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Farm and Stock -Yard. JAMKS WILSON, Editor. as are solicited from our farmer r«ftd«w. ts will be nnswered. Address to the Bd- r, James Wilson, Truer, Iowa.) ALQONA, IOWA, March 4,1891. there are three ways In which nations ac- jutre wealth, tlrst. by conquest, which Is Mbbery.spcoiul,by commerce, which li usu- jHy swindling, third, by agriculture, which li _,? i« vue uan ? Pri'M^PM source of national wealth.-Benjamln Franklin. Do not staple wire to a living tree. Staple the wire to pickets and attach the picket to the tree. Where a post rots off in an old fence it is not always necessary to put in a new one. A strong stake driven down beside the old post and spiked to it will make it do service for several years longer. the out-going renter can receive from the landlord the value of unexhausted manures put in the land for years previous. A series of experiments determined that oil cake had a value as far back as eight years, growing less each year as inquiry went back. They found that a ton of oil cake put upon land every year for eight years left a value of $18. The constituents estimated at market rates. We western people pay very little attention to considerations of this kind, or we would feed more oil cake and sell leas. Sweet sorghum silngc was made by R. P. Speer, at the experimental station, by absolutely excluding the atmosphere, or so nearly so that not enough entered to sour the material. Leaky silos are certain to turn out sour or rotten silage. There is some danger of the present Wisconsin legislature repealing some of the laws that have so much encouraged the farmers, It is said. We hope not. Wisconsin has done much for the Northwest, has been a lender, in fact, in some directions. Her institutes, her experiment station, her short course in agriculture, and her dairy schools have help ed the farmers. The German Riechstag voted to still keep out our pork by 133 to 108. Now let our government act under the McKinley bill and keep out something that we can very well do without, say wines, which they are very anxious to send here. Since Bismarck prevailed upon our ministers, there is an impression that there is something uncanny about Germany. Our people talk up to England and sauce many other powers, but Germany must be stroked the way the hair grows. We think more of Germans who raise hogs here than those who live in fatherland, send goods here and refuse ours. Now that we have inspection of exported meats they should go to all countries that send goods here. They should go as American goods and under American brands, and not be smuggled under foreign names as our pork is got into Germany under Dutoh brands. This will make a common purpose cow. The world has plenty of them. The world has little else. Exclusiveness In the cow is a theory only. The 1 eommoa cows of every land are used for both purposes. We are well satisfied that the "wedge shape" in milk cows is a mistake. It is act an American shape nor is it a shape any cow-ever acquired on generous keeping. It is the shape of scant pastures, of a heavy atmosphere, of want of exer cise, and of a delicate constitution. Good milking cows can have and should have plenty of lung power and good girth around the heart and lungs. Do you want to raise a calf by hand? then we advise you to begin at once. Never let it suek even once. If you do it will kick th-s moment you change methods. It will refuse to drink for a time or two. It knows the difference between your lingers and its dam's teats. It will lose a week's thriving before it drinks readily. Besides, the dam will fret at being separated from her bossy, she will perhaps hold up her milk and may partially interrupt the natural flow. Never let the dam and calf together at all. ^ Whatever sentiment there is about this is on the side of no after separation. The value of milk depends upon the solids. The more fat the more butter. Chemists have determined ways to tell iow much fat there is in 100 pounds of milk. Prof. Patrick, the agricultural chemist at the experimet station at Ames, has not only invented a method for de' termining the fat in milk, but has formulated a table by which the value of milk can be determined at a glance, the am ount of fat being ascertained. They can bu had from the station on application. We think it is a happy day when the foremost scientists of our country turn from abstract studies to work for the industrial multitude. It argues well for the coming dairy school at the college farm that the foremost man in his line is to demonstrate for it, and the farm boy is fortunate who will sit in his classes in the coming years. American cattle are now sent straight to Switzerland on foot. One thing the cattle combine is doing for us. They proclaim to the entire consuming world that our fat steers are bought in Chicago cheaper than like animals are bought any where else within the reach of commerce. This shipment to Switzerend proves that. The butchers throughout the world are learning that away out in the great valley of the Mississippi are to be found the finest qeeves alive, that they are fed