The Algona Republican from Algona, Iowa on December 3, 1890 · Page 5
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The Algona Republican from Algona, Iowa · Page 5

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Wednesday, December 3, 1890
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THE MH88A6E. Outline of Government Affairs Submitted to .Congress, Work of Law Departments —The Tariff and Its Effects—Foreign Relations. Foreign llfllutinn*. Til BY AltP, FRIENDLY. .E SKNATE ANU Ho USB OF TIVJ9S: Tho reports of tho sovorul executive departments, whtch -will be Intd before Congress in tho usual course, will exhibit in detail -the operations of tho Government for tho last fiscal year. Only tho tnoro important incidents and results, and ehiolly such as may bo tho foundation of tho recommendations I shall submit, will bo referred to in this iinnual message. Tho friendly relations of our country with tho nations of Europe and of the East have been undisturbed, while tho tics ot good will and common interest that bind us to the States of tho Western hemisphere have boon notubly Strengthened by tho conference held in this capital to consider measures for- tho general Welfare. Pursuant to the invitation authorized by Congress, the representatives of every independent State of tho American continent and of Haytl met fn conference in this capital In October, 1889, and continued in session until tho 10th of last April. This important convocation marks a most Interesting and influential epo h in tho history of the Western Hemisphere. It is noteworthy that Brazil, invited while'under an imperial form of Government, shared as a Republic in tho deliberations and results uf tho conference. Tho recommendations of this conference wore all transmitted to Congress at tho last session. Tho International Marine Conference, which sat at Washington last winter, reached a very gratifying result. The regulations suggested have been brought to tno attention of all tho governments represented, and their general adoption Is confidently expected. The legislation of Congress at tho last session Is In conformity with tho propositions of tho conference, and tho proclamation therein provided for will bo issued when tho other powers have given notice of their adhesion. THE SLAVE TRADE IN AFRICA. The conference of Brussels, to devise means for suppressing the slave trade in Africa, afforded (in opportunity for a new expression of tho interest the American people feel in that great work. It soon became evident that tho measure proposed would tax tho resources of the Congo Basin beyond the revenues available under tho general act of Berlin of 1884. Tho United States, I not being a party to that act, could not share in its revision, but by a separate act the Independent State of tho Congo was freed from tho restrictions upon a customs revenue. The demoralizing and destructive traffic in ardent spirits among tho tribes also claimed tho earnest attention of the conference, and the delegates of the United States -vero foremost in advocating measures for its repression. An accord was reached, tho Influcnco of which will bo very helpful and extend over a wide region. As soon us thoso measures shall re- colvo tho sanction of tho Netherlands, for a time withheld, the general acts will be submitted for ratification by tho Senate, .Meanwhile negotiations have been opened for a new and complete treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation between the United States an:l the Independent State of the Congo. Toward the end of tho past year the only In dependent monarchical Government on th. j Western Continent, that of Brazil, ceased to exist and was succeeded by a Republic. Dip- lomaticrelations wero at ouco established with tho new Government, but it was not completely recognized until an opportunity had been affordo.l to ascertain that it had popular approval and support. 'When the course of events had yielded assurance of this fact, no time was lost in extending to the new Government a full and cordial welcome into tho family of American commonwealths. It is confidently believed that tho good relations of the two countries will be preserved, and that tho futura will witness an increased intimacy of intercourse and an expansion of their mutual commerce. CENTRAL AMERICA. The peace of Central America has again been disturbed through a revolutionary change in Salvador, which was not recognized by other States, and hostilities broke out between Salvador and Guatemala, threatening to involve all Central America in conflict and undo tho progress which had been made toward a union of their interests. The effort of this Government was promptly and zealously exerted to compose their dillerences, and through tho active efforts of the representative of tho United States a provisional treaty of peace was signed August 2(5, whereby the right of the Republic of Salvador to choose its own rulers was recognized. General Ezota, the chief of the Provisional Government, has since been confirmed in tho Presidency by the Assembly, and diplomatic recognition duly followed. THE BARRUNDIA CASE. The killing of General Bamindia on bjard tho Pacific mail-steamer Acapulco, while anchored in transit in the port of San Jose do Guatemala, demanded careful inquiry. Having failed in a revolutionary attempt to in- Vado Guatemala from Mexican territory, General Barrundla took passage at Acapuloo for Panama. The consent of the representatives ot the United States was