anb Stock JJarb, JAMES WILSON, Editor. ftd«B» are solicited from cur farmer readers. QueHe* will be aniwered. Address to the Editor, lames Wilson. Traer, Iowa.] It Is entirely useless to improve blood •without good keeping. Iowa has conditions favorable to improvement in both breeding and feeding. Selection, good keeping and inbreeding of the flnest specimens improve our nn- imals. Cross-breeding and ill usage destroy all excellence. Cross-breeding for the butcher is practical. The beef refrigerators have been exhausted and the country must supply the demand. Beef is doing better and we think will go up still more. The effects of the short corn crop of 1890 an- still to be felt. In view of our experience with bare pastures all over the country we repeat what wo have urged upon our readers with regard to the remedy. Give part of the hay fields to the stock so that they will have plenty of grass through the season, and go to the corn field for fodders, also cut oats in the green state so that it will make good fodder. This is a common practice already in other lands. Our ability to keep move stock will be corresponding!}' increased. Our tax system regarding exports gave foreign countries excuse for excluding our meats, and the persistent demands o our farmers have finally induced Congress to adopt a rigid sj-stem of inspection foi export meats. Our hog products wil now go abroad or retaliation will follow further refusal. Uncle Sam has becomi too big to be cuffed about any longer, and we predict that our foreign neighbors will recognize it. This will help tin price of our meats from this time for ward. We now require the passage o the pure lard bill to enforce honesty 01 our southern neighbors. Let every tul sit on its own bottom. th The Mark Lane Express.telling us how •to get at the ago of a hog by its teeth "says: "The tushes appear in the boar a three years of ago," and as regards hogs of thaii G5U ntr y that havo not bred for early maturity n £t2 tos the facts But we see. the tushes at one year out in our hogs that have been highly developed, bred and fed for early maturity. As we modify the cattle and horses of the country we will note like evidences of changing functions. One of the main things to guard against is the taking of too much advantage of changed characteristics. Early maturity is accompanied by early breeding, and early breeding is a very dangerous resort. Perhaps the scrub pedigreed animal results from this "more than any other cause. A herd modified by improvement requires entirely different treatment from the master than the tough, slow maturing sorts, Cross-breeding is chargeable with more inferior animals than almost all other influences combined. Ko one can tell what "particular per cent, of blood predominates in a cross-bred animal. They arc •often growthy, g^orally healthy tho first cross, but unless the. males bred to them are very much more prepotent than themselves the progeny is a lottery chance, and sure to bo a blank. Our common cattle ;iro crosses, some of them better than others, none excellent. The farmers who uniformly turn off flue specimens are those who confine themselves to some particular breed, cull severely, select malf-s within the breed carefully, and study its characteristics perpetually. They know what their favorites will and will not do. They improve through superior males, breeding to remedy defects here and there, feeding to maintain health and vigor, and by long study become masters of the science of breeding as well us thoroughly acquainted with the animals they handle, and their capacity in all directions. Such management is profitable, and only such management is profitable. _ We suggest the planting of plenty of potatoes. They may not sell high enough while the quality "Will respond to the feed gtoen, both as regards total solids and ats. So the dairyman must test the milk as often as ho changes feeds. We vill grow in knowledge of the vftluc of llfferont feeds and different combinations f feeds until we can toll what they will give us in the milk pall and In the chem- st's hands. When we know a little more ;han we do now about the value of our different grains and fodders, wo will plant and harvest with the quality of the milk in view. There is a good deal to learn yet in thi« regard by all of us. Our most active investigators are a little apt :o go off on tangents where there is 110 surveyed path, and deal out theory to us without facts. THK HAKN FLOOR. The requirements ottho Iowa soil will make a different burn floor necessary. The liquid manure that has gone to waste all these years past must be saved, and a cement floor or tight plank floor will be, as much oC a necessity of the future barn as the roof. No provision has been made for conducting the liquid manure into cisterns up to this time in one of a thousand of our barns. Two tilings have resulted: an accumulation beneath and about the barn, of matter dangerous to wells, offensive to tho smell, and injurious to the health of man and beast. The other result has been a very serious waste of the