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Firm iBfl Stock-Yaii JAMES WILSON, Editor. (Ideas are solicited from our farmer raiders. Queries will be answered. Address to the Editor, James Wilson, Truer, Iowa.) ALOONA, IOWA, March 25,1891. There are three, ways In which nations acquire wealth. First, by conquest, which is robbery, second, by commerce, which is usually swindling;, thfrd, by agriculture, which is the true and priit*lpnf source of national Wealth,—Uenjivmlu Franklin. Goats are said to be tubercle proof. Early breeding encourages milk. Late breeding inclines to fat. The only certain way to exterminate Canada thistles is to cut them off at the surface evc-ry week for a whole summer. No plant can live if this is done. In this clay of demands for milk tests to determine the value of the milk of each cow, the churn is a very good implement to use for want of more expensive one. There are a few very important things that many people go through the world and never fully realize. One is the development of our country iu so many different directions at once, another is the value of corn fodder in winter and blue grass in summer. The census reports of the mortgage indebtedness of Iowa have no point whatever. Is T o onecould arrive at the actual facts without consulting every party interested. Much of it is mere guess work. It is of such a nature that people do not readily give information concerning it. The estimates of the debts on an acre are simply nonsense. The pasture is imperative if the land is to be fertile. It demands good stock if the pasture is to pay. More corn is sold and corn stalks wasted than would be required to double the butter product of the State. It seems strange when wild liay sells in our State for eight dollars a ton that we deliberately waste as much corn fodder as would feed all winter a 1 ! Ibe cattle in the State. We suggest to farmers to learn a lesson of thoroughness, of enthusiasm in breeding draft horses, from the breeders of trotters, reads the best journals he can buy. He studdies pedigrees because he expects heredity to play an important part in his business. Ho does not for a moment hesitate to pay for the best sires because he knows they only will pay him. The difference between continuous grain cropping und rotation with grass lies o£ten been reported upon. The Indiana experiment station adds its test imony from a test made running over a period of four years and finds the average from grass and grain to bo about twenty-five per cent, above grain only. But this only corroborates what observing farmers have known for many years, iu all countries. When calves arc to be fed skim milk ascertain as near as possible the amount of fat taken from the milk by the skimmer or extractor and replace it with, ground tlaxsecd, feeding the milk as warm as it comes from the cow, or an equivalent of oat meal, or something that will restore the strength taken from the milk. Gradual substitution after the calf is a mouth old can be made There is no need or excuse for having pot-bellied calves. One objection to scrub stock is the uncertainty as to what it will breed. You may have a good milking cow that has bred back to one good strain in her make up, while her calf may breed back to some poor strain. There is no way of securing certainty from non-dcscript animals, but use sires so prepotent that the mixed blood in the dams will be entirely overcame. This applies to both beef and milk cattle, mutton and wool in sheep, style aud action in horses. A continuation of impressive sires will fix characteristics. The quickest way to get tame grass to catch where the native is abundant is to burn oil' the native grass in Juno, pasture close and sow the tame grass seed. Mammoth clover is vigorous under such circumstances. Blue grass will grow where any other grasses will. Timothy seed hay fed in sloughs and tramped in will catch. On bare ground sow any of the tame grasses in March and early April. Close grazing will kill all the wild grasses of Iowa, but the process is not fattening for stock. The Homestead likens the alliance spirit to yeast, and the way it strikes different men to slow and quick leaven. Rather an apt comparison. It might be compared to a rushing brook, and a deep, still river. The one makes the most noise, the other does the most work. But all are useful. The river comprises many brooks, and slow running men are tired by the enthusiastic, Some legislators rush to the front on every new proposi tion, others deliberate and take positions that all finally settle upon. The pioneer is as necessary as the rotation farmer, if not so permanent. Those who desire the disposal of scrub stock should be pleased with the amount sold during the winter. There has been a great cleaning out, and