sought to effect his seizure, first at Chainperlco, where the steamer touched, and afterward at San Jose. The captain of the steamer refused to give up his passenger without a written order from the United States Minister; the latter furnished the do- sired letter, stipulating, as the condition of his action, that General Barrundia's life should be spared, and that ho should bo tried only for offenses growing out of his insurrectionary movements. This letter was produced to tho captain of the Aoapulco by the military commander at San Jose as his warrant to take tho passenger from the steamer. General Barrundla resisted capture and was killed. It being evident that the Minister, Mr. Miznor, had exceeded tho bounds of his authority In intervening, in compliance with the demands of tho Guatemalan authorities, to authorize and effect, in violation of precedent, the seizure on a vessel of tho United States of a passenger lu transit charged with political offenses, in order that he might be tried for such offenses, under what was do- scribed as martial law, I was constrained to disavow Mr. Mtener's act and recall him from his post. Tho Nicaragua canal project, under the control of our citizens, is making most encouraging progress, all the preliminary conditions and initial operations having been accomplished within the prescribed time. During tho past year negotiations have boon renewed for tho settlement of the claims of American citizens against the Government of Chill, principally growing out ot the late war, and reports from our Minister at Santiago warrant the expectation of an early and satisfactory adjustment. Our relations with China, which have for several years occupied so important a place in our diplomatic history, havo culled for careful consideration and have been the subject of much correspondence. DIVERS FOREIGN MATTERS. The communications of the Chinese Minister have brought into view the whole subject of our conventional relations with his country, and ut the same time this Government, through its legation at PeUin, has sought to arrange various matters and complaints touching the interests and protection of our citizens in China, In pursuance, of tbe concurrent resolution of October!, 1890, I havo proposed to the governments of Mexico and Great Britain to consider a conventional regulation of the passage ot Chinese laborers across our southern and northern frontiers. On the 22d day of August last Sir Edmund Munson, tho arbitrator selected under tbe treaty of December 8, 1888, rendered an award to tbe effect that no compensation was due from tho Danish Government to the United States on account of what is commonly known as tbe Carlos Butterlleld claim. Our relations with the French Republic continue to be entirely cordial. Our representative at tbttt court has very diligently urged the removal of the restrictions Imposed upon our meat products, and it is believed that sub- tautlal progress has been wade toward a just settlement, The Samoua Treaty, signed last year at Berlin by tbe representatives of tho United States, Germany and Great Britain, after due ratification and excbaugc, has begun to produce salutary efleots. TH8 SEAL QUESTION. The difference between tho two governments touching tbe fur seal question in the Bearing s.ea is not yet adjusted, as will be seen by tbe oorrespoudenoe which will soon be laid before Congress, The offer to submit tho question to arbitration, as proposed by her Majesty's Government, has. not been accepted, for toe reason tba,t tbe form ot submission proposed le not thought to be calculated to assure a oon.clusiou satisfactory to either party. It is «tgSerely hoped tbat before tbe opening of MMg&eff sealing season some sure to the United States a property rlght^ I derived from Russia, Which was not disregarded by any nation lor more than eighty years preceding the outbreak of tho existing trouble. In the tariff act a •Wrong was done to the Kingdom of Hawaii which Jt am bound to presume was wholly unintentional. Duties wore levied on certain commodities Which are included in the reciprocity treaty now existing between the United States and the Kingdom of Hawaii, without indicating tho necessary exception in favor of that Kingdom. I hope Congress will repair what might otherwise seem to be a breacli of faith on the part of this Government. An award in favor of the United States in the matter of the claim of Mr. Van Bokkelen against Hnyti was rendered on tho 4th of December, IHS.I, but owing to disorders then and afterward prevailing in Hayti, tho terms ot tho payments «-cro not observed. A new agreement as to tho time of payment has been approved and is now in force. Other just claims of citizens of tho United States for redress of wrongs suffered during the late political conflict in Hayti will, it is hoped, speedily yield to friendly treatment. Propositions for tho amendment of the treaty of extradition between tho United States and Italy aro now under consideration. You will be asked to provide the means of accepting tho invitation of tho Italian Government to tako part in an approaching conference to consider tho adoption of a universal prime meridian from which to reckon longitude and time. As this proposal follows in tho track of the reform sought to bo initiated by the meridian conference of Washington, held on tho invitation of this Government, tho United States should manifest a friendly interest In tho Italian proposal. TUB PORTUGUESE INCIDENT. In tho summer of 