on the finest grasses and richest grains; that a few packers control their prices, and the desire to get some of them brings people from over seas and continents. No doubt we have the active sympathy and lively pity of strangers from afar who see so many millions of intelligent farmers tributary to so few packers. They reflect, no doubt, that we have yet to learn how to stop thieves. The Irish people have long been famed as fine butter makers. In 1881 the Royal agricultural society of Ireland started a traveling dairy. A lecturer, an expert dairy maid and an assistant comprised the teaching force. One horse drew the outfit. They would churn about three times a day and show the people how to make butter, answer questions and work on the best systems. Prizes were given in districts to those who learned most. We glean from an old report on agricultural education, how we have neglected this kind of education. The nations of the old world in strenuous competition must educate the industrious or fall behind those who do. This is emphatically an industrious age. This age makes and eats far too much inferior butter. Undoubtedly the plan of educating the instructors at a central point is the better way. It is, however, touching to read of distressed Ireland stretching forth her hands toward better methods. Repeated experiments with dry corn stalks and corn stalk silage have resulted in about equal gain from both. Experiments with dry hay and grass made into silage by Voelckcr, in England, resulted the same way. We are giving the option of curing fodders iu the stack or barn, or in the silo. There is waste in both ways, and it is not entirely clear which is the most certain to save the greater per cent, of the good feed. First-rate hoy has a value so much above poor hay that there is little comparison. Our present perfect haying machinery makes it practical to save hay much better than we did by the old methods. Hay barns save much hay that is injured by stacking. Then economy in hay feeding can be perfected very much. When we turn to the silo we find that only perfect knowledge of manipulation enables us to save all or about all the green stuff put into it. It is a nice question, whether hay making or silage wastes most. However, the fact being determined that the one has the same feeding value of the other, as far as experiments have been made, farmers can consult their own conveniences. Some thin soils will not develop both the feeding and milking quilities, and theorists conclude that no soils can. Remember Iowa soils will not tolerate little cattle, little horses or little people. The coming young farmer will find an opening in advanced work on the farm more profitable than any that invite him to the city. There is plenty of money now to be made by changing cheap products on the farm into hieth selling goods, at least it can be safely said that competence and fortune promise quite as well in the creamery as in the law office, in canning vegetables as in commerce, in raising first-class animals as in medicine. the tendency has been and is from the farm to the genteel professions, but the professions a*e filled up. The neglect to educate toward the industries has caused a full tide toward cuffs and collars on week days, and some have a deuce of a time paying the washing bills. The top prices on our market reports suggest directions in which to educate young folks. The fact is slowly getting through people's heads that mental training can be as complete in one line as another. Edison devotes his life to one force- electricity— reads, studies and experiments in that one direction. No one will say he is not a well educated man. Erickson was a mechanic. He changed the implements of naval warfare, and was mourned by nations at his death. The owners of 16,000,000 cows want a measure for the value of milk, Weights, avoirdupois or troy, are at fault; measures that answer for ale, wine and beer will not do. Patrick and Babcock apply themselves and solve the problem. They are still gentlemen, though working for the farmers. Infinite numbers of unsolved prob lems await solution with regard to all farm operations. The young farmer need have no fear of want of work and want of room in the industries. They can educate that way and be gentlemen. are The beeves we send to England heavier than the cattle of that country" They are older, also. Early maturity is reached there, being imperative in order to get profits. How much earlier our stock could be put in market if we fed the grains we sell would be an interesting study. Early maturity comes from good blood and good feeding. Later maturity is the result of a longer growth on less nutritious foods, or the result of slower feeding animals. We have a living of some kind with slower finishing. Our competitors abroad could not wait so long for results. Besides, the early maturing animals have less tallow and more eatable meat, and are really worth more to the buyer since kerosene, gas and electricity supplement candles. True, bogus butter people use the tallow, but illegally, and business can not be established on the theory of breaking the laws