THE ANIMAL INDUSTRY, GOVERNMENT BULLETIN ON DISEASES OF THE HORSE. Dr. Salmon, Chief of the United Stated Btireiui of Animal Industry, Has Published it Document Useful to Horse IJreodors—Distributed Free of Charge. Dr. Salmon, chief of the bureau of animal industry, has caused to be prepared ji bulletin on the diseases of the horse which will have much value for horse breeder:-* and farmers generally. The name of the bulletin in book form is "Diseases of the Horse," and any one who wants it can obtain it free by writing for it. Address Dr. D. E. Salmon, chief of bureau of animal industry, department of agriculture, Washington, D. C. The circular calling attention to the bulletin says: Tho need of a work on the diseases of the horse which would be distributed to farmers as a safe and .scientific guide in the treatment of this species of our domestic animals, either when affected with slight disorders or serious illness, has long been felt. This obvious v.-ant has led to the preparation of the present volume, which is designed as the first of a series to rover the disease t;f all varieties of farm animals. The authors of the various articles were duly advised of the popular character it was designed to impart to the work, and an effort was accordingly made by them to present the matter treated of in as simple language as possible. Dr. Charles B. Michener contributes three articles on "Methods of Administering Medicines," "Diseases of the Digestive Organs." and "Wounds and Their Treatments." Dr. James Law writes on "Disease of the Urinary Organs," "Diseases of the Generative Organs," "Diseases of the Eye," and "Diseases of the Skin." Dr. W. H. Harbaugh contributes an article, on "Disease of the Respiratory Organs," and Dr. M. Trumbower writes on "Diseases of the Nerv- ons System," ami "Diseases of the Heart and Blood Vessels." "Lameness" is treated by Professor A. Liantard. The other articles are, "Diseases of the Fetlock, Ankle and Foot," by Dr. Hol- coiube; "Contagious Diseases," by Dr. R. S. Huidekoper; and "Shoeing," by Dr. William Diekson. The work will T)e illustrated with forty-four carefully prepared plates. An extra large edition will be issued of this bulletin in anticipation of a very large call for the work. At the same time experience in reference to the bulletin 0:1 "Parasites of Sheep," of which a second edition has already been called for, indicates that those who are anxious to obtain a copy of "Diseases of the Horse'' at an early ilate should apply for it at once. Barefoot Horses. On soffccouirfiy roads farmers can save blacksmith bills by letting their horses go barefooted, where stone or rocks do not form too great a portion of the road surface. Even on frozen ground unshod horses do good work. In this latter condition of roads the saving of calk sharpening in time and expense is very considerable. On the ice a barefooted horse is so sure footed that lie may bo driven or ridden with safety when unsafe for a dozen miles even with sharpened calks. Many lame horses are cured by removing their shoes. A shod horse travels on ice, and to a degree walks on stilts. An ounce at the extremity of the foot is largely multiplied in weight as compared to the carrying or in draught.—Exchange. Clean Poultry Packing. Were the farmer to notice the preference given to a clean and. tidy package of chickens over a box of ill packed, soiled birds he would never afterward neglect this important adjunct. Poultry should be packed in small boxes free from dirt, holding not more than fifty pounds. The inside of the parcel should be lined with clean whita paper, arid the poultry laid carefully but firmly in tiers, a sheet of paper being placed between every two tiers. In ca>'.« the heads are left on the blood shouM be thoroughly sponged from all parts of the carcass, and in every instance wash the legs and feet in lukewarm water.—Dorothy James in American Cultivator. SLAUGHTER OF THE INNOCENTS. How to Drive ;i Pis'. Our two illi-i.stnitit.ms explain themselves. Thej' are from The Rural New Yorker. A correspondent of that paper writes as follows: I learned something the. other day which may be of use to your readers. HOW NOT TO DO IT. It was that a hog which could not bo coaxed, driven or pushed up an inclined chute into a wagon, could be made to back up very readily by holding a bushel basket over his he-ad. on the -Reef Cattle Trade of 1800. A retrospective glance at the cattle trade in our .eastern seaboard markets for the past summer shows an unusually large and varying trade with the British isles. Speculators and brokers rmrried forward in their anxiety to land cattle and dressed beef in Great Britain. This praiseworthy undertaking had, however, two sides—one of profit, one of loss. So unusual did the shipments become that toward the close of Atigust and during the early days of September the losses sustained entirely outbalanced the profit. Then lookers on brewed a war of the weaker against the wealthier, which ended as such struggles