when the pas tures are ready for grazers the thinning out process will stop. Herds should be in better shape than they ever were before, and the time is propitious to keep them improving. The herdsman should determine what is best for him to do and steadily pursue that. Every fall should bring about farther'rejections of what is not wanted. By steadily continuing this course the herds of Iowa will soon become worthy of their pastures. How funny it will be to hear of a member of the British Parliament raise In his seat nad demand an explanation from the government why American veterinarians dare cross the ocean and actually look into the condition in which our beef cattle land there. The integrity of the empire must be looked to, and the very presumption of the "blasted Yankee, don't you know," seeing for himself whether he sends diseased cattle abroad is threatening to the British constitution. We would stop all this invasion of Americans into the "right little, tight little island." What business have Americans to buy millions of dollars worth of breeding animals every year, over there anyway? Inquire into that also. Americans traveling abroad spend ninety millions of dollars a year. Ask ho,w much of that is spent among her majesty's subjects. How desirable is our trade to all the world, but should the American farmer insist upon the truth regarding the health of his stock and send somebody to prove it—that's different. The fact is John Bull exists by divine right to sell to people 'high priced things and was ordained to buy cheap things. He keeps open shops to sell, but nobody must presume to sell dear goods to him. He draws his hundreds of millions annually from the United States for the products of skill, but it will never do among British landlords— the sending fine beeves there and proving them healthy. That's going too far, Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill and others wrote books to prove the wisdom of open lommerce when it answered John's end. If it is to answer Jonathan's end it would have been better not to have written them. Yes, call up the case in Parliament, call out the horse guards and pack the three American horse doctors home again so that it can be said that American iattle still have pleuro pneumonia and orders of councils may still discriminate against them. The question of proper rations for milk is not new, it has always been discussed by practical farmers in private, in clubs, and to some extent abroad by scientific men. Until lately it has not been a popular question in our country. It is now a leading question. The necessity of the dairy set men to thinking regarding material to make milk. of. The broad prairie gave grass in summer, and corn, hay, straw and corn stalks in winter. Dairying is becoming more intensive and competition more general. How to make first-class butter cheapest now occupies the minds of our sharpest men. "What to feed with is an uppermost question, Very good results are had from feeding the curod stalk with tic ear in different shapes, but the comparative value of different hays, is inquired into and an answer will be forthcoming. The practical farmer will find out for himself. Some of the stations will experiment regarding it. The fodder will all have a trial, the roots will all be tested, green crops will be tried all with our royal cereal and every step taken will be of value and be of great public benefit whether by public or private enterprise. Many preconceived notions vanish when trial has been made. Eastern experimenters have worked in the direction of establishing a complete ration. They will discover that the cow has much to do with results, and so practical experience varies from a scientific formula. There arc certain fodders we must use, and use them rather than others that would give more milk, but they can not be thrown away nor can others be bought. Profitable farming consists in raising good crops suited to our soil and climate and in making the most of them after they are raised, and in using all of them to the best advantage. There is no doubt but that we can yary our crops to suit the dairy cow when it is determined just what she requires that can be economically grown. Heretofore no kind of literature has been so scarce in the west as that pertaining to the western farmer. Every state now has experimenters at work, and we will soon have more reading pertaining to the farm than any other kind. This matter goes direct to farmers and they are the only judges of its value. Al'l'IA'INU MANlTItKS. The season for applying manures is at hand, and the best ways of getting the good of them is in dispute. Our eastern neighbors cannot plant until all the manures possible to be had around all the barn yards have been scraped clean and