The Algona Republican from Algona, Iowa on May 13, 1891 · Page 8
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The Algona Republican from Algona, Iowa · Page 8

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Algona, Iowa
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Wednesday, May 13, 1891
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cm& Stock JAMK9 WIMOPr, BdttOft [Ideas nre solicited from ot» former md«ri, Quarte* will be *ntw«r«d. AfldwM to th« KdltorT Give your cultivated soil no rest. Tho May minutes are golden. Lot none be lost. Prices for good horses tcmaln at paying rates, but others do not pay. "Winter wheat came through In unusu- «Jly good condition In many parts of Iowa. Prepare for more drouthy weather. Portions of Iowa have not had much over one incli of rain this spring. But for the late snows germination would have been seriously retarded. We saw a road cut across an old tile drain the other day, that was laid along a level bottom. The tile wore all filled full oC sediment and the drain Avas worthless. This is suggestive. It is sometimes difficult to get sufficient fall for drains, and quite easy to lay tiles so as to do no good. The story is going the rounds that chemical dehorning is much more humane than sawing off the horns. We have seen dehorning of young calves both ways, and have no hesitation in saying that the saw is the most humane. J,ust as much so as one would prefer to have a. finger cut off at once rather than have it eaten oil, or a tooth pulled promptly rather than have it pulled for a whole day. If dehorning is done at all the saw on the young calf is least objectionable. There is much room for improvement in saving corn in the silo. We hear of too great a per cent, of waste. This is a serious question. Unless the corn is certainly well siloed it pays better to shock it, as palatability is the only advantage the silo gives. Rather more, of the butts arc eaten of siloed corn, but investigation proves that there is little; difference in the value of the. dry matter between shocked corn and siloed corn stalks except palatability. This is quite a point, to bo sure, but if much is lost by moulding this feature costs too much. After the first spring rush of seeding is .over it pays to look over the fences. Good fences make good neighbors. There is a growing disposition to avoid barb wire fences for horses^ Tho damage on most farms far exceeds the cost of more expensive fences. The neAV picket fence is so handy that there is no excuse for pjgs either being kept in close confinement or running at large. The white cedar is but little, better than the white willow for a post, and is losing favor. Tho burr oak is our best home-grown post. The red cedar the best obtainable from other States. Willow hedges lose favor among grain growers, and grow in favor among stock men. A farm can grow its wire fence posts very easily, if enough willows are planted and care is taken to exchange now for old. Tall weeds come up among the oats where the land was seeded down without plowing in the spring. It is good to go over the ground with a scythe just before They head out. It is better to see to it when tending corn that big thistles, rosin weeds and the like are eradicated while the corn is being plowed. Corn tending years and pasturing years are most convenient for clearing the farm of these tall weeds. They are more unsightly than harmful, but they can be destroyed during corn tending and pasturing. Cultivating and grazing are destroying the native plants of all kinds very fast. A few of the kinds mentioned have great tenacity of life and require special attention for a few years. Nothing is in order in a field but what is planted. Everything else is lost effort of the soil. Sow something at repeated periods for irreen feed, especially for the milking cows. Our .seasons average dry, and i-ven when rainfalls are normal the average Iowa pasture needs assistance, to make cows do their best. We depend entirely too much upon poor pastures, and risk the profits of a season upon possible rains, when we can, by providing extra fieri in seasons, us the seasons succeed each other, avoid scarcity. July and August are the dangerous months. If pastures ar? eaten bare before the drouths of these two months come, and stock must depend upon bare, brown pastures, the How of milk stops, profits cease, and the; hope of the year vanishes. Repeated sowings of different things would insure us against loss here. We need not go to the corn fields for early fall feed, if - A few well manured acres are provided for each period of the season. For the earliest cuttings the work in this regard is done, or should be, but repeated sowing for successive cuttings is necessary to insure plenty all the summer and fall. Farmers who desire to improve their herds of all kinds, who have the common cattle of the country can make marked improvement, because then; is no strong, prepotent strain of blood in any of our low* common animals. The field for improvement is an inviting one. Those who own high-grade animals can only improve by the most careful selections, because they have u strain of blood with greatly increased prepotency. Those who own thoroughbred stock have still more difficulties to meet in carrying on improvement, because they have great prepotency already and can only aoain- fata what they have by careful selections or improve with very superior animals. ^ _ „, —,_.