habit of wearing, a pair about his farm. They were shoddy goods, very thin and flimsy, and on a damp day in tho winter Ewell took n cold, which developed into pneumonia, and from which ho never recovered. A day or two before his death, when he know there was no hope, h.o said to a friend: "The enemy has killed ine at last. 1 was in many battles, was severely hit more than once, and on more than one occasion thought I was as good aa dead. When the war closed it seemed to mo thnt 1 had nothing more to fear, but 1 was mistaken, for hero 1 am at last dying of a pair of Yankee breeches."— St. Louis Globe-Democrat. llor Iiuiik'hmtlon Was Fatal. During tho summer of 1S88 an inquest was held on a young English woman who, it was supposed, had poisoned herself. The examination showed no poison, but the stomach contained a powder, the general character of which corresponded with a certain insect powder. The manufacturers claim that this ii= ' non-pnisniious, and the chi'inist. who an-' alyjwd the contents of ih^girra.stomach, concurred in tho same opinion. It was tried on cats, rabbits and sheep, neither of which were ;:.U'ected by it. In tho absence of I'viil.-nci 1 of other causes to account for death the only assumption was that tho young woman had taken the insect powder believing it to bo poisonous, and that her imagination had been wrought, up to tho point where death was the natural result.—St. Louis Republic. A Felon Cure. An old sufferer from felons thus tolls how to got rid of thorn:; ('I was engaged in marking iron with white load and turpentine, and having a felon coming on my finger dipped i't frequently into tho mixture. As the iron was quite warm which 1 waa marking at the time, I found tho next morning that there waa a small yellow spot where I felt the felon. 1 opened, .^his, nnd had no more trouble from it. The next timo I felt one coming I procured souio turpentine and bathed tho part affected frequently and held it near a warm surface to dry, with the same result aa at first. Since then 1 havo used it several times, always with tho same result."—Now York Journal. misunderstood. An elderly lady and her daughtei stood on tho elevated station at Twenty- third st rent awaiting an oncoming train, upward bound. "Don't try to take thia one," the daughter urged, "it's jammed full." The old lady cast a reproachful look upon her younger companion and mournfully remarked; "There isn't a doubt about it'a being full, but all the Banu) I don't soe any necessity of swearing about it."—New York Times. Rot Many Copies Are Printed an4 O«t- nldor* Seldom See* One of Then*. A decidedly queer little patapblet is "The Confidential Memorandum," which is intended "for tho exclusive use of those persons to whom it is sent.'* The little book does not bear the name of its printer, proprietor of compiler, and besides having an exceedingly small circulation it makes its appearance only about twice a year. The persons to whom it is mysteriously sent keep it under lock and* key and refer to it in a surreptitious manner. It passes through the mails in a plain scaled envelope, and letter postage is paid thereon. Nothing improper is printed in tho "Memorandum," and yet its pages are guarded with jealous care. "The Confidential Memorandum" is neither more nor less than a railroad black list, and it contains somo startling information about various people whose names arc not unknown to tho American public. Only tho higher officers of railways can obtain i t. Some persons whose names aro contained therein might consider the charges brought against them libeloua, and so to avoid responsibility and cvado law suits the names of the publishers and the place of publication are not printed upon tho title page. Nearly every railroad in the United States is a part proprietor in tho "Memorandum," and those who compile it draw their pay and inspiration from the records of hundreds of railroads in Uncle Sam's domain. Little short of a special dispensation of''Providence enables any one except a' railroad official to see tho book. Tho book contains nineteen pages of names of delinquents and seven pages of the names of periodicals and their edit•ors who abused the courtesies extended to them by railroads. Notwithstanding the etiicts Of tho interstate commerce law an uncommonly largo number of •persons other than railroad men secure passes and reduced rates from railroads, and it frequently happens that tho recipients dispose of these favors to friends, scalpers and even to strangers "for a consideration." • When a person is detected in loaning, Celling, exchanging ;or altering a pass, his rniuu! .appears in, tho next issue ofi the "Memorandum," and when ho next applies to/any road for favors hois met with u .fixed smilo and a polite excuse, but never tho true one. Unhappily there aro found on the black 'list tho names and residences of several clergymen, as well as statesmen, who have abused the privilege. Tho charges are in'Some cases stated in an almost brutally specific manner, and would prove rather shocking reading to the wives, children or friends of the culprits. Among tho "A's" are twenty-three names, including that of a clergyman, who is charged with altering and loaning half-faro permits. The list of sixty- eight names'commencing with "B" describes one as u theatrical ngeut and n "d. b., first .water." There are sixty-five names under the head of "C;" among thorn is that of a rnan in Houston, Tex., who represents himself as a special correspondent of a Now York newspaper, and is summed up as "a fraud." A Santa Fo preacher is accused of altering a half-faro permit to include his wife, and an ex-representative in Congress is charged with loaning hia pass. A member of Chicago's Citixen's league is known to have sold his pass to a scalper, and so will get no more such favors. Hangers-on of theatrical companies, a member of the lower legislature and editors of nmull journals aro mentioned on tho list.