1889 an incident occurred which for some time threatened to Interrupt tho cordiality of our relations with tho Government of Portugal. That Government seized the Delagoa Bay railway, which was constructed under a concession granted to an American citizen, and at the same time annulled the charter. The concessionary, who had embarked his fortune in the enterprise, having exhausted other means of redress, was compelled to invoke the protection of his Government. Our representations, made colncidcntly with those of tho Brussels Government, whoso subjects were also largely Interested, happily resulted In the recognition by Portugal of tho propriety of submitting the claim for indemnity growing out of its action to arbitration. This plan of settlement having been agreed upon, tho interested powers readily concurred in tho proposal to submit the case to the judgment Of three eminent jurists, to be designated by the President of the Swiss Republic, who upon tho joint invitation of the Governments of tho United States, Great Britain and Portugal has selected persons well qualified for tho task before them. Tho revision of our treaty relations with the Empire of Japan has continued to be the subject of consideration and of correspondence. Tho questions Involved are both grave and delicate ; and, while it will bo my duty to see that tho interests of tho United States are not by any changes exposed to undue discrimination, I sincerely hope that such revision as will satisfy the legitimate expectations of the Japanese Government, and maintain the present and long existing friendly relations between Japan and tho United States, will be effected. Tho friendship between our country and Mexico, born of close neighborhood and strengthened by many considerations of intt- mato intercourse and reciprocal interest, has never been more conspicuous than now, nor more hopeful of increa-.ed benefit to both nations. The Intercourse of tho two countries by rail, already great, Is making constant growth. The established linos, and thoso recently projected, add to the intimacy of traffic and open new channels of access to fresh areas of demand and supply. The importance of tho Mexican railway system will be further enhanced, to a degree almost Impossible to forecast, if it should become a link in the projected intercontinental railway. 1 recommend that our mission in tho City of Mexico be raised to the first class. ABOUT ClROtrtiAIJON. Tho efforts of tho Secretary to increase th« volume of money In circulation by keeping down tho Treasury surplus to tho lowest firoo- tlcable limit have been unremitting and in a very high Uegree successful. Tho table* presented by him, showing tho increase of Bioney In circulation during tho last two decades, and especially the table showing the InOfease during tho nineteen months he has administered tho affairs of tho department, are Interesting and instructive. Tho Increase of money in circulation during the nineteen months has boon In the aggregate $93,800,813, or about 41.BO per capita, and of this increase only $7JO;>,M)0 was duo to the recent silver legislation. That this substantial and needed aid Klvcn to commerce resulted in an enormous reduction of the public debt and of the annual interest charge is matter of increased satisfaction. There have been purchased and redeemed since March 4, 1890, 4 and 4!4 per cont. bonds to tho amount of $2;i,833,480, at a cost of $-246,020,741, resulting in tho reduction of the annual interest charge of $8.037,609, and a total saving of interest of jS1.570,70t). I notice with great pleasure the statonient of tho Secretary that tho receipts from internal revenues have increased during the last fiscal year nearly $12,000,OJO, and that the cost Of collecting this larger revenue was less by 190,017 than for tho same purpose in the preceding year. Tho percentage of cost of collecting the customs rovenuo was less for the last fiscal year than ever before. I'HE CUSTOMS SERVICR The Customs Administration Board provided for by the act of Juno 10, IS'JO, was selected with groat caro and is composed in part of men whoso previous experience in tho ad- minlst.ition of the old customs regulations had m4do them familiar with the evils to bo remedied, and in part of men whoso legal and judicial acquirements and experience seemed to lit them for tho work of Interpreting and applying tho now statute. The chief aim of the law Is to secure honest valuations of all dutiable merchandise and to make theso valuations uniform at all our ports of entry. It has boon made manifest by a Congressional investigation that a system of undervaluation had been long in use by certain classes of Importers, resulting not only In a great loss of revenue, but in a most intolerable discrimination against honesty. It is not seen how tills legislation, when it is understood, can be regarded by tho citizens of any country having commercial dealings with us as unfriendly. If any duty Is supposed to be excessive let the complaint be lodged there. It will surely not be claimed by any well-disposed people that a remedy may be sought and allowed in a system of quasi smuggling. GOOD FRIENDS WITH SPAIN. The cordial character with our relations with Spain warrants the hope that by the continua ice of methods of friendly negotiation much may be accomplished in the direction of an adjustment of pending questions and of tho increase of our trade. Tho extent and development of our trade with the Island of Cuba invest the