£,_ v , ^, ,, m HAA , u.*.^ w u UI-A.4VJ. trl.1 f U I ^Moi O w vww***^ ir AAI. vivs *VA Vw WD JJut the owner of common cattle or low I w ^ 8t £°°d breeding has done for them,, grades has an easy problem .to solve. He can easily get males better than his -own stock Mid improvement Is certain to follow. After, progress has boea made by tho selection of superior males prepotency is lost by cross-breeding, or breeding from grades, or by using poorer males than the best in the herd. Wo grow about a million acres of flax in the United States. Ours is the most wasteful way possible, the fiber being entirely wasted for want of knowledge of how to save it, or because labor is too dear to justify working with It. A profit is lost, however, that will bo one day sav- fid. There is conflict of testimony regarding the saving of seed and fiber from the same crop. Dodge, our federal statistician quotes authorities who report both seed and fiber saved. Of course tho time to sow and pull requiries studying. We learn of an effort being made by the department of agriculture to induce fiber saving. No one farmer can profitably do this. A neighborhood can co-operate and get machinery and determine possibilities in this regard, and it would be a nice work for the farmers of the Stale if a score of farmers somewhere— some alliance—would do this for the general good. Flax for fiber should be sown twice as thick as for seed so as to secure straight stalks without branching. Wo aro convinced that it is only a question of time when we will grow our own fiax, and make our own linen, but western farmers must do the. experimenting. Iowa has grown very superior fiber already, and indeed the cost is tho only undetermined quantity in the problem. ANIStAl, I'AKAStTES. Herbert Osborn, professor of entomology, has written a pamphlet on the parasites that afflict domestic and wild animals. He finds that each differs from all others, that each is at home on some "one animal, and none are general or common. If we thoroughly exterminate, the lice from a flock of sheep or herd of cattle, hogs or horses, they remain clear of the pests until brought into contact with infested animals. He has found tho louse of the pocket gopher to differ from the squirrel, that of the field mouse distinct from the rat. The parasite of tho horse is distinct from any that trouble the ox or hog, that in their turn have their own to annoy them. The chicken, the pigeon and the turkey all scratch different creatures, even the peacock and the guinea fowl have their peculiar tormentors. The cut, dog, bear and elephant all have different parasites. The professor has done a good work for the peoplQ. The pamphlet is printed by the agricultural department at Washington. Kerosene emulsion and other remedies are advocated. Paul Wagner has an article in tho Murk Lane Express confirming theinves- tigatioiis of Hellriegel regarding tho power of leguminous plants to absorb nitrogen from the atmosphere. He divides plants into two classes, those that increase nitrogen in the soil, such as clover, beans, peas, vetches and the like, and nitrogen consumers such as wheat, oats, rye, barley, potatoes, turnips, cabbages and the like. This is a hint to practical farmers not to follow nitrogen consumers with those of the same requirements. This shows the need of clover in permanent pastures and the wisdom of sowing it with other grasses. It suggests the wi.sdom of sowing peas with oats for green cuttings, so that the soil may be. kept good and so that the one plant may invite nitrogen to the other. Nitrates are carried from South America to Europe to supply what the clovers take from tho atmosphere. Our prairie soils need nitrogen more than anything else, and after clover any crop will grow well for a number of years. How long we can continue to grow clover and follow it with grains that consume this necessary element for sale oft 1 the farm before exhausting other important agents of plant growth, such as phosphoric acid and potash, is yet to be tried, and without doubt will be effectually tried by farmers who will not feed grain at home and husband the fertility of their soils. Phosphoric acid is got principally from bones, and potash from decaying vegetation, slowly, and by burning vegetation more immediately. We are of the opinion that our boils will stand a great deal of robbing if clover is used to furnish tho nitrogen. UutLawes and Gilbert tell us that their experiments at Pothanestcad prove that where rotation of crops is followed and grazing intervenes the fertility of the soil remains good. This we know by practical trial. Iowa lands in rotation with grass seem to improve. IMPROVING THE DAJHY COW. The value of a cow does not depend upon the quality of her milk, nor yet upon the quantity. A cow giving a little