best fertiliser on the farm. Methods of saving this best of crop-growing agents are in order. Solid impervious floors with gutters inclining toward a cistern will become common as soon.as our people understand their necessity. Whatever comes from the field should go back as much as possible. As grass is the best ration for stock of all kinds, so barnyard manures, solids and liquids, are the best fertilizers. It will soon be well understood that these, manures are necessary tosustaining our soils that are cropped, and it will bo concluded upon reflection that the barn is tho place, to begin, and the barn floor should be constructed to that end. There is more monov in this for Iowa than a little. to pay fur hauling to the. market, but they will pay to feed to animals of all kinds. They assist in digestion and keep the blood cool. They fatten hogs when boiled, are, excellent for young growing animals and for breeding animals. Clover hay and potatoes make a good ration for young and breeding animals, with a little corn added. Then they sell well quite frequently. If they are planted in new ground well pulverized there is no trouble in growing them provided they are planted in early May and well cultivated. We neglect them too much. The habit is to plant them late in May after all other crops are in, and cultivate them once or twice and let them go. They should be cultivated at least oiice a week until they meet in the rows, or flower. They will not dry up in a hot season ii they are kept growing by frequent cultivation. Farmers who feed corn exclusively will find them very acceptable to animals of all kinds. It is not necessary to feed them every day, but twice a week will greatly assist in helping digestion. Testing milk will become common as measuring and weighing milk. The way of doing it will become familiar. There are no patents on the process. The chemists who discovered practical methods are high-souled men who delight more in doing good than in making money. Bui tests to be valuable must not only be ma.de frequently, but as often as feed is changed. The theory that breed or individual controls quality altogether is a1 CORN CULTIVATION. • The corn cultivating season is at hand. Different farmers cultivate in various ways. Some wait until the corn is up six inches high before tending, when the tefun can walk along briskly and a good clay's work can be, done. Others begin as soon as the corn can be "rowed" and aim to get over it once a week. Still others never stop moving the surface after the corn is planted, but keep harrow and cul- tivdtor going perpetually until the corn is "laid by." These latter are the best corn-raisers. Tho crop is helped in two ways, by cultivating and manuring, and cultivating or tilling tho soil was the old meaning of manuring or maneuvering, as it once was called. The stirring of the soil as often as possible has been found to bo of groat benefit to crops. The surface is prone to encrust for various reasons and when in this condition tho crops do not groW as well liS after the crust is stirred, nnd the oftener tho soil is stirred the, h'ottoi'. Of course, the less corn one man tends the more times he oan cultivate provided ho keeps the plow going. Some farmers work thirty acres witli a man and team, and others work seventy-five. We think forty acres well dom- is fib'iut a f-iir season's work. Much depends on the man and teara. Our Iowa people who have grown up in the State do the work better than strangers from any oilier land. Few roali/e. completely the ivcossity of thorough corn cultivation. Fine crops have been raised in the dry seasons of the past witli h'ss than two incites of rain-fall from planting to ripening, by good cultivation. More depends upon this one thing than upon manuring in our rich soils. Of course, weeds are never seen Avheiv, corn is well tended until it is too late for tlvin to interfere with the growth of the crop, Prompt cultivating immediately after planting prevents weeds from ever getting a start. Our people, by comparing notes at the institutes, have come to the conclusion that the cultivator may go deep at first, but should not after tho first plowing unless future plowings follow before the roots have time to spread far. It is bad for the corn to go deep at the last plowings and cut off the lateral roots. Our best corn-growers hasten the growth by hastening the cultivation and stop before the whiffletrees break down the stalks. Cultivation after this stage is not advisable, and if done at all should be by surface scrapers that do not disturb tho roots, but do disturb the weeds and the surface of the ground. sounts will appear totter on the cterlttot's side. 1'ho farmer Who Is so situated tlvat he can not make butter should see to It that lie does make the best beef. The dairy does give the best returns for the cow's milk, but first-rate beef pays far better than the poorer sorts. Thoro nre methods of handling cows that pay fairly well where beef is the object. The cow should live as long on grass as possible. She should raise her calf on grass