commercial relations of tho United States and Spain with a peculiar importance. It is not developed that a special arrangement in regard to commerce, based upon this reciprocity provision of the recent tariff act, would operate most beneficially for both Governments. This subject is now receiving attention. OUR CONSULAR SERVICE. On the 2d of September last the commission appointed to revise the procesdlngs of the commission under the claims convention between the United States and Venezuela of 1806, brought its labors to a oloso within the period fixed for that purpose. The proceedings of the late commission were characterized by a spirit of impartiality and a high sense of justice, and an incident v;hich was for many years the subject of discussion between the two governments has been disposed of in a manner alike honorablo and satisfactory to both parties. For tho settlement of the claim of the Vcne- zualy Steam Transportation Company, which was the subject of a joint resolution adopted at the last session of Congress, negotiations are still in progress, and their early conclusion Is anticipated. Tbe legislation of the past few years has evinced ofl the part of Congress a growing realization of tho importance of the consular service in fostering our commercial relations abroad and in protecting the domestic revenues. As the scope of operations expands, increased provisions must be made to keep up the esseh* tial standard of efficiency. The necessity of some adequate measure of supervision and inspection has bo n so often presented that I need only commend tho subject to your attention. The Country's Finances. RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES. The revenues of the Government from all sources for the fiscal year ending June 80, 1890, were $408,968,080.65. and the total ex- The IVnr DESERTIONS DECREASING The report of the Secretary ot War exhibits several gratifying results attained during tho year by wise and unostentatious methods. The percentage of desertions from tho army (an evil for which both Congress and tho department have ;long been seeidng a remedy) has been reduced during the past year 21 pei cent., and for the months ot August and September, during which ttmo the favorable effects of the act of Juno 15 wero felt, 33 per cent, as compared with tho same months of 1880. Tho results attained by a reorganization and consolidation of tho divisions having charge of the hospital service records of the volunteer service are very remarkable. This change was effected In July, 188P, and at that time there were •/0,0,'Jt cases awaiting attention, more than half of these being calls from the Pension Office for information necessary to tho adjudication of pension claims. On the 30th day of June last, though over 300,000 new calls had come in, there was not a single case that had not been examined and answered. COAST DEFENSES. I concur in the recommendations of the Secretary that adequate and regular appropriations be continued for coast defense works and ordnance. Plans.havo been practically agreed upon, and there can be no good reason for delaying the execution of them; while the defenseless state of our great seaports furnishes an urgent reason for wise expedition, THE MILITIA. Tho encouragement that has been extended to the militia of the States, generally, and most appropriately designated the"National Guard," should be continued and enlarged. These military organizations constitute, In a largo sense, the army of the United States, while about five-sixths of tho annual cost of their maintenance is defrayed by the States. U P by tho expenses and extortions to which delay subjected the claimant. Tho average monthly issue of agricultural patents has been increased about six thousand. THE PENSION OFFICE* Tho disability pension act, which was approved on the 27tti of Juno last, has been put into operation as rapidly as practicable. The increased clerical lorce provided was selected and assigned to work, and a considerable part of tho force cngngcd in examinations in the Held was recalled and added to the working force of tho office. The examination nnd adjudication of claims have, by reason of Improved methods, been more rapid than ever before. There is 'no economy to the Government In delay, while there is much hardship and Injustice to the soldiers. Tho anticipated expenditure, while very large, will not, it is believed, be in excess of tho estimates made before tho enactment of tho law. This liberal general Inw should suggest a more careful scrutiny of bills for special relief, both as to tho cases where relief Is granted and as to the amount allowed. AFFAIRS IN UTAH. The increasing numbers and influence of the non-Mormon population in Utah are observed with satisfaction. Tho rece.nt loiter of Wilford Woodruff, president of the Mormon church, in which ho advised his people "to refrain from contracting any marriage forbidden by the laws of the land," has attracted wldn attention, and it is hoped that its influence will be highly beneficial In restraining infractions of tho laws of the United States. But the fact should not bo overlooked that tho doctrine or belief of the church that polygamous marriages arc rightful and supported by Divine revelation re- mnins unchanged. President Woodruff docs not renounce the doctrine, but refrains from teaching it, and advises against tho practice of It because the law is against it. Now It is quite true that the law should not attempt to deal with the fiiith or