three-quart mess of 5 per cent, milk does not pay the commercial dairyman, while she may please and satisfy the city family man who wants just a little nice milk for his family u.sc. Some cows give only a little milk and poor quality at thai, they neither pay nor please, anybody, and should go to the butcher. Then cows are quite plenty that give quite large quantities of milk witli low per cents, of fats and solids. They may pay if they give enough. Their quality of milk can be improved by generous feeding, although this is denied by somo authorities, who insist that the quality regularly follows the quantity. It does not. There is a relation between quality and quantity beyond which feeding will not have effect, but there is gain in quality that feeds will bring about. Besides, continual good feeding will do for cows in ' MI--n|- i - - ttabte<oowi;»tft.tbofle that give a, mar tote itfoduflt beyond the cost of keep* iff them. The testing system coming toto common practice will enable dairy men to select -with certainty the cow that will pay to keep and breed from The breeding, season is at hand. Be sur you have In the pedigree of the sire th qualities you desire to Impress upon you herd. Atlvism will certainly operate and re-produce what is latent in the sire that was active in his dam, and latent in her sire, but active In the bull's grand dam. Those principles are as certain a that white people have white children and that black people's children ar black. In testing the herd and ascer taining the quality and quantity of milk of each cow on good keeping the cburs to pursue is a very plain one. Selection and wise mating will bring up both quan tity and quality and both are greatly needed. TJIK FUTURE SUPPLY OF BEEP. The ups .and downs of the beef market from different causes has brought us to some conclusions with regard to the fu ture supply of beef. The localities that can not furnish first-class beef are wel known to all our people. The thin soils of the East can not. The North, outside of the corn belt, will only furnish limited supplies controlled by what can be made from crops suited to the upper latitudes. Tho West is semi-arid and must confine itself to range cattle—and settlements of farmers to live by farming as we live in Iowa are giving place to the ranch again. South of the corn belt, first rate beef can only be made in limited quantities. The great corn and grass belt of the nation in the center of which our State is happily located will be the great feeding ground of the prime steer of the future. This locality furnishes now the prime steer of commerce, that tells such grand tales in our foreign trade reports, and brings back such large amounts of money to us from abroad. The point we desire to make now, is not particularly regarding our natural advantages as the way we fail to profit by them. Iowa feeders do grandly—many of them—but too few do as well as they might. We send entirely too great a per cent, of under-fed cattle to market that must sell for loss than prime beef by depriving ourselves of profits that naturally belong to us. It is very short-sighted in us to send cattle from the cheapest grains and fodders on the continent in an under-fed condition. The next point wo desire to press is the bad breeding that can be remedied. The fine horses that go to market to sell for the highest prices are well bred. They' are high grades of some kind. Good blood is so cheap that no farmer need bo without it, and without it no farmer can reach the best prices with the least expense. Iowa will without question remedy this. Those who do it soonest will get profits soonest. Iowa can furnish more fine beeves than are exported to all countries, her grasses and grains enable her to do it. and it will bo done. The sooner the better. ' i. CATTLE EXCELLENCE. Iowa farmers have taken up one after another of the problems of f arm life and have been gradually solving them through careful observation of eaeh. We are well toward the front in all the directions where enterprise will put us. But the front compared with our neighbors is not far enough, we must compare our position with our opportunities. Let us look at our cattle interests a little. The State is peculiarly well adapted to cattle breeding and feeding. Tho tame grasses have shortened the winter so that, with the exception of milk cows, our cattle might graxe all the year, when there is no snow on the ground. This gives us great advantages over, all competitors north, south or west of the great grass belt in tho center of which we live. The State produces corn more easily and with less labor and at less cost than any State in the Union, and gives us vantage ground beyond our competitors anywhere outside of the great corn belt in the center of which wo are situated. Iowa grows clover to perfection, and this makes a profitable addition to corn, the two making a very good, healthy and profitable ration for most animals. We grow oats fairly well and most fodders more cheaply than any of our neighbors can. Whatever hay or root plant grows well on our latitude grows better here. All this has resulted