anb Stock WILSON, Editor. [Ideas are solicited from our farmer readers. Queries will be anjwared. Addrets to the Editor, _ J»»«i Wilton, Truer, Iowa.] These March snows will do good to the land and make hay dearer. Prof. Henry finds that 471 pounds of barley makes 100 pounds of pork and 431 pounds of com made 100 pounds. An article in the Breeder's Gazette lately told us that rye slop was injurious to hogs and many will stop feeding it. We suggest that there is no danger if rye is the only grain and too much be not fed. The impression that the Fanners' and Mechanics' College at Ames is a nest of infidelity may have applied to ite past, but three-fourths of the boys, and nearly all the girls arc members of the Young Men's and Women's Christian Associations. The British Dairy Farmers' Association have made final arrangements for testing and recording dairy cattle of different breeds. The tests are to be made on the 210th day and the 240th day after calving. The produce of the registered cows is to be given a place. now much easier we could tell how a steer would feed if we had owned his siro and dam and grand dam. The disposition to feed well Is bred into animals and bred out of them. When the Iowa farmers have stocks of cattle selected from good feeders the process will be one of much more certainty. It can easily be brought about. Two Irish breeds of milkers are getting much attention in England, the Kerrys audBcxtors. They are from the mountain districts of Ireland. Both are famous for milk and the Dcxters are also very tine beef animals. They are healthy, hardy, handsome, and for the dairy, excellent animals. The Irish people are famous butter makers. The Congress that has just adjourned has done much for the farmer that was never attempted before and left undone some things that it should have done. The work for the pure lard bill will not be lost. Such legislation must be had. There will be no peace to the coining Congress until it passes, and wise men will heed the fate of those who listened to the farmers too late. Congress has given us an act to secure humane treatment of animals on the high seas going to foreign countries. This will take away the excuse that foreigners have for proposing to refuse our cattle to land because of ill usage on the passage. What pretext will now be urged it is difficult to imagine. Secretary Husk will now have ^inspectors at both ends of the route, and JO.'ui Bull can eat his steak without lamenting the cruelties practiced on the steer from which it was cut. Mr. Williams, the great Iowa horseman, has started a horse journal for trotters. He will make it interesting and give many hints about horses that will be of value to breeders of other kinds. We cannot have too much reading that relates to the farm if it is well written, and while we do uot think the trotter is the kind for the average farmer, he is the favorite of the town horse- juan, and will always be an interesting study. Much that applies to his breeding and rearing is applicable to draft and carriage horses, and while we have so much to learn about developing the right kind of draft horses, we should welcome everything that comes from practical men about any horse. Besides, many of our farmers Jiavo taste in that direction, and are breed- 7ng trotters that pay. Like begets like. If you breed to a sire of which nothing is known, you may expect progeny of which nothing can be guessed. If you breed to a fast trotter, you may certainly look for fast trotters. If you breed to a heavy, stylish draft horse you will get something like him. If you breed to an early maturing, easy feeding bull you will get that kind of calves. Jf you breed to an easy feeding boar that comes of early maturing stock you will get that kind of pigs, ;pid so it runs. Of course the presumption is you are not a scrub man. "Do men gather grapes of thorns or figs of thistles?'' The laws of heredity are as firmly fixed as any of our natural lawn. There is no luck about breeding. The enterprising farmer who always keeps the best sires always has the best stock. The happy-go-lucky fellow who buys the cheapest thing never has, the best stock. The laws of the State do not make this .so, but the laws of nature do. There is no place for anarchists in breeding. "If you sow to the wind you will reap the whirlwind." This is a .severe time for dairymen east and north of us, who must buy grains. The price of butter is not high enough to pay the price of grain. The result will be a .still farther abandonment of the business by tho.su who cannot produce their own feed, and a still farther advantage to Iowa dairymen who can. Every violent fluctuation of prices of feed and product, makes it more difficult to maintain competition with us. Our eastern and western neighbors are compelled to work harder, hire less and be content with les.s profit after paying transportation on feed, and prime cost. The low prices of hogs have the same ofi'wt on all who cannot grow corn as abundantly and as cheaply as we do. So that we see the tendency is to produce these things where they can be procured cheapest. We may feel the effects of low prices but not in such force as our competitors feel them. The Iowa fanr.er controls the situation. It