carefully put iu the hill, or spread broadcast, to be harrowed under. Mucli of farm discussion farther east turns upon the question of manures. Several European countries extensively engaged hi commerce have manures brought from the ends of the earth to keep up crop production. Our eastern neighbors for years have been using phosphates of commerce, and without them their scanty returns would be lessened. The saving of manures has become a science as well as the application of it, where the soil is light and easily exhausted. Feeding, so as to have valuable manures is one branch of economic farming in the east. We have been comparatively exempt from all such consideration. Nature provided a gooi: start for us, that will keep us well aheac iu cheap production, if we are not prodi gal in the extreme. We should not waste in this hey-day of Iowa soil's strength the great advantages we have in this regard It is required of ua that we utilize oui inanures. The first tvawrfngs 'of iacipieo 1 exhaustion begin to be heard bete and ,here. Farms that have no manures returned to them, that have not systems in vogue with a view to recuperation, where grains have been sold to make manures for other people, where the barnyard manures are washed away by spring rams, where fire consumes straw stacks, irying out in short crops and wise men are heeding the cry. The first requirement is to get the manure promptly Upon ;he land in some shape, to get it where its decomposition will help growing vegetation. It is not settled whether manure does more good on a pasture than on a :orn field, but it is settled that it does more good on either than in the dung heap. There is dispute over fresh and well rotted manures, but no doubt about either being beneficial. The Iowa farm that is good to-day is the one that has lad rational usage, the manures hauled out, pastures, recuperating granis, fed on the place. The Iowa farm that is becom- ng poor is one that has been steadily •obbed. The one is going steadily in one direction, the other is as certainly going ;he other way. We have been excused from the necessities of other localities in s regard. Where our neigbors have been reduced to desperation for fertilizes, we have been in a perfect Goshcn in -his respect. Sterility here and there on ight soils admonishes us to get our manures out. No soil we know of is so much helped by manures. Sandy soils leach away manures in a season or two. Our loils hold them for years, getting a reced- ng, through positive benefit. Commer- sial manures are entirely out of the ques- ,ion. One of the paths over which poor 'amilies trying to earn farms in future will travel, will be the management of uaying farm animals where labor tells, and the application of manures to crops where profit will come from extra yields. ~.t would be interesting to have a census of farms that yield less every year, and of the manures wasted on them. We vould become alarmed if we could realize the rate of depreciation. It is encourag- ng to know that well managed farms iu "owa do improve without outside assistance. QUESTIONS ANSWERED. CULTIVATING OLD GKOUND. VINTON, Iowa, Feb. 23.—Would you ,ell me what would be best to put on old ;round? The land has been in small jruin for fourteen years. Last year it lad oats and the year betore corn. " We would seed the field down. 'Sow oats or barley as a nursing crop. For Benton county nothing equals medium •ed clover, timothy, a, little white clover, and if you want to keep it in grass more than three years sow some blue grass seed. If you plow it up inside of three years the blue grass would not be valu able. We do not give the amounts of each kind of seed, because we do not enow whether you would pasture or iiake hay. For pasture, sow quite heavi y. Then we do not know in what condition the land is. If it is quite clean, ess seed will do than if it is foul. We sowed pecks of red clover and timothy .n early days when it was more difficult -o get a catch and the soil was more .oose. Half of that amount supplies all our farms at present. You may as well sonclude that your land will grow less every year until it has a rest in grass, after which it will return to pristine fertility. >ay in Illinois, because of Senatorial neg- igence. The failure in this regard will iost more senatorial and house and other seats. The big flails'are fresh hung and ready. SMUT IN WHEAT COOKED. The wheat plant is liable to be attacked with smut mow or lose. Sometimes it s so serious that the yield is seriously af- 'ected. Many expedients have been reported to, to prevent it, such as blue stone baths, urine baths and the like, but with questionable effects. The Pardue exper- ment station at LaFayette, Indiana, has ried the "hot water preventive," Smut jrows from germs or seeds, and the use >f baths of different kinds is to kill the jerms. The hot water treatment is sim- )ly intended to kill the smut germs with i temperature not high enough to kill he seed wheat. The first heard of it was rom a Danish investigator named Jenen. The experiment has the virtue of jeing simple and costing nothing. Par- lue people used temperatures varying rom 125 Fahrenheit to 165. 