in Iowa furnishing more fine beeves for the Chicago market than any other State, and this gives inspiration to what we wish to say now. Only a small per cent, of our cattle are as good as they should be, and might easily be. We are sanguine that rapid improvement is going on, but the pace is too slow for our times and opportunities. We sell far too many under-fed steers, and sacrifice entirely too many thin heifers, while at the same time we sell grains of all kinds, corn, oats, barley, fiax, etc. Cattle are high just now. They are making fortunes for somebody. The profits belong to us. They are ours of right. We own Iowa and all there is in it in tho stock and feed line. It is bad business to divide profits ihisway It is silly to sell thin cattle and cheap grains. It is unwise to sell dear grains. We should sell clear beef just now, and grains sold never pay us no matter how high the average price. It is very short-sighted in any Iowa farmer to breed, rear and feed tb'ird or fourth rate cattle such as the dry regions can only produce. We can do better; others can doj better. We b/ive the opportunity: olhers do not have^it. Let us breed the best, rear them i as we can the best, finish them foi t^ro best .prices aftd we will g«t them. .A. THfc «OCt. Iowa has too many hogs. They need too much corn for the good of the land Six million hogs needing 180 million bushels of corn, raised on about six mil lion acres. This is entirely too much land devoted to corn. It ruins the land Wo have something like four million cattle. Our hogs should not exceed our cattle. Tliis excessive, raising of hogs has resulted in excessively low prices. We are also satisfied that we have too many cattle for our pastures. Iowa could keep many millions more cattle, but we musl first provide the grass for them. Hesides, many of our c.'ittle are not worthy fowa pastures. Fewer hogs and cattle would make us more money if they were better bred and more judiciously fed. We. aro satisfied that the care of the hog has been in wrong directions. Perpetual breeding from young sows and perpetual feeding of corn lias wakened the constitution and minimi/ed the bone, and made the animal'.more delicate. The hog turns corn most rapidly into money, and many farmers rushed the business. We have plenty of thinking hog raisers who can turn to rational methous, and keep- fewer and keep them differently, breed them as other animals are bred, from mature dams and sires, and feed them with their development first in view. Corn is Iowa's great feeding force, a boon that few States have, but we abuse the privilege woefully in many ways. The hog cholera is not known in many parts of our con tinent where corn is dear. If we would only realize that corn is worth as much to us as to those who buy it to take to the ends of the earth we would not sell it or feed it so wastefully to our hogs. We are satisfied that it will pay to re-organize farm stocks and reduce the hog side, we are satisfied that the pasture side and the sheep side can, with great profit, be enlarged and improved. We are positive that present ways with hogs not only hurt them constitutionally, but draw too heavily upon the soil. So it is evident that reform is imperative. IMPROA'ING. In the rush to improve the question is asked often, where Ihe line should be drawn between buying better stock and breeding them. It is difficult to lay down a rule.. A milking herd of cows depends upon selection to begin with, and this does not need money as much as careful inquiry into antecedents, and rigid rejection of all that fall below pay- '.ng work. This part of impro'vement can not be bought. With regard to beef, Iowa farmers cannot afford to take low class prices. To avoid this selections must be made of kindly feeding sorts and all others rejected. This part of the work of improving cannot be bought. The knowledge of a good brood mare, what she looks like, how lo treat her,'and mate icr, and rajse belter mares lo breed from ;han herself, must be learned. It is not for sale. The proper steps to take with •egard to establishing a flock or mutton sheep must be dug for, read for, traveled for, talked for, but llllle of it can be bought. The male to improve with in all Ihese directions can be boughl, whal he should be, you must find out for yourself. Without first rate males it is folly to try to improve. We will not stop to argue this point. It is remarkable how well his is understood, and admitted, and also •emarkable how lillle il is put into prac ,ice. Perhaps the multilude of Ihird and 'ourth rale sleers, cows, horses and oilier animals is due more lo penny wise economy here lhan want of knowing heller. It would pay improvers not a little, to isit successful farmers who have succeeded in improving. Our ideals need to bees- ahlished, and they should be good ones. The methods of other breebers who make heir herds pay aro worth learning. Some farmers are excellent field hands, aise fine crops and do not seem to inquire arther. This class sells grain. Good ield farmers often go a step farther and "eed their grain. They see that must be done, but they halt Ihere