—Now York World. At Criilg-y-Nuti, Bignor Nicolini—Is you verra seek, me lol'e? Adelina— Verra sook. 13. N.—What does zo doctairo he say? A.—Zat my voico is gone-a forever-a. IS. N.—But you vill gif 0110 more fare- wella tour in KO grand United Statos-a? A.—Ci-rtainloo. Vy jiot? — Pittsburg Bulletin Mlua Hnnhour's Costume Makes Trouble. A young Frenchwoman who is now married tclla a story of how her engagement was nearly broken off through her acquaintance with Mile. Bonheur, who at the time was busy on a picture in Paiis, working in the house of tho young Frenchwoman's cousin. One afternoon the painting did not go well, and Mile. Bonheur went to the Jardin des Plantes for information, taking the happy girl as a companion. Sitting on a bench in tho shaded walk they saw in tho distance the girl's betrothed, who instead of joining them looked a' moment, thon flung away in a passion, and for the space of a week was not heard from. Then finally he paid a sulky visit, demanding an explanation of her apparently intimate relations with another man. "A man?" said the laughing girl, now comprehending the desertion, "shall 1 call the gentleman?" "What, in your house?" said the mystified caller. A minute, later Mile. Bonheur stood in tho doorway listening smilingly to the ceremony of presentation. "Ah," said tho only half pacified lover, "then monsieur" "Monsieur," interrupted tho triumphant girl, "is mademoiselle, and if you like you may come into tho studio and see her latest picture."—Cor. New York Commercial Advertiser. A 1'oollsll Iiluii. Caller—What do you think of tho Berlin idea of uniforming reporters? American Editor—Put reporters in uniform? Nonsense! Uniformed reporters would be of no more use in detecting crime than :'o many policemen.—Now York v:,.r •.,- A UUitgroeublo Prospect. liorrowcll — I'm not rich, I know, James, but it's birth and breeding, don't you know, that enable mo to shine in socievy. James—Yes, sir; but your coat will soon fihiuo move Hum you do if you don't got a new une,— Munsey's Weekly. An Umisuul War Rrllo. Dr. Hall, the popular druggist, has quite a curiosity in tho shape of an old, rusty relic of the late war. It is one of tho old pikes known as tho Joe Brown pike, which were used by the Confederates at tho beginning and by some of the troops all through the war. Dr. Hall was living near Griswoldville, and after the engagement thero he found tho one ho has. It consists of an iron shaft about a foot long and a head shaped like a spear. To tho shaft was fastened a long wooden handle, but thia part of it was lost.—Americus (Ga.) Recorder. TRAINING THE IMAGINATION, How tliu Novel lii-ings Different Classes of Society Into Sympathy. There is something pathetic, not wholly Bid, in tho thought of the poor boy or girl who finds delight in fictitious annals in high lit'o. Boy and girl put themselves respectively in the place of hero and heroine. They are richly dressed, and iu marble halls they taste the sweets t itriBure, OI power And "Nothing is either good of bad but thinking makes it so," and imagination had no cage. Poverty is beguiled of its' sting, toil is lightened and ennni gives! way to a found of noble pleasures and dramatic scenes, until the curtain falls npon baffled villainy and triumphant virtue. ' Those humble readers are not troubled by the doubts and aivilings of the exacting realist. They are happy in that they can take so much for granted. If they havo not had the real thing they think so, and so fa? as they are concerned is it not all the same? But high lifn would know low life. too. Scholars and courtiers like Virgil and Horace, were in love with pastoral scenes and . rustic pleasures. Marie Antoinette would bo a dairy maid, and her royal husband would be a locksmith. | In her palatial home tho proud beauty jrows weary of the rolling hours, overburdened as they are with the require* tnents of an artificial society and a per- fanctory courtesy. The millionaire, outworn with the care of his wealth, looks longingly back to the simple labors and untroubled sleep of his youth. The statesman, weighed down with responsibility and beset by importunate suitors for favor and influence, has pensive, regretful moments in which he reflects that even a gratified ambition may have cost too much. Imagination brings surcease of repining, temporarily at least, to all of these exalted personages. The democratic novel, the romance of low and of common life, puts the great in touch with the masses of their kind, and makes sympathy possible between the loftiest and tho lowliest station. We live in many and different worlds in reality; we meet and mingle with each other in imagination. When we speak of civilization, of enlightened society, of progress, we have in mind a comparatively small part of .the human race. "Scratch the skin of a Russian," said Napoleon, "and you will find a Tartar." But how much of our civilization is more than skin deep? In