will, however, pay him to use all the diligence, and economy, and skill that his losing competitor lias so long maintained his position by. Hay is becoming scarce, and consequently dear, and many farmers wish they had devoted a couple of days with all hands at corn cutting time. Old fashioned corn and fodder feeders may be able to get a hearing oil the subject as soon as the new-fangled curare get out of breath and there is a pause long enough to put in a few old-style remarks about saving corn fodder. The old way was to put up 144 hills in a shock, and tie it securely, and let it stand until it was va&tecUf tiiat was. uo.t till clewing time in April. The siloing, ancUhreshing and cutting and husking and stacking and storing In the barn that have been canvassed so thoroughly during the las few years have overshadowed the old method. In fact, the crusade after eon has left us much at sea regarding methods Many have become disgusted with the handling of corn fodder and abandoned it, while careful men haye succeeded It making ensilage without serious waste. We write this paragraph for the purpose of suggesting to farmers who are short of fodders that there is no need of It as long as the corn was not utilized. The best planners will get caught at times, and we say to all who arc not resolved definitely about new ways of saving corn fodder that the old way will do, is economical, keeps fodder finely, gives good reports through all the animals that eat it. It is old-fashioned and no modern enthusiast advocates it, but the shocks come handy in a scarce time. D Abortion is alarmingly prevlaent in several counties of Iowa among mares. What is the matter? In early days our mares bred regularly, colts came at full time, and after a few days followed the mare at her work. Our native horses proved the value of Iowa as a State that will nurture sound, hardy horses. We begun to improve. Wo wanted weight in the collar. We got it, but it did not come without a host of undesirable accompaniments. Abortion is one of them, but how, or why, we cannot tell. Many of the imported horses came without pedigree, and, iu, and inbreeding may have resulted in consequence, a practice that is known to result in impaired constitutions, weakness of fertility and abortions as a result. The conditions under which animals live are entirely different from those of thirty years ago. The original prairie grass and prairie hay were very good for the health of all animals. Our tame grasses may have ergots—in fact, do—that are strongly suspected of producing abortions. Stabling is different from what it was, but one would think for the better. Violent changes, however, from warm stables to storms may effect breeding stock. We suspect feeding more than anything else for causing the beginnings, and when begun, it requires looking into to determine the manner of its spread from one animal to another. The conditions require careful study and steps are being taken to do this. No scourge like this visits any herd, because its workings are not understood and its attacks beyond our power to anticipate except by investigations beyond the ability of single individuals. With regard to abortion in the dairy herds, it is not speculative to conclude that unnatural usage is the cause, especially milking up to the period of parturition, which is practiced by many and unfortunately advised by journals that should know hotter. Heavy feeding and heavy milking beyond reason may pay for n time, but they not only wear out the cow soon, but injure her vitality, and abortion is evidence O f it. DRAINAGE. To the Agricultural Kditor. ' Cicn.ui RAPIU.S, IOWA, March 20.—Drainage prevents land fiombecoming sour, first by retaining the heat of the sunshine that would be carried away in evaporating the water if it was left in the soil until removed by evaporation. Second, it is a well known fact that organic matter, plants and animals decaying under water or while lying in water, form sour, acid combinations as the result of imperfect decomposition. When the water is removed and the air admitted a sufficient quantity of free oxygen from the air is supplied and complete decomposition is the result, and the mutter assumes forms that can be utilized as fertilizer or food for the growing crops. If the water remains and the oxidation or decomposition is incomplete as a result of the exclusion of the oxygen of the. air, by this excess of water, the acids are formed and the practical, observing agriculturist says that his land is "cold and sour and produces sour grass," but often the cause is not suspected nor the remedy fully understood, C'AN Woniv siXiXKK AKTKK ISA1XS. In fields not drained then- are nearly always wot places that do not dry oil' in the spring and after rains as quickly as the remainder of the Held. Much valuable time is lost in waiting for these wet places to become dry enough to be worked satisfactorily, and often another rain comes while waiting and the work is again delayed. By being properly under-drained these places become dry first and the field can be worked as soon as the high ground is dry enough. TAX AVOH1C EAIU.IEU IX THE SPKIX(i on drained soils because they are several degrees warmer than similar soils not drained and thaw earlier, the surplus water is removed earlier and it is not necessary to wait for the wet places to dry after the remainder of the field is ready, for the parts drained dry first. Geo. Garrison, of Kushville, Illinois, said that in ordinary seasons the land can be worked two weeks earlier than previous to draining. 