and do nol see he profil in having Ihe slock lo feed it o. Olher's fail with the pasture and over- lock, and fail with good blood, for want if good keeping. An exceedingly large number of good Iowa farmers manage well up to the point of final finish, and lalt there, sell stock not entirely ripe, or buller not Ihe best brand. So we see irouud us on all sides evidences of great >rogress, and evidence of territory yet to be occupied. We observe that necessity .ompels improvernenl quite as much as he spirit of progress. Larger bills to my compel more effort to meet them, and iOme how bills do not grow consumptive as Iowa grows older. When we look iack a quarter of a century it is evident nethods would, if practiced now. bring he sheriff. We are making headway. And il is quite as much in ourselves as in what is seen about us. We think Iowa ariners lose time chasing rascals that can ie turned into practical directions when lublic robbery stops. Iowa farmers suf- ered by the rapid settlement of public ands. This is past, and Iowa lands are .t a premiurn.The spirit of our age, lhat s industrial, is pervading all ranks and he legislator is gelling after the public hief. It will be betler for all concerned, when the farmer can devote all his time o improvement of himself and his affairs, which we think will come about when he ias pounded the golden rule into his ser- ants, as is now being done in many places. Flailing other classes is not the armer's true work. "He should be a student of nature's forces. Of ourse, if legislatures and courts and ex- cutjves halt and fold their bauds, the armer must take up the "hello" And 'stop thief" and all tjiat, £uj &e. goes ft SFEBCJt At the finnqtist of the Republican Protective TftHff League in New tot k dtty, rich with the display of luxuries distinctly American, I regret that after saving myself up for twelve hours I have missed the substantial features of the repast. I have heard good speeches, but it is hard to satisfy the demands of an educated appetite .on Tariff speeches. (Laughter!) I live in the great corn country, in the center of the Agricultural empire of the Northwest; on the alluvial prairie between your great rivers, where men in fifty years, by the miracle of homestead settlement, have done the work of five generations. (Cheers.) It in a land of plenty, which has welcomed with open hospitality every race and tongue and has never yet refused to an industrious man tho resonable rewards of life. (At plause.) It 3s true, as Senator Hiscoc«v has just said, that we have furnished to tne people of New York some mortgages. Most of our people crossed the Mississippi river with little beside strong hearts and willing hands, and in 30 years have achieved an extraordinary material progress. Our debts sland for our investments and not for our losses, tfhey represent our enterprise and not our misfortunes, our property and not our poverty. (Applause.) They will be paid to the last penny in the legal currency of the country, not a coin clipped nor a dollar depreciated. (Applause.) No community in the United Stales has a more perfect understanding of the relation of Ihe farm to tho factory than tho people of Iowa. They believe in buying what they need as far as they Can at home and in selling what they produce as far as they can in the market places of their own countrv. (Applause.) Being largely engaged in raising live stock for sale, they see the advantage of having customers who have both money to buy meat and a well-established habit of eating it. (Laughter and applause.) Our people areforreci procity, not with pur competitors in the fields of productive industry, but with every country whose incoming cargoes neither displace nor degrade the occupations of our own countymen. (Applause.) The man who cannot see the difference between a limited reciprocity with Brazil and Free-Trade with Europe ought to ionnect himself with a night school. (Laughter.) The one secures a new market without damage to the old. (Applause.) The other would either drive out our industries or require us at once to cut in two the bread buying ability of )ur own workingmen. (Applause.) We ind, for example, nearly a million people iving yonder in Connecticut—a stale that was evidently not intended for farming, laving been cast up by a volcano and left vith a surface lhat requires fertilizers in the graveyard in order to insure the resurrection of the dead. (Great laughter.) .f brother Porler is correct, and f never tnew him to be wrong, though I saw in the papers lhat he did not send blanks enough over here to take down the names of all the Tammany folks (laughter,) but f he is correct, the eight hundred thousand people of Connecticut do not raise enough to feed themselves ninety days in he year. Iowa has a substantial interest n the prosperity of thai slale. We can use her prosperity in our business. We will sell them all they need at iving rates. (Applause.) And we are eady to accord Ihern living rales for all hey offer for sale. (Applause.) We are ilways on the lookout for a good trade, but We nre not hunting for bankrupt ales. We seek no bargains