of the land. We know of no change going on that means so much to a locality as the selling of its powers of production in the shape »f grains, and can imagine nothing that would bring about such changes as the stopping of this. Food goes to the people who want it. People will go where food is to be had cheapest as intelligence increases. The west feeds great centers that manufacture for her, and is the poorer for it. Western soil inquires why the hungry do not come and cat here. A cow lives east of the Alleghanies. We produce food for her and pay for sending it over the backbone of the continent. Why not lead the cow over to the field that grows her food? Oh! The owner of the cow knows more about making money out of the cow over there; the worker in the factory has more capital and skill over there. We need capital and education then. That's it. The soil suffers while we know less than they beyond the mountains. But Iowa is reputed the most intelligent of states. True, but not about factories or cows. What then? Oh about A, B. C's, and the like. Then our soil is to be robbed until we learn about feeding our crops to cows here, and making our shoes and stockings here,'and shirts and frocks. The best breed of cows for the farmer depends upon the farm. If the farm is a good one that furnishes grain for the ani rnals without buying, like most Iowa farms, the calf can be fatted profitably for market, and the calf in this case to be Gov. Hoard has been in Canada and finds that good good cheese needs the fat in it; that American cheese has not so much as the foreign that out sell ours. It is pleasant to see the Governor learn what many have been insisting for a long time. Wisconsin has a law making three per cent, a full cream cheese. The northern dairy people have been going in the wrong direction in this regard, and Gov. Hoard headed the crusade for skim-milk cheese, and he is so positive about a thing that he was doing infinite mischief, as well as much good in other directions. We knew that as bright a man as Hoard would eventually see the cheese problem in its true light. Iowa sentiment has been created to quite an extent by reading his paper, and we notice it frequently for that reason. We rejoice that a sinner is saved. This leads to hope that by some mysterious way not apparent yet, but in the purposes of providence the same potent farm paper may be led to right ways of thinking regarding the right kind of a cow for heavy soils. This will come, no doubt, in good time, and the threatened evasion of the 800 pound cow among the 300,000,000 bushels of Iowa corn may be averted. A world of mischief has been done already in many parts of Iowa, by the light cow being used as a common purpose cow. Common purpose cows are inevitable in our state with our generous pasture? and grain fields. The crusade of our northern lights of the dairy has resulted in supplanting many heavy common-purpose cows that respond well for light breeds that are now getting out of favor. Our northern neighbors with zeal ahead of their experience will insist upon our people making the common-purpose cow out of light weights. Iowa is light weight in no respect. So we wait patiently until Gov. Hoard visits some where else and gets true insight into cows as he has into fats in cheese. interesting to watch the people doing similar work. Old dynasties, hoary with old age, that exist to get good things and exclude the crowd from participation are being ahaken up very disagreeably. It is said by the dynasties that "all this alliance noise will cease." It will grow, but resolve itself into a system, regulate its wild men to the rear and exercise functions wanting entirely in our economic system. You have seen paintings well executed of prominent men whose eyes seem to follow you in all directions. That's the way, nowadays; the eyes of the taxpayers and workers follow the public servant. QXJKUIES AND COMMENTS. ON DAIimNG, LISBON, Lien Co., Iowa.—I want to ask you a few questions in regard to dairying. I live on an 80 acre farm; own it but I am in debt some over $1,000. Is dairying a good thing on a small farm? I have about ten acres of pasture and eight cows. Is winter dairying the best? Say the cows drop their calves in November. Which is the best way to sell the milk—by the hundred or by the test plan? Is the milk that is run through a separator good for calves and pigs if fed without meal? G. E. MILLER. Dairying is just the thing for a small farmer. If you want to put in all your time, make your acres yield by intensive farming, help your pastures by growing green feed for your cows, save your straw on the green side for fodder, and all your corn for fodder or in a silo; haul out all your manure and save all your animals make. Winter dairying, if you have warm stables, pays best. Grind all your corn and feed it with cut fodder. Save everything on the place for the same purpose. WOMAtfS WORLD, HOW QlftLS MAY LEARN TO SKATfe AND WHAT TO WEAR. CORN AND FODDER. COVINOTON, Linn Co., Jan. 31.