and wean it in time to fatten up for tho winter. The calf should bo kept growing steadily and bo first-class when it is sold. We hear it said that "you cannot afford to keep a cow for the calf." Many farmers who cannot milk must do just that. The calf is all they have beside the growth of the cow. Whoever cannot milk should shun the milk breeds as they would .shun the plague, and get the very best beef breeds, and work for the highest prices. This will pay better than many imagine. The best beef cattle feed easily, and attain good weights early, and bring the best prices. There arc many farmers in Iowa who do fairly well raising the best cattle for beef, but they are careful about breeding to tho best sires and winter their cows on cheap keeping, such as co'rn fodder and winter grasses. They select their cows carefully, with a view to goad steers. The heifers from such cows should be spayed where they are not needed for breeding. It is folly to try to make dairy cows of them. The beef form and disposition should be the prime consideration, and when we go'Jto extremes in that direction we breed away from milk. We insist that excellent beef can be made and made most profitably from the common purpose cow that will milk well, but her, calves do not possess the extreme beef form. We know all about the dairyman's claims regarding exclusive milkers and special beuf types, but do not endorse them. The fact is we will have the common purpose cow and dairymen who insist on the extreme dairy form make common purpose cows of tho dairy cow, and have spoiled many of the possibilities of making first-rate beef in Iowa, until the best beef is very scarce. We write this article to treat of good beef and how it is made, not to discourage dairying, or claim that beef-making is the proper vocation of all Iowa farmers. Some farmers are so situated that they can not meddle with the dairy, and to them we say, "get the extreme beef form." We have many thousands of them. They are wasting time and opportunities to work with anything else. They can have the best cattle to make prime, beef with and they can got tho highest prices, and wo know many farmers who make it pay. We never saw a healthy cow of the extreme beef form that would not suckle a calf fairly well. They are easy keepers, get into good condition fast after weaning their calves and wiiiU'i' cheaply on cheap fodders. Tho mistake farmers make who rely entirely on tho cn.U' is th.at, care is not fiiUTick'rtU.y taken to have good enough stock, and when that is the ease the fat cattle do not sell well enough, and so we hoar that it does not pay to keep a cow to raise a calf. SITTINGS, Expenses of the Presidential Tttiir. Toledo Blade: It may be a matter of interest to some very good people, and it is certainly a matter of justice to the president himself, that the fact should be known that president Harrison, and every person of his party on the present tour, pays the regular railroad fare to the Pacific coast and return. The Pullman company furnished the train without extra charge, and all railroads haul it for the regular per cent. An offer was made to convey the company without expense, which President Harrison very sensibly refused. Knocking out the Trust. Chicago Tribune: The sugar trust is reported to be in agony. Its members find there is grave reason to fear that all their machinations against the public, will come to naught, and tLat speedily. It was announced some time ago that they had entered into an agreement with all the wholesale grocery firms in the country by which, in consideration of certain rebates, the latter bound themselves to buj r sugar from no one outside the trust. It is now said that certain persons in Boston, who had been confidently looked to for support to the arrangement, have discovered they can do better, and have entered on negotiations for procuring their supplies from another source. They have found that under the new tariff German sugar can be imported on terms wnich enable those handling it to underbid the trust refiners. In the language of the New York Journal of Finance, "the Boston refinery found it was having its trade taken away, •and so it jnst went and sold to the grocers at a price to suit itself." Of course this means an immense reduction in the profits which tho trust had expected to squeeze out of the American consumer, and it is EO wonder that threats are being made to boycott every wholesale grocer in the country who dares to buy any sugar that has not been refined by the trust. But the trick will not win. If the dealers can buy a sufficiency at lower prices than are insisted on by the combination the latter will have to come down from its high horse, and either sell on the same terms or abandon the business to others who will be content to work for a moderate profit. Tariff Pictures. From the New York Press. In the spring time the free trader's thoughts turned to England, because in that country it would probably cost half as much for him to paint his house as it does here. Average daily wages of painters— England. $1.20. United