belief of any one; but It Is quite another thing, and tho only safe thing, so to deal with the Territory of Utah as that those who believe polygamy to be rightful shall not have the power to make it lawful. TWO NI5W STATUS. The admission of the States of Wyoming and Idaho to tho Union aie events full of interest and congratulation, not only to tho people of those States now happily endowed with a full participation in our privileges and responsibilities, but to all our people. Another belt of States stretches from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The work of tho Patent Office has won from all sources very high commendation. The amount accomplished has been very largely in creased, and all the results have been such as to secure confidence and consideration for the suggestions of the Commissioner. THE CENSUS. Tho enumeration of the people of the United States, under the provisions of the act of March 1, 1890, has been completed and the result will be at once officially communicated to Congress. The completion of this decennial enumeration devolves upon Congress the duty of making a new apportionment of Representatives "among the several States, according to their respective numbers." USELESS PUBLIC BUILDINGS. At the last session I had occasion to return with my objections several bills making provisions for the erection of public buildings, for tho reason that the expenditures contemplated were. In my opinion, greatly in excess of any public need. No class of legislation is more liable to abuse, or to degenerate into an unseemly scramble about the public treasury than this. There should be exercised in this matter a wise economy based upon some responsible and Impartial examination and report as to each case, under a general law. pondlture? for tbe same period were $358,018, • 584,59. 'rhe postal receipts have not here' tofore been Included in tho statement of these aggregates, and for the purpose of comparison the sum of $03,889.097.93 should be deducted from both sides of the ao count. The surplus for the year, including the amount applied to the sinking fund, was $105,344,496.03, The receipts lor 1890 were $10,030,933.79 and the expenditures $15,789,871 in excess of those of 1889. The customs receipts Increased $5,835,848,S8 and the receipts from Internal revenue 111.725,191,89, while, On tha side of expenditures, that for pensions was $19,313,076.90 iri excess of the preceding year. The Treasury statement for the current fiscal year, partly actual and partly estimated, Is as follows: Receipts from all sources, $408,0 0,000; total expenditures, $354.000,030, leaving a surplus ot $53,000,000—not taking tbe postal receipts into account on either side. The loss of revenue from customs for tbe last quarter is estimated at $35,000,000. but from this In deducted a gain of about »lO,030,yjO, realized dur= ing tbe first four months of the year. For the year 1899, the local estimated receipts are $373,000,000, and the estimated expenditures $357,853,309.49, leaving an estimated surplus ot $15,147,790.68, which, with a cash balance of $32,000,000 at tbe beginning of the year, will give $07,147,790.58 as the sum available for the redemption of outstanding bonds or other uses. The estimates of receipts and expenditures for tho Post-Office Department being equal, are not included in this statement on either side. tl'BE SILVER QUESTION. The act "directing tbe purchase of silver bullion and issue ot Treasury notes thereon," approved July 14,1S90, has been Administered by tbe Secretary of the Treasury with an earn est purpose to get into circulation at the earliest possible dates tbe full monthly amounts of Treasury notes contemplated by its provisions and at the same time to give to the market for silver bullion such support as tbe law contemplates. Tbe recent depreciation in tbe price of silver has been observed with regret. Tbe rapid rise in price wbicb anticipated and followed tbe passage of tbe act was influenced in some degree by speculation, and the recent reaction is- in part tbo result of tho same cause and in part of the recent monetary disturbance's. Some months of further trial will be necessary to determine tbe permanent £fleot of tbe recent legislation upon silver values, but it is gratifying to know that tbe increased circulation secured by tbe apt bag exerted and will continue to exert a mosi; beneficial influence upon business and upon general values. while it has not been thought bast to renew formally tbe suggestion of an international conference looking to.an agreement touching the full use of silver for coinage at a uniform ratio, euro has been taken to observe closely any change lu the situation abroad, aud no favorable opportunity will be lost to promote a result wbTpb it Is confidently believed would confer very large benefits upon tbe commerce of tbe world. The;:recent monetary disturbances in England are not unlikely to s JUK i \ a r -a f ajnina- tion of opinions upon rtiis subject. Our very large supply Of gold wUJ. if not lost by impulsive legisjatjkjpTa ibs supposed interest of silver, give us a position of advantage in promoting 0 p«m8*«Bt-'a,n4 sate Tnter* "— agreemen! fo? Ibo lye« use of. siivev as $ Tho Xiitlonal Laws. SATISFACTORILY ADMINISTERED. The report of tho Attorney-General is under the law submitted directly to Congress, but as the Department of Justice is one of the executive departments, some reference to the work done is appropriate here. A vigorous and in the main an