that bring to lur firesides the pathelic story of want. Applause.) We seek no bargains that ecite in our ears the Old World's tragedy )f children without books, of women vithoul homes, of men wilhout hope. We seek no bargains that are found float ng upon the stagnant waters in which a ubmerged tenlh of Ihe induslrial popu- ation has gone down. (Tremendous heering.) And if the importers of this own wait for their victory till the farm- rs of Ihe west vote the manhood out of American life or set up a boycott against he United Stales of America, they will ive to crowd Methuselah for first place. Great laughter and applause.) Already he smoke of the furnace and the skill of men's hands have begun to move toward he west. Whatever the tariff may be, ve see that the absence of the factory is a veritable tax on our resources. (Ap ilause.) We are going to get rid of that ax. In the chief city of Iowa the people gave, fifty thousand dollars to hire a man o build a cotton mill. (Cheers.) In an nterprising lown in my own dislrict the icople, in spite of their politics, and regardless of the fact that the kingdom of •iaxony is the cheapest place on earth for init goods, raised ten thousand dollars to ml up a knitting factory. (Applause.) At ^orest Cily, Iowa, in my district every ear the harvestis_ celebrated in a splendid ialuce of flax which displays afonce the aste of the community and the anxiety o welcome the linen industry to the west. (Applause.) There is not a village n thai state without its board of trade, tfith its brass band (laughter), a carriage ud a cash donation for any well dressed nan who will undertake lo locale any dnd of an induslrial enterprise. (Ap- ilause.) My friends, you could more asily convert such a people to Mohammedanism than to free-trade. (Loud heers.) You may stampede us for a few weeks by a concerted alarm about ad- ancing prices. But only once, for the wkward liar has a hard road to travel n American politics. (Greatlaughter.) 'here is something about a smooth and lolished prevarication that saves it from he fate of the ordinary lie of commerce. Continued laghter.) But when the importing merchants based their campaign ast year on a system of bogus trade cir- ulars, already everywhere discredited, hey invited Ihe universal reaclion that ias set in in favor of the tariff legislation )t'1890, (Great Applause.) If Noah bad iredicted a drought inslead of a flood nd put in a system of water works in- lead of a boat he would have exercised a greater knowledge of the drainage ques- ion than the enemies of protection have f the tariff question. (Great laughter.) "hey have offered a bribe to ignorance ind put a reward in the hands of credul- ty. (Applause.) The good people of the west have built a school bouse on nearly very square mile of that territory for the xpress purpose of discouraging that slyle >fpolilics. In the long run, wilh the issue squarely nade, they will give the preachers of the English gospel of American prosperity a ermanent vacation. (Laughter and ap- ilause.) They are not ready to rescind he Declaration of Independence. (Ap- ilause.) They have not yet forgotten the xhortation of Jefferson to prefer nothing oreign when an equivalent American abric can be obtained, regardless of tie price. (Applause,) Tfeey kftow that here is at least one thing as important o a community as cheap goods, and that s money to bj0ygpo48 * and * • • AZI^A?* e t lde ? e ?? thftt thJ 8 ifl the best dressed country in the world. (Atmli Nor are we. without evidence thwme' average grades, such as people generally Wear, cost little If anything inofe thatt the same grades would cost abroad, Be that as it may, our folks are contented on the question of clothes by their per* sonal knowledge that thousands now prosperous citizens came among them in rags out of the very countries where clothes are the cheapest. (Long and continued applause.) It may suit this neieh- borhood to sprinkle English salt on Irish potatoes and thank God for the privilege (great laughter), but the great west prefers the Michigan article and thanks the protective tariff that it has been made nearly as cheap as sand in the streets of pur cities. (Great applause.) With.us it is aback number to parade the household necessities of the west in the cheerful masquerade of sympathy for the tax-. burdened farmer. We suspect people who exhibit too much sympathy. (LauKh- ter.) We investigate persons, especially Ifi« ™£ »*£ bc better than other People, who puUheir sympathy into Crotsn ™ ne rection of every human misery. * (Laugh ?