1). W. STOOKKY. FORAGE PLANTS. The different latitudes of our country grow different forage plants, and the different plants make the variety of marketable farm products. Nowadays, when people are moving, unsettled and uncertain where to settle down for life work, a study of what each locality grows naturally and without forcing will throw light upon the question. We know what Iowa and the great grass and corn belt grows. Our forage plants are produced in greater abundance and with less outlay of time than are forage plants elsewhere. Corn is the great forage plant of Iowa. For fattening is has no equal anywhere. Hence Iowa is the swine State of the Nation, the foremost producer of beef and dairy products. This has been proven beyond cavil. For pregnant animals, young, growing animals and working animals it is not a complete feed, and we have come to the time when it is necessary to learn what other forage plants should be fed with it to make it a complete' ration, and such forage plants as Iowa can produce as readily as corn. We have oats and the clovers, and the millets, and rye, and peas and beans, and sorghum, and timothy and the other cultivated grasses. This places Iowa in a position of great advantage compared with all other localities. People east and west on our latitudes, for various reasons, cannot grow Forage crops as we can. The soils in the eastern states are naturally thin and poor, and have been managed so as to make them poorer. The soils of the Middle States vary much more than ours. They have rich valleys, the results of washings from the hills and disintegration of the rocks. They have all been degenerated, by bad management, by soil robbing. All forage crops in those older settled States are now produced at greater expense than with us. On much of their soils profitable agriculture cannot be pursued in competition with us. The history of competition on this continent in the production of what forage crops make has been cheaper cost on newer land. The West has embarrassed the East, and that rule still controls. Whoii we look to the west of us on our latitude we find that climatic conditions change this rule. There is still rich soil that would produce forage plants, but want of moisture stops the operation. To the north of us the character of such plants Is circumscribed and their profitable production limited. Corn yields less gradually until it ceases to be profitable, and resort is had to plants that mature with less heat during shorter seasons. South of us greater heat changes the list of profitable forage plants, and agriculture requires to bo studied from a different standpoint with different conditions. Where the cotton and the ribbon cane grow the grass plants of the temperate latitudes vanish. The planters have not established for their latitudes a system of production that will maintain the fertility of their plantations. We feed them to a great extent, with meats, grains and dairy products. The great forago belt of the continent, in the center of which Iowa is located, is now looked to from all quarters for : ood. Impoverishment in one word Is the ilstory of agriculture in the East and South. Enterprise and mental activity among our "armors give promise that this is not to be >ur history. No locality on earth provides wage plants for use in producing high- priced farm goods as Iowa. It may con- inuc to bo so. It will be otherwise if we ollow bad examples. THE CALF. The time is at hand when the calf re- luires attention. An inlying pen or stall, arge enough to give the cow room to move ibout, is necessary in cold weather. A mall box is not good, cows will tramp ipon the calf, sometimes. If the cow is to •e milked and the calf fed by hand, begin t once. If the farm economy is such that he calf is to suck, several things are to be onsidcrecl. The cow will very likely have oo much milk for it, for some time. If she s not milked dry she will soon give only what the calf takes, and when the calf requires more it will not get it, the cow has gone partially dry, suited herself to the circumstances. This habit has resulted in destroying the milking characteristics of many thoroughbred cows that would do better if they had been properly handled, and hence, the dividing line between milking and beef cattle. It is natural for the cow to respond to the usage she gets. But the cow is needed in the dairy, then the question arises, how can the calf be most economically reared? If it is a steer or a male to be used as a breeder, it pays best to push it and if it is a well bred calf that will sell at maturity in the high classes it will pay to feed for early maturity. For a month It should have new milk, as it comes from the cow, then a little oil meal can be gradually substituted for new milk, and skim milk gradually substituted for new milk. Gabrilson, who is a very close observer, suggests a little rennet at this stage to help digestion. We