the great cities of Europe and America do wo not find a barbarous population just beyond the purlieus of wealth and fashion, which only the fear of the constable keeps in check? la ignorance more dense or vice more slmirelesa in any quarter of Peking or Hankow than in the slums of New York and London? Dp we need to go upon long journeys or to turn back the pages of history to find the lowest depths of human degradation? But what do we know of those people in their filthy hovels and noisome tenements? What sympathy, what tie of human brotherhood, what sense of fellowship exists between the cultivated and comfortable few and the benighted millions of the hopeless poor? We cannot paint a picture with mere statistics. What signifies u unit more or less in the grand total of human depravity and misery? We must knock at the doors of poverty and sin; we must look into the eyes of the suffering and lift the burdens of tho heavy laden before we can really know the worst of what is called low life. Well, in our day the literature of imagination has essayed that sad task. The novelist goes now where none but the doctor and the most zealous philanthropist have ever gone before upon a mission of charity. So far as he dares he paints tho picture of that under world to the lit'o. Lie is not so humorous as Dickens or so satirical as' Thackeray, but he tries to bo severely accurate in the delineation of every detail, and he brings to hia work the artist's eye and the surgeon's norvo. Ho does not need to write the moral down in plain black and white. As the sightless eyes of the blind and the maimed limbs of tho cripple tell their own story and make a mute appeal to every generous heart, the squalid surroundings and sordid struggles he depicts speak loud words of warning and command.—New Orleans Picayune. Preferred to Bo with I'apn. One of tho best children's bon mots is told by a well known bookmaker in town. His little daughter waa happy amid a paiiorful of company, when bed timo came and she rebelled against having to leave. Sho threw herself on the floor, face down, and kicked and screamed. "Come," said her mother, "be a good little girl, now, and go to bed, Don't you know what mamma has always told you—if you aren't a good littlo girl you can't go to heaven?" "I don't want to go to heaven," said the child; "I want to go where papa goes." —New York Sun. WOBLD'S FAIR MATTERS. JNo liralus to SpuaU Ut. Dudely Canesucker went into a restaurant on Broadway and gave an order for somo fried calf's brains. After he had waited almost half an hour, Dudely said to the waiter: "Well, what about the calf's brains?" The waiter shook his head and intimated that tho outlook was gloomy. "What's tho matter with my brains?" "There ain't any, that's all," replied the waiter, looking at Dudely sadly.—Texas Sittings. Writing on Itlrch Bark. A postoiiico clerk of sixty years ago tells us that in those days it was a common circumstance for men iu the logging swamps in winter to write letters to their friends on birch bark. They took a small quantity of copperas with them, and by steeping inaple bark with it made a very good quality of ink, and used tho quills of the partridge or crow for pens.—Brunswick (Mo.) Telegraph. Stop and Thinlc. A New Yorker worth $25,000,000 saya he took tho most comfort when hia wealth counted up about half a million. A man with a, million can take all the comfort that 0110 with $75,000,000 can buy, and ho has only one-seveuty-fifth of the cares and anxieties. Stop, young man ~-6toD at a million.—Detroit Free press. Fleet street journalism has increased by leaps and bounds iu recent years. In 1840 there were thirty-five newspapers and periodicals published in Fleet street, three of them dailies; iu 1890 there were more than 800, and eleven of them dai- Brorybody Is Hustling and 1* Moving. [Special Corf eapomteiuA]! CHICAGO, Feb. 10.— "Everybody must hustle and everything must be hustling. So said Thomas W. Palmer when be was here a few days ago. When the rotund and good natured ex-governor of Michigan, ex-minister to Spain nnd president of the national commission of the World's, fair toys a thing bo means It, and so it is that his presence and vigorous utterances have tended toward the exercise of increased vim and energy through all the departments. Down on the Lake Front, and almost under the shadow of the big Auditorium, the initial structure that is intended for the headquarters of the bureau of construction is nearly under roof, and will be ready for occupancy in a few weeks. The department of promotion and publicity has doubled its staff, and tho board of lady managers has issued its call for plans for tho women's building, to cost In the neighborhood of a couple of hundred thousand dollars, with the proviso that none but those prepared by women architects will be considered. Tho board of control of the gpvernmcnt exhibit has selected its site, and work on Uncle Sam's distinct portion of tho enterprise will shortly be in full blast. Fifty thousand copies of the classification and rules for exhibitors have been turned out of tho government office and aro now being scattered throughout the country where they will do most, good and afford the most information. Four times as many will be forthcoming as fast as they uro needed. Chiefs have ^jeen appointed for several departments, including that of fish and fisheries, and altogether Gen. Palmer , cannot ask for very much more "hustling" than is being manifested from the offlco of the director general to those of the minor officials at tho present timo. Five months hence, or not later than Juno 15, tho grounds in Jackson park must be ready for tho building contractors. Tin's is -but a short time in which to do tho tremendous amount of clearing, excavating and filling that is necessary, but the contractors are under heavy bonds and the ground will bo surrendered on timo, even if it is necessary to keep both day and night forces af men at work. Tho first thing to bo done— or rather the first thing that is now being done — is tho removal of all trees, shrubs and other obstructions to excavation before anydigging'can be done,. and all this material must either be burned or removed from the area. Then all the surfaces to be covered by buildings aro to bo graded to a height of four and a half feet abovo city datum, while tho surfaces intended for open spaces must be one foot higher. When the work Of excavation is entered npon fully one thousand man and 03 many team's will find employment in throwing up the earth and carting it away to the low levels and ditches that are to be filled up. With the ground thus in order there is no reason why tho erection of the main buildings, the Illinois state building and the women's structure should not havo been' commenced by tho next anniversary of America's independence. It will not be necessary for visitors to the exposition to do very much walking outside of the structures. Plans for an intramural niilruad have been made, and, together with the route, have been approved by every one of tho ten members of the board of architects. The route will wind in and out between tho great buildings, landing passengers at their very doors. It is not unlikely, moreover, that tho railway will bo connected w?*h tho elevated road now in course of construction on tho South Side of the city, and in this event visitors may bo able to leave tho 1 center of the city, make a tour of the park, see the exteriors of all structures and return without having to leave the car. Each of the ten members of the board — five in Chicago and five in the cast— have received the ground plats and adjustments of the buildings, :'.n«l are now assume:! to be hard at work ou ihuir respective designs. It has been left for tho five eastern architects to conjointly design tho main group of buildings at Jackson park. Architect It. M. Hunt has prepared tho outline plan for each of the buildings wliich constitute the group, and from his general suggestions the other architects will work out their plans. The music hall, tho ruining, horticultural and agricultural buildings and the live stock structure will bo designed by the Chicago architects. The leather interests have been considerably worked up over a report that the plans as outlined left them out in tha cold, and headquarters havo been deluged with inquiries growing out of tlie rumor. It is hardly necessary to say that it is erroneous. Tho leather men will havo a building, and a big one at that. It will be located immediately north of the main building and will cost a round $100,000, Mrs. President Potter Palmer will very shortly realize that her position is no sinecure. According to the decision of Secretary Elaine she is authorized to personally appoint all tho women envoys that are to be sent to tho Latin-American countries, and it is probable that she will bo also empowered to name all the women to be sent to Europe, although a decision on this lat ter point lias yet to bo rendered. The very announcement that s'ho will have these plums at her disposal will naturally bring down upon her a, deluge of members of the fairer sex, all anxious and willing to temporarily leave their country for their country's good. Possibly she will find it necessary, out of tho abundance of good, material, to make her choice by lot or ballot. Mrs. Palmer and Secretary Coussins aro in daily conference designing schemes and plans for interesting women all over tlie country and abroad in the work they have before thorn. The next move ou tlie carpet is to organize each state by counties, and then by townships. Indiana will probably havo tho honor of inaugurating tula movement, as the idea originated in tho fertile bruin of Mrs. Virginia C. Meredith, tho Judy manager for that state. The committco on ceremonies has mu4e considerable progress, although the general ideas that it has formulated will be kept under lock and key for some timo to come, Its members have not been pushed to the wall for want of advice and sugnestious, for letters by tho bushel, containing all sorts of idoas and schemes, have poured in from every part of the country, as well as from Canada, and even from England, France and Germany. Not a few of the writers, judging from tbe products of their Imagination, uro cranks of tho first order. The members of tho committee, however, will not attempt to do too much, but will finally formulate a, programme which, whilo simple in its impressiveness, will at the sauio timo bo commensurate with the magnitude of the occasion. HENRY M. HUNT. An Absolute Necessity. Mrs. Motherleigh — Dora, my love, was it necessary to spend fifteen minutes in bidding Harry good-night? Dora (furtively rearranging a rumpled collar)— Yes, mother, it was a clear case of mussed. — Pitt8.bp.rg. Bulletin. OF INtERESt TO BEEKEEPERS. *roinln«nt AplftH»t»* Spacing of the Combs. Numbered with