always do. Money judiciously spent gained the day, and to avoid further loss some of the smaller shippers united their interests, and by reducing the volume of the exports prices returned to a paying basis. While this war was being waged a new phase appeared in the home trade. So fierce was the contention in the great western centers of our cattle business to secure beeves suited for the British markets that only refuse was left as the show of those who still pretended to sell live beeves to our local wholesale butchers. Then the mercantile sagacity of the brokers who deal in western dressed beef showed itself. These men soon secured through their western connections enough of good beef to supply the pressing needs of a few of the fashionable retail butchers, and western dressed beef sold from the city refrigerators at, higher prices than did city dressed beef. With the falling off of the export trade thi* condition ceased, and business returned to its normal channel. During the greater part of the yeai 1890 the quality of the local supplies of beeves has been most unreasonably below what it ought to be. The Texas herds were so poor that consignments frequently stood over unsold, and when at length some buyer was found the quotations were withheld. Brokers feared to discourage shippers. The native herds of grass fed were also a poor article of commerce. When all contingent expenses had been met very little remained to gladden the speculator. A grass fed steer 1,000 pounds weight sold at three cents per pound, and often prices were lower, which is not a source of joy and satisfaction to breeders or yet to the shipper. The great evil of an indiscriminate slaughter of calves is growing annually. Not alone are the calves of the dairying districts of New York state hurried to indiscriminate death, but Maryland has entered the field of early destruction. Then large numbers of western calves come forward week after week. So long as only bull calves were slaughtered it allowed of q".ostion, but when the movement; of comely native heifers commenced then the sanity of those concerned became doubtful. With an immense tract of country as yet devoted to grazing, it seems impossible that it is the proper thing to slaughter native heifers and retain Texas cows. This question is most worthy of mature consideration by both parties—the breeders of native herds and the breeders of those wild creatures of the plains. If there is an overplus of calves, then slaughter as veals the inferior class and retain the better. Native heifers and well bred bulls on the plains would pay better than Spanish herds now do. One patriotic breeder shipped for slaughter 1 two carloads of young full blooded Hereford cows. The herd of thirty-two individuals was a picture worthy of Lnndseer. Yet these cows sold far below four cents per pound, and stood for days in the livestock pens awaiting a satiated buyer. Is the country *o well supplied with pedigree herds that we can afford to slaughter valuable bveedi-ig cows?—American Agriculturist. Cutllo That Will Sell. A firm of cnttle brokers that have been in the business twenty-six years in a large city report one certain week last October t > have been about the dullest they have ever known. The cause of the dullness was partly that there were brought to the city in that week 88,000 head of beeves to be disposed of. Cut the prime cause was that the cattle sent in were not fit to sell. They were not fat enough. The dealers recommended their cu stomers near home to keep their beeves a couple of months longer and feed them heavily, so that when the far western cattle had all come in and been disposed of the homo beeves could be brought in and their owners "get something for them/' The kind of cattle that are a drug in the market, that pull the price of all down, that are always with us and yet that nobody wants, are described thus: "The hardest to sell are and the greatest decline is on steers of eleven hundred to fourteen hundred pounds average, half to three-quarters fat—what a good many shippers call fat before shipping. There has been just one load of prime cattle on the market this v/eek out of 88,000 cattle, and they brought 5 V cents.' Cattle raisers will learn from the above what kind of cattle not to ship. STRATEGY. Four i a 1 five of us were trying to load a lot of hogs which were just having fun with us. till n young neighbor ::h the necessary "know how" came ;.. ..-.; and loaded them while we looked i>:i. 1'oints of Interest. Corn is good for poultry, but see thai you do not feed them on corn alone. It is like stuffing man on corn bread alone. Don't ix-ed your .sheep on the ground. They Avill waste as much nearly as their necks are worth. An old saying runs thus: "The foot of the sheep is golden." The average weight of fleeces has doubled iu the United States in the past thirty years. The highest average weight of fleeces is seven pounds, and Texas sheep have the heaviest fleeces of all. Then come next in order California, Ohio, New Mexico, Oregon, Michigan, Utah am Montana. Henhouses inay be warmed perfect!) with hot water pipes. The pipes are 1, inches in diameter. The fixtures neces sury may be bought of dealers in ;;t< 4^1 heating and hot water apparatus. There are three ways In which nations ac- lulre wealth. First, by conquest, which is ohlicry, second, by commerce, which is iisn- ully swindling, third, by agriculture, which is lie true and principal source of national voalth.