would suggest in addition that the milk be always warm. The digestive powers of the calf must wait until the milk has warmed up. We think indigestion comes often from feeding cold milk. We regard a little oil meal as medicine for a calf or other young animal .at this stage, and a fine corrective for the alimentary canal. Boiled flax seed will answer just as well. If the calf is a heifer and designed for beef, feed it like the steer and have it spayed. If it is intended for the dairy very different treatment should be given. Many cows are spoiled by early over feeding. If the bone is raised and a large frame developed by heavy feeding an ungainly cow is the result. Large steers, to be handsome, must be fat, Fat cows are incompatible with milking. The working cow i eats to convert into milk, and while we do not approve of the delicate form that is at present the ideal of ideal dairymen, we do not want alarge|steer-like frame for the dairy cow, and advise against stuffing the calf to bring it about. The dairy districts of Iowa give more, attention to butter making than to calf feeding. Their calves are often underfed, while tlni beef making districts spoil the calves designed for cows, by going to the other extreme. How to take the cream from the calf's milk and substitute the fats is worthy the attention of our experimenters—and will get it. We think a cow whoso frame has been kept within bounds in calfhood makes the handsomest and most easily fed milker. We have often seen oil meal substituted for the cream successfully. Wo would advise oat meal if it can be had at reasonable prices. Oats can be fed profitably at a mouth old. Nice rowen clover hay has what calves need. Thrift only is desirable in the young heifer until she is two years old. When she has been bred then there is no danger of liberal keeping. Her size is determined, and good keeping will bring about beauty. She will manufacture fat fast enough from feeds that are not prominent for fattening. The fat she puts on on the pasture will not hurt her, as would fat put on by corn. Her capacity to eat fodders should bo considered and developed. Iowa has abundant fodder plants, and their economic feeding has become a question of consideration. Keally the grain feeds should only supplement fodders, and as we grow in knowledge of methods of curing fodders, and learn more of their excellence, we will feed less grains. Of course, feeding is only one item in the good dairy cow, but it is an indispensable item. Selection of properly fed heifer calves is absolutely necessary to the building up of a valuable herd of dairy cows. When they "come in" the butter tests will tell which pay and which do not. Knowledge of sires and dams will point out which calves are worth raising ior milkers. We would uot bother with tfae calf of ft cow that gives milk below four per cent, butter fats, nor with the calf who*e dam dries up soon, nor with cne that Inherits anything not wanted. There are good milkers In afl breeds and selection with proper usage will develop what will pay. FORTY-SIX LOCOMOTVM8. S. 0. Journal: Already orders have been received in this country from Brazil for forty-six locomotives. This, in some respects, is a pretty good sized straw. The farmers ought to think it over. Heretofore, England has manufactured locomotives for Brazil. But for the republican policy of reciprocity these forty-six locomotives would be ordered in England, as they always have been heretofore. According to the tariff for revenue only philosophy, these forty-six locomotives ought to be built In England instead of in this country. The American free traders are opposed to the change. They think, in fact, that it would be better if locomotives for railroads in tb.6 United States were manufactured in England. That is true if their theory is correct. Upon their theory, our people ought to be distinctively and always agricultural, out to be farmers instead ot manufacturers, and ought to compete more sharply with each other so as to undersell the other farmers of the world in food supplies for the English and European laborers engaged in manufacturing. It is therefore, in this theory, a misfortune that these forty-six locomotives will be built in this country, where the men to be fed by our farmers are near to the farms. Consider this a little. Consider the labor required to produce forty-six locomotives, to produce the iron, the steel and all the materials that will be used and to manipulate and fabricate the same into their finished product, the splendid machines called locomotives. Suppose each locomotive costs $30,000, and that Special Announcement, On next Monday, (March 30th) we shall place on exhibition (in addition to our usual assortment) the complete line of New Spring Samples of the American labor employed in its production averages $2 per day, each ma chine would of course represent 15,000 men working one day, and the forty-six machines would represent 690,000 men working one day. These men eating thee times a day will consume 2,070,000 meals. Let the western farmer imagine a table set for 2,070,000 working men, and compute the amount of food, the meats, the bread, the milk, the butter and all farm produce required. When he has figured it out, he