100 seeds were used in each test, and the time Va- led from 6 to 15 minutes. Seeds kept n the hot water at 185 for ten minutes or 40 far five minutes were injured twenty ;cnt., that is, one-fifth were cooked dead. ?he finding is that seed treated in hot water at 130 for five, ten or fifteen minutes was benefitied, or in water at 185 for Ive minutes, showing that the safe midi- um is 185 for five minutes. The seed thus reated was benefited and the crop grown rom it comparrd with wheat not so reated was from one-half to to four and even-tenths per cent, benefited. Com- non wash tubs can be used and care must e taken to keep the water at the proper emperature. The wheat should be immediately spread and dried. The process hastens germination. Of course the pro- jess should be applied at seeding time, A skimming process should precede the lot water bath so as to remove imperfect eed and seeds affected with smut, as hey will rise to the surface. This should )e done in water below 13(5 to get the vheat warmed up for the final bath of five minutes, during which there is not ime to stir and skim sufficiently. A thermometer must be used that can be relied upon, as too hot water will hurt the wheat and if many degrees below 135 it will not kill the smut. The theory upon which the experiment is based is that the smut being outside of the wheat grain and being so much smaller than the wheat will be killed before the wheat is.. Well worth trying. The operation will free the seed from many foul seeds and all rnperfect kernels, and for those reasons t will pay to try the hot water bath. NO HONEST Congress did not pass the lard bill. The Senate let it sleep. Olber things took up its attention. Millions of northern people are cruelly disappointed. The price of pure lard is cut down nearly one-half and this is one reason hogs do not pay, The oil of cotton seed is dishonestly mix ed with a per cent, of lard and the mixt ure sells for pure lard. The good name of an honest product is used to float a dishonest one, and the owners of fifty million hogs suffer. Iowa, that has twelve per cent, of the hogs of the country, loses most by the villiany. Why did the lion orable Senate not do justice in this res peel? What took up their attention so engrossedly? Head over their proceed ings and see and observe the thousand and one things that could and should have been swept aside when such an out rage is being perpetrated on the people ef the northwest. Not a day has gone over their heads since the bill went over from the House but had time enough in it to do that act of justice. People won der what ails the farmers, why they de feat senator after senator and threaten to change the complexion of the Senate Why not defeat them? What good are they to the hog raisers? They may be representative of other people, but cer tainly the owners of fifty million hog! have neitherfpart nor lot in them. Now this may seem rank grangerisrn. So it is The farmer is being pinched because the cotton seed trust gets his profits. He is angry.;;. If farmers were demanding the profits of the cotton seed trust they woulc be robbers, but they only ask that the scoundrels be choked off their practices and it is not done by the one body tha' could have done it. That body is the most un-American of all the deliberative bodies of the land, People look at re suits and they are disappointed. Thej patiently wait at the foot of the lane til the Senators come by that way and even things up. It is rated terrible. Poo Farwell, poor Ingals, poor all of them augers that would not bore, laid aside Their taking off is very American. Littl is said, but out they go. Well, wha then? Keep at it until servants obey until the creature answers the uses of hi creation, until the United States Senat gets its ear closer to tlie people who toi than it is the [different lobbies, farmer reyregeutativee held 200 men at Special Announcement, On next Monday, (March 30th) we shall place on exhibition (in addition to our usual assortment) the complete line of New Spring Samples of CARPETS, Art Squares, Bugs, Etc. Of one of the Largest Carpet Houses in the United States.. Also the Largest and Finest assortment of Lace Curtains Ever shown in Algona. These are all New Styles and Desirable Goods, sold for just what they are. No Misrepresentation, No Shoddy, No Job Lots, But the VERY BEST That can be had for the money. ' We meet all competition,. 