—Benjamin Franklin. The speed of young Iowa horses that urprises the world is due to the soil, water, climate and horseman of Iowa. Less 'avorablc conditions would result in less ipeed. Tho dairy men's bill reported at the U. 8. Senate to subject bogus butter to State aw is most too late for this Congress. ate decision of federal courts let it go is liquors did during the original package eign. Leading New York bankers ask for free ioinage of silver. The silver dollars coin ed are all in circulation actually or by ertificate. It is discovered that the world does not want to send silver here, but gold increases, the world moves. The farmers do not seem to have their yes in the back of their heads. Elections of U. S. Senators in different States do lot turn on how much a man has done in he past "wailing the brigadier" as what he has done for the industries, and what he will do. The Dutch buy our pork and smuggle t into Germany to the intense disgust of ,he Wcstphalian curers who have sent leputations to Berlin to urge taking off ho prohibition against American pork. Those Westphalian curers were the par- ies that had the prohibition established. The steps Secretary Rusk is taking to nsure the health of our live stock will soon put us in position to export them mywhere. Restrictions against Canada tightening. .Only one port in Vermont is now open to that produce. The American farmers' rights are being assert d. If, in the early days, we had not gone through all this corn stalk death business we would the more give ciedence to the 'germ" that is said to produce it. When we consider that the newer settled sec ions are most afflicted, we suspect the :onditions that obtain in them—dry pas- ures, dry feed, gradual drying up of the manifold, culminating in gorges of dry -orn stalks in the huskfecl fields. Farm and Stock- Yard ,TAM1!H (Ideas are solicited from our former renders. Queries will tie answered. Address to the Ed - tor, James Wilson, Traer, town,) ALGONA, IOWA, Jan. 21, 1891. Senator Ingalls is having trouble to re turn to the Senate from Kansas. If he lad done some work for the farmers dur ng his service, as Senator Allison has, he would find smoother sailing. We sincerely advise people in power to lay up reasure against the day they want votes. Do something somebody can quote, besides wolluping the Rebels. This is an ige of industry, of taxes and trusts and imited currency, and a desire for fair play )y the fellows who work in shirt sleeves. We observe that corn growers who heretofore sold at husking time and soon after, are holding all their corn. If this s the case generall}', it will raise the price, jut winter is only half gone and fine weather has enabled feeders to greatly economize, and with young hogs sold off iO generally, and few steers comparatively being fed, one would not warrant corn to. be higher in spring unless the crop does not equal our estimate— one-half of a crop — and we think it is not less. New Zealand exported 73,504, OGSpounds of frozen meat in 1889. It began in 1883 with 1,707,328 pounds, and steadily increased. Thus the wool ranches of the semi dry countries add mutton selling to wool selling. They get §5,000,000 for their meats. The mutton is of a cheap grade and can not be sold as high as that from good mutton sheep as Iowa can raise. The coming census will show few<!r cattle and more sheep in some of our ranch States. Our country has so far neglected mutton. There is a theory abroad that our soil will be gradually deteriorated by selling beef and butter from it. Prof. Thonger, an English chemist says: "If large crops are grown and nearly all the fertilizing substance returned to the soil in the form of manures, the land can gradually be increased in strength since the accumulat ions in the soil from decomposition and that gathered from the air will more than equal what stock take out in the form of butter, beef, etc." We believe this, as our farm grows better by such usage. We get strange results from agricultural chemistry. The roots of an acre of timothy and red top in the first six inches made four tons of dry matter. In this was found nitrogen, eighty-four pounds; phosphoric acid, fifty four pounds; and potash fifty-four pounds. An acre of clover had nitrogen sixty pounds, phosphoric acid fifteen pounds, and potash forty-fiye pounds. Where grain is grown year after year nothing practically re mains in the soil. We suppose the special value of clover is in its deep roots that yield heavily below six inches. We wish every boy and