States, $3.00 Yet it should be borne in mind that painters belong to the absolutely protected industries. You cannot send your house across to England to have it painted and returned. Hence wages are always higher in absolutely protected industries. l''01t BKKF. Scarcely a first-class steer going to. market. Is there not opportunity hero to make money '! No people can alt'ord to make the best beef if we can not. The beef eaters are increasing steadily. They will have their steaks and roasts, and will pay for them. Demand grows for the best. It is interesting to inquire what is the matter with beef producers. Several things. There has been a great clearing out of desert cattle that made cattle low because the buyers got them at their own prices. Then a scant corn crop induced farmers in the. grass belt to reduce their stocks. Tho force of these causes is spent to a great extent, and prices must appreciate. If the beef-raiser would settle down to the conclusion that one year with another good beef will pay, he would rarely feud at a loss, and generally at a profit. Again. Beef topics have been neglected for milk topics lately. We hear most about milk everywhere. The per cent, of first-rate beef made iii a State so well equipped to wake beef a,s JoV* & very low. When ye send IJKEAIC1X(J 1U21FJ5KS. To the Agricultural Editor : OTTUMWA, Iowa, March 1C.—I have- been a dairyman more or less for a good many years. I raise my own cows, and to "break" a heifer in the sense we break an animal of a vicious habit is something I have never done. First, from the fact that if a heifer is wild or even timid, and don't at first want to be milked, it is not vice. And secondly, if calves are raised by hand and treated humanely they will bo tame, and if they iiru such stock as is fit for dairy use, will be gentle and half broke already. Hence tho amount of training they need should cut no figure, except that patience and judicious management is involved. Some cows are inclined to kick, it is true, but in such cases the best way to control the cow is to control yourself, which will be as useful for the milker as for the cow. The greatest amount of philosophy I have seen for many a day is in the remark of that wise head who said: "It a cow kicks don't kick back, but whistle away and pretend that 3-011 like to be kicked." I have not been hurt by the kick of a cow for thirty year.s, and among my Jerseys I never had but one kicker, and this was spoiled by bad management. The habit tho heifers have of raising the, hind foot as though they want to step over the. puil is sometimes disagreeable, it is true, but a little patience is only required. But some say, "1 haven't the patience to break heifers." Suppose you are pitching hay and the wind blows so as to make it disagreeable and tedious, does this need to effect tho virtue of patience? If a cow is a confirmed kicker tie her legs or send her to the butcher. I don't dread to milk a heifer so much as to grind a dull scythe, for it don't give me tho backache near so badlv, uiul the best way to got along with Here is something about steel rails that will interest a good many people. It shows how the protective tariff has built up our steel rail production untilit practically equals the consumption of steel rails. Consumption of steel product: 1888, Dubuque plumbers are on a strike. Forest fires ate raging lu Michigan. Barry Sullivan, the well known tragedian, is dead. Tho president is on his return trip from California. Destructive forest fires have raged during the past week, in New Jersey. Minister Blair who was objected to by the Chines authorities will go to Japan. Ex-secretary of war, Alphonse Taft, Is reported dying at San Diego, California. The mayor of Burlington, Iowa, has been requested to resign by the citizens. A convention of the Iowa State Dental association is in session at Sioux City. A cablegram from London Monday reported the Archbishop of York to be dying. Italy has refused to exhibit at the World's Fair. Economy is the motive pleaded. A tornado leveled many houses at Paducah, Ky., involving a loss that may reach $20,000. The third annual convention of tho National Association of Machinists is in session at Pittsburg. Strikes seem to be the order of the day. One hundred carpenters at Davenport are on a strike. llev. Dr. Thomas. J. Conant, a leading Biblical scholar, died at Brooklyn, N. Y., last week, aged 89. Fire in the electric railway barns at Scranton, Pa., destroyed cars and other property valued at $190,000, Wolf's Periodic comet was sighted Monday morning at the Lick observatory on Mt. Hamilton in California. Assistant D. L. Crosby, of the Signal Service station at Des Moines, has skipped, leaving numerous creditors. Lightning struck the flouring mills at Aullville, Mo., Saturday, and the building was destroyed by fire. Loss, $50,000. Rev. George Bothwell, pastor of a Congregational church at Brooklyn, died as a result of inhaling a cork into the bronchial tube. The Sheriff and twelve deputies raided the saloons of Ida Grove and Holstien recently. Two