— While we ship our oil cake abroad to sell to farmers there, they buy not only to finibh their meat producing animals of all kinds, but they buy it to enrich their manure piles, and not only so, but they fallow it years back when one tenant rente land of another. The unexhausted value of manures is inquired into so that considered. If the farm is a poor soil farm where grain must be bought to help keep the cows milking, the calf can seldom be properly finished on purchased grain. Iu this case the cow's ability to give imlk is all that need be considered. Theorists mislead practical people by telling them what to do without first consid ering the different conditions that farmers live under. It would be a very foolish thing for farms iu the great grass and corn belt to abandon beef-making. Most cows in Iowa dairies can have their milking teadcncies increased by selection, while the generous soil of Iowa will grow them good enojugh to breed feeding steers. PU.UI.IC WATCH DOGS. It seems as if those who have pity for law breakers and shed tears over the Dick Turpins of society would have unusual demands upon their active sympathy. Nominees for places of power are being unmercifully scanned. Acts of public servants are being closely looked into. Safe places like the United States Senate even are no longer sacred from public inquiry. Note the revolutions in the chairs up there. Every official whose duty it is to do anything that is pud out of the public treasury is being inquired into— not by legislative inquiry, but by voluntary organizations. The alliance people are doing more to prod up sleepy olliciala acd careless officials and incompetent officials than all the laws of the land. Somebody is reported on the run somewhere every day. The old theory of get ting an office to draw a fat salary and do it sitting is becoming obsolete. Nay, more. The old habit of getting into position to serve two masters is becoming uncomfortable by the noising tendency of the alliance people. They are certainly working for the public good "within their party." Nast could make a fortune by sketching the countenances of his fellows who are punched up—big and little. The old power of inquiry that lodged in the representations of the people to inquire into everything for the public good has been abandoned in our day by the depositories, but the people Lave taken it up for themselves, and while they have no sargeant at-arms, they can punish for contempt and contumacy at election time. It is an interesting study to note and observe bow a river that gets sewerage Through the columns of the farm department you invite questions on farming. You say by certain management corn can bo raised for ten or eleven cents a bushel, also when properly fed to stock it brings the farmer over forty cents per bushel. These statements are being widely copied by eastern papers. What • do you think will be its effect on meat and grain? What did you refer to in the statement that at $2 expense a farmer can make an acre of stalks worth as much as an acre of corn? If the directions to the last question are not too lengthy please give them in full. With respect, H. H. PJIBLPS. We conceded that if corn can be grown for forty-two cents a bushel for the grain alone, by utilizing the fodder that is equal to the grain, the price of the grain is cut in two. That if it costs $8 to grow an acre of corn, $3 more will save the fodder. We believe the fodder is equal to the grain on a properly managed farm; that to'husk the corn -and waste the fodder half the crop is lost. Our system for growing the crop for the grain alone is a very bad one that will be gradually remedied. ,—,0,.., _— She was Completely Curort. A daughter of my customer suffered from suppressed menstruation, and her health was completely wrecked. At my suggestion she used one bottle of Brad field's Female Regulator, which cured her. J. W. HELLUMS, Water Valley, Miss. Write the Bradfield Reg. Co., Atlanta, Ga., for particulars. Sold by Dr. L. A. Sheetz and F. W. Dingley. 21-25 Small in size, great in results; De Witt's Little Early Risers. Best pill for constipation, best for sick head ache, best for sour stomach. Sold by Dr. Sheetz. FOR SALE—A house and lot within four blocks of the court house for sale at Inquire of WILLIS HALLOCK. 22-tf HejiBB* German Salve. The increased demand for Beggs' German Salve not only proves that it has merit, but also makes it almost a univers al household remedy. When you wish a good reliable ointment call for Begtrs' German salve, and you will not be disappointed. Sold and warranted by 10-33 F. W. Dingley. other impurities purifies itself. It is Life of General Shermuii. No literary announcement of the year is of greater interest to the general public than that of a comprehensive Life of General Sherman, which is about to be published aud sold through agents by the noted house of Hubbard Brothers, of Philadelphia. Admirable biographies of Grant and Sheridan, complete to the time of their death, are already familiar to the public, but a life of the third great commander, to finish the series, has been lacking. The various biographies of Sherman hitherto published have necessarily been incomplete; and even bis own memoirs, written in 1875, said almost nothing of his