110 matter who or where. Do not fail to examine these goods. The Grange Store. NORTHERN IOWA NORMAL SCHOOL! Algona, Iowa. DeWitt's Little Early Risers never gripe or cause nausea. Mild but sure, assist •ather than force. Best little pill for sick leadacbe, chronic constipation, dyspepsia. Bold by Dr. Sheetz. The Dakota Hot Springs. The improvements that liaye taken jlace at the Dakota Hot Springs during ,he past year make it now one of the most popular, attractive and desirable resorts in the country. In addition to the benefits to be derived from the use of the water, the curative properties of which rival those of the famous Hot Spriags of Arkansas, the superior climate and beautiful natural surroundings render the Da- iota Springs an especially attractive resort. Ample hotel accommodations are provided at reasonable rates, and the "journey to and from that point can now be quickly and comfortably made via the Chicago & North-Western Railway system, which has recently been completed into the Springs. Excursion tickets are sold the year round at reduced rates. Pull information can be obtained upon application to any agent of the Chicago & North-Western Railway, or by addressing W. A. TIIHALL, General'Passenger and Ticket agent, Chicago. 25-2C Finest line of carpels in the city at bottom prices at Galbraith's. If food sours on the stomach digestion is defective. DeWitt's Little Early Risers will remedy this. The famous little pills that never gripe and never disappoint. For sale by Dr. Sheetz. Sheetz issues regular Co's guarantee to cure all ailments with Kidd's Germ Erad. YOU WANT A GOO1> .SHOT-GUN and if you will call at the KKPUHLUiAN office you can ascertain where such an article is to be had at a, bwwiin. 'Die gun lias never been used and llbe sold cheap. Rubbers 25c. a pair and upwards at GALBBAITJI'S. Hudson & Shadier Fine cabinets, family groups, baby pictures. Work alway first class. Can Save BY BUYING YOUR -FROM- Large, new stock just received. IF YOU WANT Spring Hats, Spring Bonnets, Millinery, Fancy Goods and Jewelry E. Reeve & Co. K IDD'S GEKM KKA.mCATOK — Positively _ cures all diseases, because it kills the germs, microbes, and all aniwalculae (in the human system). The air inhaled, water drank, vegetables and fruit eaten, are teeming with these to the naked eye imperceptible littlewonns.kuown by thn above names, causing catarrh, consumption, diabetes, Urigbt'.s disease, caucers.tumors, •and all so-called incurable diseases. (Never known to fail to cure consumption, catarrh, kidney troubles, syphilis.) Retailed in S2,*a.$5 sixes sent anywhere on rect, o£ price, or C3.O.D. if desired. The Am. Pill & Mt-d. Co, royalty prop's, Spencer, Clay Co. la. Sold wholesale and retail in Algoiia by Dr. Sheetz, druggist. 20-tf-yr lubber Call and get cmr prices on them. Address (J Uan be urnde iu c mouths selling Tuuisou'u A-tlag- c». Charts aud Wall Maps. Particulars free. HIS, LEGAL BLANKS o—-FOB SALE-—o At REPUBLICAN OFFICE A pamphlet of Information and at)- struct of the laws, aiiowiujs How t< Obtain Patents. Ctwe^ls. Tra4«! Copyrights, tent free. opyrights, tsat fr< A<Um, MUNN_ * OO, MOW'YOJ*. This institution offers supe- ior advantages in the follow- ng particulars: It has three full, rounded, courses of study: Business, Academic, and Normal. Its aim is thorough, practical work in all branches taken ip—nothing slighted, nothing done for show. It makes a specialty of fit- ing Teachers for their work, and has succeeded so well that t has more calls for qualified ;eachers than it can fill. Its Academic students are admitted, without examination, to ;he leading institutions of ;he state. Its work is endorsed by Co. Supt. Carey, and superintendents of other counties send to us for teachers. It offers cheap board, low rates of tuition, the personal acquaintance and influence of the faculty. Further information furnished on application to H,6, McCOUUM, A, B,, Prin,, Algona, Iowa. Spring Term opens March 31. 23-2U THE COMrLlfiTK LIFE OF GEN. WM.T, SHERMAN By QEN.O.O, HOWARD. Now in press, printed in English aud German. The bent opportunity ever offered agents, Out- lit only 3Sc. Send for it at once. Sold only by subscription. Liberal terms. The Columbian Publishing & Purchasing Co.i Kookery Building, Chicago. 23-20 GREAT FRENCH REMEDY. LADIES try Pr. LeUuc's Periodical Pills, from Paris, France. Established — Europe 1839 : England 1850 ; Canada 1678 ; United States 1887. $3 or three boxes for $5. Positively remove all iBBKGUUHUTiss or money refunded. THE AMERICAN PILL CO.. royalty proprietors, Spencer, la. The trade supplied by wholesale agents. H.Bos\vith& Sou, Milwaukee ; Itobt. Stevenson. & Co. Chicago. Uetalled hy Dr. L. A, Sheetz, Algous. 19-40-yr Teacher's Reports AT BE?m|CA¥ OFFICE.