carloads of liguors were siezed. Two fifty feet veins of glass sand were discovered at Iowa City. It is claimed that the upper stratum is adapted to making ad'ark glass and the lower stratum to the finest quality of glass. Mayor Washburne, of Chicago, purposes to supplement his reform in the way of closing gambling houses, by compelling all saloons to close at midnight, and stopping the sale of lottery tickets in the city. The Coke regions in Pennsylvania are again wild with excitement. A man by the name of Mahan was killed by a deputy sheriff Monday. In some localities the miners are armed and drill regularly. Further trouble is expected. "Old Hutch" the wheat King of the Chicago Boaid of Trade who disappeared last week has returned to Chicago. DO YOU WANT IT? ANOTHER PREMIUM. We have just completed arrangements with the Northwestern Publishing Company, of Chicago, by "which we can furnish to every subscriber of the llEruui/ioAN a copy of the LIFE OF GEN. SHERMAN at a low figure. The book contains 600 pages, is finely illustrated, substantially bound in cloth, and will be given to subscribers of the BEPUULICAN for $1, or a year's subscription to the REPUBLICAN and the Life of Sherman for $2.50. Sample copy of the book may be seen at REPUBLICAN office. Orders taken for future delivery. The regular price of this book is $2. This offer is for new as well as old subscribers. Improved Envelope Folding Machine. A new envelope folding machine possesses several novel features, including the use of boxed or inside cams, which obviate the necessity for springs in producing the different movements of the mechanicism, and thus increase the smoothness of working and durability of the apparatus. By means of an ingenious adjustable appliance, the envelopes have any desired amount of bulk or roundness of the edges imparted to them. This operation makes the envelope more convenient for use and also adds to its strength by lessening the liability to split at the edges. After folding, the envelopes are transferred to wired divisions on the periphery of a revolving wheel at the rear of the machine, where they are dried by currents of hot or cold air forced through perforators in pipes coiled at the sides qf the wheel. The envelopes are afterward dropped, into a race and gradually advanced to a table where an attendant is waiting to baud them. All the operations, from the placing of the blanks to the receipt of the finished envelope, are entirely automatic, and a single machine is capable of making from 30,000 to 40,000 envelopes per day.—New York Commercial Advertiser. 1890, rails, domestic 1,386,278 tons; pgHBamMMBM 1,867,837 tons. Consumption of steel rails, foreign imports: 1888, 03,016 tons; 1890, 204 tons. New York Mail and Express: A startling fact is revealed in the statistics of mortality in New York City for the past year. The deaths outnumbered the births by over seven hundred and fifty, and if it were not for the increase in population from without this first city of the republic would be yearly growing smaller. The census returns for the United States show a state of affairs equally as startling. From 1870 to 1880 our increase in population was 11, 598,000, and the increase in births was 8, 891,000, while from 1880 to 1890 our population increased 13,325,000, with an increase in births of only 6,950,000, or a falling off of nearly 3,000,000, with a greatly increased population. tut the best beef our ba any disagreeable job is to make virtue of a necessity. O. Moi'FET. HVK l f Oll FliEl). To the AKnculUmU Editor. BIUTT, Iowa, April 9.—I note your clipping from the Breeder's Ga/ettu stating that rye is injurious to hogs. 1 hud twenty years experience in feeding rye in Wisconsin. It was our only grain for fattening for many years, and I never saw any injury except to brood sows one year. There seemed to be more ergot that year than common, and many complained of losing pigs by abortion. Ordinarily I believe that rye is fully equal to tho best corn for fattening hogs, and if anything a little better when ground and made into swill. It should bo made about a day in advance of feeding. Make it thick and let it sour, lint in my experience, ftftd I firmly believe it i& better thfto fe^Jiog beforejt ferments. " " The duties on cotton shirtings and sheetings were increased % cent per yard by tho new tariff law. The prices at the mills are lower to-day than they were when the new tariff law went into effect. According to the free trade theory, pri ces should be a half-cent higher. Here is another case where the facts knock the theory silly.—Ex. A London hardware man, in New York the other day, said, "if you call such business as you are doing now, dull, when you call it lively it must be abnormal." The extent of business done in America is always a surprise to foreign merchants.