«nL T ? f you tho tmth - ™ «« not S£ 2S$ B f ?F fy^P^y- We have seen the whole, list of household goods go down in price through the gradual development of our national resources; the foreign product yieding to the American; often not very gracefully, until to-dav the comforts of lift are within reach of a larger number of people than ever enioy- ed them before in tho history of the- Umted States. (Loud applause.) You cannot excite a man about a tax on carpets who has seen his country change under a great national policy from a carpet importing to a carpet making country. The free-trade argument, whatever its merits in the abstract, fails among a people who remember that the markets of the world gave us carpets so costly that we could only afford one in the house, and always kept the parlor door locked ause * * * # Wendell Phillips used to say that the mam factor in civilization is the dollar left over, out of the week's wages, after the expenses of tho family have been paid. (Applause.) That dollar means music and pictures. It means the church and the school. It means the savings bank and the insurance policy. It may not be very large, but it is big enough to wrap up in it the safety of nations and the welfare of centuries. [Great applause.] It is the dollar which lifts the industrial level of America above the •evel of the old world. It is that dollar that has attracted the industrious millions out of all lands, persuaded them to lav down the differences of. race and creed anil language, take upon honest consciences the oath of our citizenship, and receive in exchange a hope and a prospect that are denied to ihe children of Ihe people m the older countries of the world. [Loud applause.] For myself, I am constrained to say that they are welcome Without their help the West would be to-day a half settled wilderness. I am not yet ready to shut the door of the Republic in the face of mankind. [Applause.] The only favor I have ever- asked of a man born in a foreign countrv. is to sland with us while we labor along the lines laid down by our fathers, to> keep the firesides of America out of a beggar's competition with the hard conditions of life in the industrial capilals of ,t u J op vW [ Great applause.] It makes- attic clitterence what comes to thepalaces if peace and prosperity abide with the cottages.- [Applause.] I am glad to hear.- anew gospel of wealth declared in these times; but after all it is a very old gospel and comes to us, I think, out 5f the mountains of Judea—lhat property is- more than a mere possession. It is amoral trust. So that every man who has- it, whether it lies in a railroad or a coal bank or a blast furnace, is in a high sense Ihe trustee of tho community and under a high law to use his estate without pre]Udice to the commonwealth. [Applause.] f he gospel of Mammon, which in England, if we may believe Cardinal Manning, has produced a "world of wealth and a world of want," already threatens^ our own country wilh similar perils. The statesmen who have secured the American markets for the use of the American people have not finished their work until every conspiracy in restraint of trade, every syndicate of extortion, every system of fraudulent and ficlilious dealing, is scourged from the temples of legili- male business, [Applause.] I am a believer in wealth honestly come by, and wisely used for the good of the world, t believe that a millionaire like Peter Cooper [applause], with a heart full of love to mankind, is God's best gift to modern society. [Applause.] I would have every man, and especially every young man,, devote the strenglh of his years to the accumulation of money. And if he gets it, let him bless the world with his prosperity. The homestead is the fixed corner stone of American life. It signifies much in a Government like this thatmen should have a house lo call iheir own [applause] —a place lo go when they are tired, and find in the sweet faces of wife and children the wages of all their labor. [Applause.] I may be an enthusiasl, but I am living in hope of the day when the spirit of the workingman of Nazareth shall complete the world's emancipation, drying up the fountains of greed and usury and bringing at last to the weary and heavy-laden centuries the age of justice. [Great applause.] But I am not looking for that in the direction of the sand lots of San Francisco [Laughter]; nor'to the hay market in Chicago, where the blood of brave men was poured out in the public streets by a gang of alien vagabonds; not to Henry George publishing an idle philosophy of spoliation and plunder; nor to Edward Bellamy inviting nebulous dreams of incredible social conditions. [Applause.] In these days, if Joseph wishes to have his dreams respected he must dream sensible dreams. [Great laughter.] I atn a believer in the homestead; I am against the tenant system, whether in Ireland or America [Applause.] I think that fiftylyears of Government landlordism, or other form of Government owner-ship general in- slead of abolishing poverty, would make a nfttion of tramps without interest enough in society to dig a well or plant a flower or put the hinges on a gate, [Laughter and applause.] I am down on that. But my heart is in willing sympathy with the organization of American labor on the farm and in the factory, and I welcome the good day coming when the rude weapons of industrial strife and ill- considered plans of industrial reform > shall give place to the broadest,.fairest wisest devotion of the heart and brain of the age to every question that the rights of man. [Long toj applause.] And now, my friends, you for thf "**— i! — --- -* •• • k$\

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