has simply found the table that must be set to build these forty- six locomotives. Now, the democratic theory, the tariff for revenue only theory, is that that table ought to be set in England. The republican theory, the protection theory, the reciprocity theory, is that the government ought to spare no reasonable means to have that table set in the United States. Here is a good practical illustration of reciprocity: James G. Elaine ia this one particular has set a table in this country whereat 2,070,000 American workingnien will eat one meal, to be supplied by western farmers. And yet some tarifl for rev- nue only high tax crank has the nerve to ask, "wherein does reciprocity benefit the western farmers?" The republican theory is that it is better to move this table 3,000 or 4,000 miles nearer to the western farm than to have it remain in England—that it is better to have it at Trenton and Pittsburg and Chicago than at London. The republican theory is that the western farmer will sell more butter and eggs if the table is on this side of the Atlantic: That he will furnish more of the flour than if he had to go 3,000 miles nearer to Russian competition; that if the Russian farmer wants to compete, it is better for him to pay freight over 3,000 miles and then a round duty at the custom-house. What does the western farmer think about it? Where does he believe his interest lies in this matter? Why not get right down to the plain practical features of this matter? This is only one detail, only a sinle item, one fruit off the tree of reciprocity and republican policy. The Brazilian orders for forty-six locomotives—some-, thing unprecedented—may seem to be a small circumstance, and by itself it is a small circumstance, but in its significance, in the basis which it affords for measurement, it strikingly suggests the difference in the practical results between republican and democratic tariil! policies. $1, Address Can be made in o months selling Tuiiison's Atlases, Charts and Wall Maps. Particulars free. H. C TUNISOS, Chicago, His, Tl NEW WEBSTER JUST PUBLISHED-ENTIRELY NEW. WEBSTER'S INTERNATIONAL, DICTIONARY A GRAND INVESTMENT lur the Family, the School, or the Library. ""vision hasi been iu progress for over 10 Years. More than 100 editoriullaborers employed. 831)0,000 expended before iirst copy was printed. (,riitica examination invited. Get the Best. SUM hy all Booksellers. Illustrated pamphlet free. O. & C. MEttKiAM&co..Ful>U8Ue«p, eprlugfleia, Mass., U. S. A. Caution I—Thero have recently been issued several cheap reprints of the 1847 edition of \V abater's Unabridged Dictionary, an edition IOUR since superannuated. These books are Riven various names,-.'' Webster's Unabridged," *The Great Webster's Dictionary," "Webster's Big $"o°tc ar et'c Webster ' 8 ^cyclopedic Diction! Muny'announcements concerning them are very misleading, as the body of eacfc, from A to A is W years old, and printed from cheap plates wade by photographing the old pages. PETS, Art Squares, Rugs, Etc. Of one of the Largest Carpet Houses in the United States, Also the Largest and Finest assortment of • Lace Curtains Ever shown in Algona. These are all New Styles and Desirable Goods, sold for just what they are. No Misrepresentation, No Shoddy, No Job Lots, But the VERY BEST That can be had for the money. We meet all competition,, no matter who or where. Do not fail to examine these goods. The Grange Store, Can Save BY BUYING- YOUR -FROM- J I Large, new stock just received. IF YOU WANT lubber Boots Call and get our prices on them. NORTHERN IOWA NORMAL SCHOOL! Algona, Bowa. This institution offers superior advantages in the following particulars: It has three full, rounded, courses of study: Business, Academic, and Normal. Its aim is thorough, practical work in all branches taken up—nothing slighted, nothing done for show. It makes a specialty of fitting Teachers for their work,, and has succeeded so well that it has more calls for qualified teachers than it can fill. Its Academic students are admitted, without examination, to the leading institutions of the state. Its work is endorsed by Co. Supt.-Carey, and superintendents of other counties send to us for teachers. It offers cheap board, low rates of tuition, the personal acquaintance and influence of the faculty. Further information furnished on application to H,B. McCOLLUM, A, B,, Prin,, Algona, Iowa. Spring o Term opens March 31. THE COMPLETE LIFE OF GEN. WM.T. SHERMAN By GEN. O.O.HOWARD. Now in press, printed In English and German, riie best opportunity ever offered agents, Outfit only 36o. Seiid for it at ouce. Sold only by subscription. Liberal terms. The Columbian Publishing & Purchasing C0i| Kookery Building, Chicago. 23-20 GREAT FRENCH REMEDY. u try Dr> ^uc's Periodical Pills, from Vp?i8, France. Established - Europe 1889: Eagjand 1850 ; Canada 187s ; United States 188T. p2 or tlu'ee boxes for $5. Positively remove all 'oSSUy^S^FVS 8 01 ' »">uey refunded. THE AMERICAN PILL CO.. royalty proprietors, Spencer, la. The trade supplied by wholesale ,ents. H. Bos with & Sou, Mil wautee; Kobt. eveuson & oo. Chicago. Retailed by Dr.L. A. Sheetz. Algona. l»-!u-yr Teacher's Reports AT HEPUBUOAJf OFFICE.
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