girl on the farm would carefully look over a college allum- nal, a little pamphlet telling where the graduates of a college go. They are in positions of honor, usefulness and power all over the land. Any Iowa farmer's hoy or girl with the "steam engine" in them can go though an Iowa college. In their days our country will have 200,000,000 people. Educated persons will lead them. While the true worth of a country de pends upon its good people, its progress depends upon the educated peopi,. Happily, American education makes gooc men and women as w«M as strong, These thoughts are suggested by studying West•n college's alumna! for 1890. Very ,trong men educate themselves in their business, but it take forty years, while a college takes four. Dairy Commissioner Tupper tells us there are 658 creameries id Iowa, and that the scarcest thing is competent managers. He nas known patrons of a creamery to jay $4,000 to educato the management. We buy half the cheese we consume. He says we will get better cheese bye and jye. He tells of forty people being made sick by Iowa cheese. If more were eaten nore would be sick. He speaks highly of Prof. Patrick's milk test. He gets reports of 73,000,000 pounds of butter shipped out of the state by railways, and estimates the home consumption at 100,000,000 pounds. This is as close ns 10 can get to it. On the whole we are really pleased with Mr. Tupper's work so far. He is evidently a worker, has got his business well in hand and will do ;he dairy industry great good. We hope ic will have skimmers chained in cheese 'actories so that Iowa people can get lonest, nutritious and wholesome cheese made at home, instead of the stuff we mport. Congress has appropriated to construct a deep water harbor at Qalvestou. This means a harbor that will admit vessels drawing twenty-six feet of water—ocean oing vessels. It means competition with the eastern route over which the combines have such control, as to shut out competition. The State of Iowa and much of the Northwest has no competing route. We can nfford millions to get it. All of the Northwestern States would ean heavily to a diversion of trade any way to evade the plunders at Chicago. And just as so'on as the people down there ive reasonable evidence that they are attached to the principles that underlie our government, the sentiment of the Northwest will help them to all the deep water harbors they want. Every so often ,iowcver, they throw up their heels, dis credit the Declaration of Independence, .alk about white men's governments, turn farmers' alliances into lobbies for party, and the Northwest takes pepper in its nose and concludes to pull over the Alle- ghanies a while longer. THE T.liSSON OF THE OPEN WINTEK. We are now into the new year and a third of the winter in gone. Let us again call attention to our economic theory of "arming through grazing. All stock has been on grass up to the new year with the exception of a few days, in central and northern Iowa, where there was grass to be had. We have urged farmers repeatedly to turn more hay lots into pas ture lots and get fodders from the corn, oat, wheat and barley fields. Only the. best hay excels straw. Late cut or dama aged hay is no better than oat straw. By this system stock can graze till New Year when the season is open like the closing months of the last year. We do this. We liave done it for years. It pays us It will pay others. It does pay thousands who practice it. It is the most obvious reform in Iowa farm management. All farmers who do not grow wheat to sell, but keep stocks of cattle, sheep and horses, with hogs incidental, can do this with greater profit than they can cut oats with a mower on the green side and escape the new harvester combine. The loading machines work well in heavy clover or in oats cut with a mower, and the crops so cut can be saved out doors by covering the stacks with hay well raked down. Oats cut thus are eaten up clean by all kinds of stock. The dairyman must cut it, wet it and put any of the meals on it and all will be eaten up, cud- ded and digested, and hay lots pastured. of a century with farm matters, we have never been able to learn who drew the salaries. We know nothing valuable has been done. Our State agricultural society has set agencies on foot and has done something in this lino, but we never heard of an agent in our county doing nny inquiring. We can only get this done by ,he farmers themselves. It can be done n a week for any one purpose all over Iowa. Most of the federal and State agents are, we suspect, not farmers. May >e if we set about this we can manage more than the roads and school sub- districts. HORSE 1MIOFITS. The town demand for horses is good and will continue to grow. Speed horses ,ake the fancy just now, but carriage horses have been in demand and will be 'or all time. Our towns grow steadily, and the growth of population is mostly n them. The use of steam did not interfere at all with the demand for horses, nor will the use of electricity. Certain