other interesting qa< tions discussed at the last meeting Of the International Beekeepers' association waa the much vexed one of how fat to space combs. Consideration was first given to the natural space between combs. While some of the members present were of the opinion that the bees followed ho rule in spacing tbe combs, the majority appeared to hold that the preference of bees in a natural state was one and a half inches^ Ernest R. Root made the statement Mia* thn avnrn.B'o found in tiatnro taaa one and a nair mcnes for brood and BTU* plus combs when taken together. Hia observation was that naturally built combs are spaced all the way from one and three-eighths to two and., a hatf inches, but he believed that bees in a natural state preferred one and a half inches. He also believed the bees would put more brood and less honey in the brood nest if they were only one and three-eighths inches apart. William Lyon, of Burlington, la., had found, as the result of considerable experimenting in tho matter, that it is a good plan ab the opening of the season to move the frames closer together, as near as one and five-sixteenths from center to center, to prevent the storing of too much honey in the brood chamber. He found that this narrowing up of the space would drive the bees into the sections better than anything he had ever tried. He moves his frames together every spring, and moves them apart again in the fall, so that tho combs get sufficient honey for winter stores, am" the bees get more room between the brood combs to cluster. . He attributes his success in getting bees into tho sections to this method. . A. N. Draper and Dr. Mason reported success with spacing the comb one and one-fourth inches from center to center. This was generally considered as being too close. Mr. L. 0. Axtell favored one and three-eighths, as did also B. Taylor and somu others. A. I. Root expressed the opinion that one and one-fourth inches apart does not give sufficient room. He did not believe the bees were at ease in so short a space. J. M. Hamburg said that what the beekeeper wants to know is how to produce the most honey. As one and a half inches gives better space for winter, owing to its affording more room for the bees to place their honey and to cluster, he considered 'that space the best for practical, beekeepers. ' Do Fertilizers £.eucli? The complaint is often heard that the phosphates do not produce the effects upon crops that were realized from their early use, and the conclusion that the phosphatic manures have' degenerated in quality is drawn from, this assuimjr tion of facts. The facts as laid dojPa in The Florida Dispatch are: 1. That the phosphatic compounds are of higher grade than those sold fifteen years ago. 2. That their effect is equally marked upon lands to which none has been previously applied. 3. Lands to which repeated liberal applications have been luade contain enough of the unappropri- ated previous applications to supply the needs of the crops. This last is true of soils which contain enough clay to prevent injurious leaching. Wo infer, then, that phosphates applied tj clay soils, or sandy Boils with good clay subsoils, are held until used by plants, or at least the larger part of them. Ou such soils, therefore, heavy annual a;rilications are not wasteful. On sandy soils, without clay foundation, however, heavy applications are not advisable, since that not appropriated by the crops to which it is applied may leach beyond the reach of the roots of cultivated plants. Horses in Dark Stables. It is suggested that the sight of horses is injured by keeping the animals in dark stables, and thus when the harness is put on them, and they are suddenly brought out to the light, the pupils of the eyes are suddenly and painfully contracted, and a, repetition of suoh treatment is very injurious. Owners of horsea who would resist ' 'meting and vending the light and air" to themselves should not impose on their faithful horses. It is very easy to have well lighted and well ventilated stables. Tlorso Notes. When it can be done it .is better to water a horse half an hour before feeding, rather than after. Too much feed is as bad for the health and thrift of horses as too little. Horses should be turned out into the lots for exercise every pleasant day. I One-third each of corn, oats and barley ground together makes a good winter ration. ' Careful grooming is as necessary during the winter as in the summer. ' Keeping the horse's heels and legs clean in winter is the best preventive for scratches. j Standing in wet manure tends to make the feet of tho horses tender, and should always be avoided. Change the feed often enough to keep the horses with a good appetite; they will thrive better on less feed. If you raise the right kind of horsea the buyer will come after them; if the wrong kind you will have to hunt up a buyer. A small quantity of oilmeal added to the horses' meal during the winter will aid materially to keep them in a good healthy condition, The best plan is to mix it with a little wheat bran. Colts will make a better growth and development if they are given a light feed of ground oats every day. Oats I aro one of the best foods for the devel^ opmeut of bone and muscle. Brood mares can do enough work to pay for their keep, and by mating to a good sire will bring good colts, which Will be clear profit.—Republic.
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