intensely increasing early life, and not a word, of course, of the more than twenty years of social activity and fraternity with old comrades since the war. The work which is now to be issued will spendidly supply the widely felt de mand for a history of the great s trategic commander. It is being written by General O. O. Howard, a man of fine literary attainments, who knew Sherman better than any other of his commanders now living, aud ranked next but one to him in the army, and by Willis Fletcher Johnson, whose ability as a historion is familiar to the reading public of America through his former unusually popular works, which have had millions of rend ers, and the sales of their vast editions enriched an army of book agents. That this history of Sherman, the last of the great Generals, will surpass all others in popularity is not to be doubted. The story of this great General's career is of a marvellous march from the mountains of time to the seas of eternity. Of the three great war heroes, Sherman was by far the most interesting personally. He was the best known to tke public and the best loved for his genial dispotition and warm sympathy with the popular heart. He has joined his illustrious compeers in the eternal bivouac of the dead. His is a life to study—to emulate—and is a profound inspiration. The forthcoming volume will tell the whole story of his marvellous career, and from the authorship engaged upon it, we are assured that it will be told in a way that will enthral the attention aud interest of every reader from the first to the last. It i,a a book every American will waut, and one that every American youth should read. It will doubtless be the best life of the great chieftain published, and we predict for it wonderful popularity. CMrl* Demand More l»ajr-Th« Gain, of » Year-Vlia Pinafore Oowng-Gameg fa Winter E*ealnu~A Town with Clt? Mothers—A Louisiana Apron. The modern girl skater better merits the description given her ancestress bj an old chronicler, who writes that she went "as swiftly as a bird flyeth in the air, or an arrow out of a crossbow." The best skate is one that clamps firm ly on the heel and fits the edges so tightly it becomes a part of the foot itself. H should be accurately and perfectly steady if properly strapped to the foot. Laced boots for skating are to be preferred to buttoned, as they permit the freer circu lation of the blood. The beginner might advantageously carry a stick or light pole in the hand, bnt never is a friend so much in need as when her trusty hant forms the mainstay on the treacherous and unknown slippery surface. But make a trial, learn to balance the body properly, and -with a little confidence success will come very soon. It is wonderful how soon children learn to skate. Tiny little bodies, wee bits of womanly humanity dart by their elder Bisters so cautiously feeling their way, bright fishes of gold and silver as it were, flitting by some unwieldy body of the deep. The girl skater in learning ought never to look at her feet, should keep the head up, advancing the body, her face in the direction she is going, and the body slightly inclined forward, according to the first principle of gravitation, wbich in scientific language says, keep the center of gravity over the base. In skating all movements should be smooth and graceful, and an effort made to keep quite free from jerking and awkward gestures. The art of stopping is soon learned. Slightly bend the knees, bring the heels together and bear upon them. It may also be accomplished by turning abort to the right or left, and as you and I know too often happens to us by sudden contact with what acts in place of "terra firma" and from no desire on our part to reach so decided a halt. The best skaters avoid swinging the arms. They are also careful to wear a close fitting dress, as fall and loose clothes'catch the wind and retard progress. A sensible skater never ventures on thin ice, and unless perfectly sure that the glassy rink will bear her weight does not dream of putting on ber skates. First of all a skating costume needs to be short, and next it should be simple. These requirements reached it may be as pretty as is desired. A very stylish one is made of Scotch homespun in warm browns, and is really what might be called a polonaise costume, as it is all in one piece. Wrinkled across the front sufficiently to be graceful, it is yet quite plain about the lower portion of the skirt, and is arranged iu box plaits in the back, so that sufficient fullness ia given to allow absolute freedom of the body. It is double breasted and closed with large brown buttons, while a high collar and single revers that extends well across one side of Alaska sable are its only trimming. The sleeves are moderately high and easy in their fit, and the gloves worn are gauntlets of heavy kid that button far up over the sleeve. The hat is a Tarn of the same material as the dress, with a tiny fluffy pompon, like a Panjandrum's button, just on top of it. The muff is of Alaska sable to match the collar. The whole effect is so good that one feels quite certain that the girl who is going to skate herself into the good graces of somebody will want one just like it.