ityles of horses will go outof use in town. The light street-car horse will be in less demand, but the dray horse, the carriage horse and the stylish driving horse will always be in demand. It is well worth he while of farmers to study what the market requires and when it is wanted. .t is not so easy to breed the carriage and driving horse as the draft horse, for with •egard to the heavy horse, weight is the first prerequisite, and style the next. The draft horse importers have been provid- ng the horse of weight. Our brood mares are now heavier and many localities turn off annually a crop of heavy colts. There s room for improvement in our draft lorses. It will pay us just as well to im- H-ove their style and soundness as it did ,o improve their weight. But with re ;ard to the carriage horse, the problem is no transparent one. Our people are •caching far and wide for sires. The Cleveland Bay and the French and German Coach horses are being used. The question to be determined is which sire used upon what we now have will nick best. It will take time to ascertain. The :arriage horse must have size, style and action, good limbs and symmetrical make up. There is plenty of demand for this it3'le of horses. The farmer who has a mare of this sort will get cogeltes and lingle driving horses if he mates proper- y. What will most nearly bring this style of colt from our heavy draft mares so as ;o work in that direction effects every 'armer who OWE a work mare. The transformation of our brood mares has ;one as far as more weight. When that s the case the best pay will come by breeding for roadsters and coacher. STATISTICS NEEDKI). Our people have been sadly at sea regarding the wisdom of selling stock cattle and hogs in view of the short crops of feeding stuffs and high prices. Each farm requires so many feeding animals and enough of stockers to consume its grasses and fodders and grains. When the herd falls below this requirement, grass and fodders are not utilized and grain is sold. This is bad for the farm and the ultimate prosperity of the owner. We observe farmers average best who breed, rear and feed regularly, never selling their animals or grain. Conditions like those that have obtained during last fall leave farmers in uncertainty. Short crops and big prices tempt farmers to sell. The general selling of underfed stock depresses the market as we have seen. Now it is certain that prices for beef and pork will appreciate. The stock sold at prices less than cost of production makes money for the purchasers either for killing or feeding. Much that has been rushed to market from Iowa is held for finishing by the wise men of the East, The packers will make fortunes off the cheap beef and pork killed and cured. The farmer is the loser. We think it practical to arrive at the number of animals of all kinds on each farm every summer, through the alliance, whereby it can be determined whether there is an increase or decrease of cattle, sheep and hogs. As soon as the crops develop their volume it can be determined whether there can be ful breeding of the usual number or whether more should be stocked over. We think the farmers can do this for themselves. We suggest to Secretary Post the appointment of stations in every township, to this end, among our alliances. If Iowa could know precisely the condition oi feeders, our farmers could govern them selves accordingly. The United States has beeu paying salaries to State gather ers of such facts for years, but, while we have been occupying our mind for a third WHAT'S THE MATTEK •> No kiud of information is so scarce as that pertaining to the several departments of the farm. A man plants corn on land that manure has enriched for centuries, 'eeds the corn to hogs or sells it; or feeds his grain to cows that yield 150 pounds of ill made butter and thinks himself a farmer; or he feeds light steers that sell for fourth rate prices; or light horses without style or speed, and talks learnedly about the farm. The fact is, most of us came ;o Iowa poor, and all we have gained is the rise in our land by full settlement of the State and the discovery that Iowa ands excel most others. The higher value of our lands compels better farming to pay results, or interest, or higher styles of living. We must produce more economically. We must quit robbing the land. That means ultimate poverty to us. Breeding, rearing and finishing meat-producing animals, breeding, rearing and managing dairy animals, seeding, cultivating and harvesting, manuring, draining and rotation all demand the attention of observing and experimenting men and women. Where these inquiries lead beyond the education of practical men, we want the agricultural college to take hold and tell us what science can determine. Here a contention arises. The college people say nobody will go through a col- ' lege course to work for $80 a month on the farm afterward, while by taking some other course they can command $100. This presupposes that any Iowa boy