—Ex. It was thought that his financial losses which have been enormous of late, had driven him insane but he seems to be in his right mind. A letter from Premier Rudini to Marquis Imperial! bearing date of April 28, announces the intention of the Italian government "to break off the bootless controversy" with the United States government over the New Orleans matter. The Marquis Imperial! is notified that his duties hereafter will be restricted to dealing with current business. Postmaster-General Wanamaker and Secretary Rusk were entertained by Chinese merchants at San Francisco, Saturday night. They started on a tour of Chinatown but, after a stay in the Chinese theater. Secretary Rusk succumbed to the din and obnoxious odors, and the rest of the trip was abandoned, causing disappointment among many Chinese who had prepared to receive the guests. »-•-• Nothing does a druggist so much good as to have a medicine that he can guarantee every bottle to give satisfaction. Beggs 1 Family Medicines are fully guaranteed, so you cannot fail to get satisfaction when you call for them. At Dingley's If food sours on the stomach digestion is defective. DeWitt's Little Early Risers" will remedy this. The famous little pills that never gripe and never disappoint. For sale by Dr. Sheetz. E. Reeve & Co. sell Belgrage lace hats for 35 cents. Trunks and valises at Stough's. Notice. Notice is hereby given that proposals for the erection of a schoolhouse iu sub-district No. Topeka Capital Republican: No President has ever been more villainously ridiculed by democratic caricaturists than President Harrison, but public opinion is crystalling every day in his favor. He is stronger than a week ago aud much stronger than a year ago. It is acknowledged that an administration, two years of which have passed without a mistake or a scanda\ in any department, and characterized) iu every department by business methods aad business, achievements, is au vfcusvjal cr«di| to iteejj an4 country. m. May 13,1891, after which time the contract will be awarded to the lowest responsible bidder. Specillcations may be seen at the Auditor's office in Algona and at the post office In Wesley. The board reserve the right to reject any or all bids. THOMAS llEinsAM EH, Sec. ot the Hoard of IHrectors. April 15, 3891. 28-32 Natural Gas in Iron Working. Among the more recent improvements in the manufacture of iron and steel, the use of gaseous'fuel stands conspicuous. The idea of first converting tho fuel into a combustible gas, and conveying this to the point where heat was required and there igniting it, is a very old one, and, in one form or another, it has been employed for over a thousand years, but it is only within the present century that the manifold advantages of gas as a metallurgical fuel have become fully recognized by the iron and steel'workers of the world. The early gas furnaces used in Silesia, Sweden, and other European countries were but enlarged modifications of Geber's Tower of Atha- nor, and, although they were a great improvement on the furnaces in which solid fuel was burned on a grate, yet they were not able to produce a temperature sufficiently high and controllable to. satisfy the demands of the rapidly de- 1 veloping iron and steel industries.—Popular Science Monthly. Deaf Mutes. P. G. Jefferson, of Toronto, Canada, thus writes to The Mail of that city: "The following casa has come under my notice: A farmer married, his cousin, and both possessed all their faculties, and they have nine children, of whom five daughters were born deaf mutes. Three of these daughters married speaking and hearing husbands. The first one has three deaf mute children out of five, the second one has two deaf mute children out of three and the third has one deaf mute child out of two. This proves that Professor Bell, of Washington, United States, has made a, mistake by publishing largely that the intermarriages of deaf mutes bring a deaf mute race, when the f net is that deaf mute children proceed from married cousins possessing all their faculties. In the Belleville deaf mute school there are 240 pupils, and not one of them has deaf mute parents. There are many other similar cases in England and the States." F. L PARISH. luhnn and Tin S PECIAL ATTENTION will be given to all kinds o£ repairing, including Tinware. Gasoline Stoves, Guns, Pumqs and Olotues wiuig- evs. Am also prepared to put ,la Furnaces »»d do plumbing &d Was Pipe fitting-. Tin roofing. Prowpt atteartou wiU b all kinds 61 work Jn my line. Boutw house. . be given to court Similarity In Indian Language. Whence came the Indian? There is no standard of appeal and the question could not be decided; but there is a great deal of error in the orthography and signification as given in the Indian words, Anaicolpla should be Awiniercolola, Awmer means salt. The two words water and salt in Cherokee are very much alike— awrnier and awmer. They seldom jiame after a person. Chattahoochee means streaked, rock. At the headwaters there is a variety of white and black rocks, streaked rock. — Atlanta Constitution. Humor. "Is that new' play you saw last night funnyV" ' ', "Oh, immensely funny 1 One of the characters falls off a chair and, gets lacked, by $ mule', and another one wears - - - - '
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