—Ellen Le Garde in Ladies' Home Journal. Girls Oeinuud More Pay. For the last five weeks ninety-nine women have been without work in the East End in order to persuade their employers to pay them 2d. an hour, or 9s. a week. They have not been stirred up by agitators, for their secretary, Mrs. Hicks, has had her persuasive powers taxed constantly for the last twelve months to keep them from coming out before their union was thoroughly organized and a balance of over £50 to their credit at the bank. A year ago Miss Clementina Black was beginning to form women's unions in the East End, and the girls at Frost's rope factory in the Commercial road expressed a willingness to join. So one night Miss Black and Mrs. Hicks *ent to the gates as they opened to let the girls out from their work, and the moment they were seen there was a rah and a cheer, and that night 120 girls had given in their names, and they have kept up their payments over since. Their wages varied from 7s. <5d. to 10s. for fifty-hours, which meant less than ltd. for the lowest, and less than 2jd. an hour for the skilled hands, some of whom had been fifteen years in the factory, and they determined that no girl should work among the machinery for less than 2<I, ftn hour, and that the rest should be raised proportionately. They have waited for a favorable opportunity. Messrs. Frost have introduced some valuable new machinery, meaning, it is declared, a considerable enlargement to their business, and their hands have asked for a rise in their wages. This has been refused, so they decline to work and appeal to the public for support. This has been given in the shape of a warm recommendation from the London trades council, several handsome donations from different trades unions, and generous help from working men through the collecting boxes — Pall Mall Gazette. The Gains of a Year. AM the old year goes out we reckon up its gains. Foremost of all there is the admission of Wyoming, the first woman suffrage state; then'.the majority report of the judiciary committee of the United States house of representatives in favor of a sixteenth amendment. Then there is the brave canvass in South Dakota. The battle was lost, as it was at Bunker Hill, but the same ultimate victory awaits those who fought that good fight. The Mississippi constitutional conven* tion, by its consideration of the suffrage question, caused it to be discussed all over the south. The agitation of this subject in the Kentucky constitutional convention has roused the whole state, and many of its noblest women have brought their best service to help the state to be just to women. The Methodist church has carried on a woman suffrage campaign for several months, resulting in a majority vote for the admission of women as lay delegates to its highest church council. Public sentiment in favor of equal rights is growing steadily all along the line. Let us thank God and take courage.— Boston Woman's Journal. TUo Pinafore Govrns. One of the latest notions in fashionable- Iressmaking is the "pinafore" gown, for loxise or street wear, according' to the materials and trimmings. It is not an expensive fancy, as only 5} yards of cashmere are required and 2} yards of brocade or velvet, or 1-J- yard of ladies' Jloth. Another beauty about the gown, 8 its air of charming simplicity combined with style. The smaller quantity of material forms;he collar, yoke, sleeves and belt, which s pointed in front and shaped to the- igure to set down below the waist line. The sleeves are full over the shoulders, and the yoke may be in the front only or )3 of the same shape in the back. The )odice opens invisibly down the left shoulder and under arm seam. The dress material is cut like a low, •ound necked bodice, slightly pointed on the lower edge, back and front, with ,he usual dart fullness held in tiny over- apping plaits that disappear under the edge of the shaped belt. The arm sizes if this second • art of the bodice are cut iut sufficiently to show the contrasting material beneath. An edging of jet, insel, etc., may be used on the neck and arm sizes if desired. The skirt has a gathered back and almost plain front, broken by a few folds at the top. Street gowns of fine woolen goods have the yoke and sleeves of la- lies' cloth. One, of a purplish plum ashmere, has the second fabric of tan, Droadcloth and an edging of fine jet mly half an inch in width. A house gown of gray Henrietta has the upper iart of pink and gray brocade and the lasseinenterie of silver.—Dry Goods conomist. One immense rose is the fashion nowa- lays, and it must be earned like an al- )enstock with a yard or two of stem, dangling, or it may be worn high in the belt so that the rose comes just under the chin. A bunch is not permissible. It must be just one rose or none at all. Boucicault was asked which he con- idered his best play. "The one I am going to write next," he said after a moment of profound thought. YOU WANT A SPRING SUIT OUR Spring Goods ARE HERE, An Elegant Line At better prices than ever. Call and see our New Styles and inspect our prices.