of girl has a right to go to Ames and study toward preaching, lawyering, doctoring, engineering, teaching in literary colleges or any other vocation that will bring them more than farm hands' wages, or farm educators' wages. This is all wrong. It is robbery to the farm classes. It is a bold perversion of the State and National grants. It is utter refusal to do the work for the farmer that he now needs done and that Congress and the State of Iowa wanted done. Provision is amply made at Iowa City and a score of other places for literary and technical education for these classes. They have no business at the college instituted for the farmer and mechanic. The entire effort at Ames should be for these two classes. The state greatly requires educated mechanics of the higher sort. Other nations educate them. Our's has provided for it at Ames. The secret of the whole trouble is, the Iowa farmer and mechanic have little or nothing to say in Iowa aflairs of any kind, beyond the care of roads and district schools. We do get a few farmers into the legislature, picked out to vote against whisky or for beer, to vote for this section or that, to go for State school books or against them, to let railways alone, or to charge down on them, to help somebody else out, or hold a seat till somebody else ripens for it. SOME USSSONS Olf THE YEAK. The lessons of the year teach us that w& can only hope for profit from the best. Prices for cattle iu Chicago ranged from 75 cents to $0.40 per cwt. The poorer grades of cattle never sold so low, and the better grades sold 50 cents per cwt. better than in 1889. Many States cannot send the better grades. Iowa can. The- desert regions suffered because feed was scarce, and owing to short corn crops our farmers could not buy the usual number for feeding, so every shipper of inferior cattle suffered. The cattle that have gone from Iowa averaged better prices, being better cattle and better fed than from, most other States. The lesson of the year suggests better stock and still better- finishing. The corn crop of 1889 set everybody to- breeding hogs to consume corn. The short crop of 1890 set everybody to selling. Hogs have not been paying exclusive raisers, while the farmer who breeds cattle and horses' and keeps hogs within bounds, has had fair profits, as ho was never over stocked and was not compelled to sacrifice at any time, The stock is- being greatly reduced from fear of disease and higher priced corn. Sheep have- paid well. Mutton is in demand and is scarce. Our farmers have turned to the sheep again, but they seek the mutton, breeds that will give them the world's markets. Iowa can profitably quadruple her sheep stock and cut her hog stock down one-half. Horses still sell fairly well. Heavy draft and roadsters are the best sellers. The receipts at Chicago have doubled iu two years. This means- a shifting of the breeding grounds from the East to the Northwest. The cheapest grass and grain States will breed the future horses. We are steadily supplying New England and the eastern States with their working horses and driving horses. The organization of farmers will result in more than surprise at election time. The spirit of improvement is planted and fostered. The inquiry for better stock is increasing and will result in more farmers feeding their grain at home, getting what profit there is in condensing, taking better care of the fertility of their farms, and more general prosperity to all classes. The year has been disastrous to those who were compelled to sell their stock, fairly profitable to sellers of good stock, and fortunate for renters who sell grain— if they had good crops. Ambrose A. Call, D. H. Hntchius, J. C. Blackford, President. Vice-President. Cashier FIRST NATIONAL BANK ' c ' ******* to at GROVE M. Z. GROVE __ _ ^. Q-IESO^nEj BEOS. LIVERY, FEED, AND SALE STABLE Best of Horses and Carriages, West of Thorington House. M. Z. GROVE, MANAGER. r—* r-in « We can now make loans on Improved Lands from one to ten FAD l\/l year's tuna and give the borrower the privilege of paying the whole F M PI IVI loan wany.Part thereof in even Sioo at any time when, interest falls due. 1ms is Iowa Money, and no second mortgage or coupons are taken. This plan of making a loan will enable the borrower to re- i x-v A .. i^ <luce his mortgage at any time and save tlie interest on the amount I fj A Kl O P ald - Money furnished at once on perfect title. Gall on or address, H. HOXIE, Algona, Iowa. At Lowest Rates and optional payments. Interest payable at our office. If you want a loan call on us. ^Ve can save you money. JONES & SMITH. IT WILL PAY YOU Winkie Bro's, -TO CALL ATIF YOU ARE IN NEED OF Stoves or Hardware, Election is Over-So is High Prices for Stoves I have a full line of Cooks and Heaters, among which Is the celebrated BOUND OAK, standing at the head of tlie soft coal burners. 1 shall meet all competition, selling at bottom prices. Take one. (j. jjj, HQWA,BP.
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