effective effort has been made to bring to trial and punishment all violators of the laws; but, at the same time, care has been taken that frivolous and technical offenses should not be used to swell the fees of officers or to. harass well-disposed citizens. Especial attention is called to the facts connected with tho prosecution of violations of the election laws and of offenses against United States officers. The number of convictions secured, very many of them upon pleas of guilty, will, it is hoped, have a salutary restraining influence. tfRADDULENT NATURALIZATION. Tha vacation by judicial decrees of fraudulent certificates of naturalization, upon bills in equity tiled by the Attorney-General in the Circuit Court of the United States, is a now application of a familiar equity jurisdiction. Nearly one hundred decrees have been taken during the year, tho evidence disclosing that a very largo number of fraudulent certificates of naturalization have been issued. And in this connection I beg to renew my recommendation that the laws be so amended as to require a more full and searching inquiry into all the facts necessary to naturalization before any certificates are granted. It certainly is not too much to require that an application for American citizenship shall bo heard with as much care and recorded with as much formality as are given to cases involving the pettiest property right. Postal Department. METHODS GREATLY IMPROVED. The report of the Postmaster-General shows the most gratifying progress in the important work committed to his direction. The business methods have been greatly Improved, A large economy in expenditures and an increase of four and three quarter millions in receipts have been realized. The deficiency this year is $5,780,300 as against $0,350,183 last year, not withstanding the great enlargement of the service. Mall routes have been extended and quickened, and greater accuracy aud dispatch in distribution and delivery have been attained. The report will be found to be full of interest and suggestion, hot only to Congress, but to those thoughtful citizens who may be interested to know what business methods can do for that department of public administration which most nearly-touches all our people. TBE ANTI-LOTTERY ACT. The passage of the act to amend certain sections of the Revised Statutes relating to lotteries, approved September 19, 1890, has been received with great and deserved popular favor. Tbe Post-Office Department and tho Department of Justice at once entered upon the enforcement of the law with sympathetic vigor, and already the public mails have been largely freed from the fraudulent and demoralizing appeals and literature emanating from the lottery companies. The Navy. SPLENDID NEW VESSELS. The construction and equipment of the new ships for the navy have made very satisfactory progress. Since March 4,1889, nine new vessels have been put in commission, and during this winter four more, Including one monitor, will be added, Tbe construction of the other vessels authorized Is being pushed, both in the Government and private yards, with energy and wato) ed with most scrupulous care. lutprior .Department, BBDTJOTIOS OS 1 INDIAN RESERVATIONS. Tbe several acts of Congress looking to tbe reduction of tbe larger Indian reservations, to the more rapid settlement of tbe Indians upon individual allottments, and tbe restoration to tbo public domain of lands in excess of their needs, have been largely carried into effect, so far as tbe work was confided to the Executive. Agreements have been concluded since Marob 4,1889, involving the cession to tbe United States of about Hra&QOJ acres of land. These contracts b»ve, as required by law, been submitted to'Coagress for ratification and for tbe appropriations necessary to carry them > effect; Those witb the Sisseton and Wah. The Department of Agriculture. FARMERS PROSPERING. The report of the Secretary of Agriculture deserves especial attention In view of the fact that the year has been marked in a very unusual degree by agitation and organization among tho'farmers looking to an increase in tho profits of their business. It will be found that the efforts of the department have been intelligently and zealously devoted to the promotion of the interests intrusted to Its care. A very substantial improvement in the market prices of the leading farm products during the year is noticed. Tho price of wheat advanced from 81 cents in October, 1889, to $1.00?j£ in October, 1890; corn from 31 cents to fbOki cents; oats from 19U cents to 43 cents, and barley from 03 cents to 78 cents. Meats showed a substantial but not so large an increase. The export trade in live animals and fowls shows a very largo increase; tho total value of such exports for the year ending June 30,1S90, was $33,000,000 and the increase over the preceding year was over $15,000,003. Nearly 200,000 more cattle and over 45,000 more hogs were exported than in tho preceding year. Tue export trade in beef and pork products and in dairy products was very largely increased, the increase in the article of butter alone being from 15,50i,978 pounds to 29, 748,043 pounds, and the total increase in the value of meat and dairy products exported being $34,000,000. This.trade, so directly helpful to the farmer, it is believed will be yet further and very largely increased when the system of inspection and sanitary supervision now provided by law is brought fully into operation. PROTECTING AMERICAN MEATS. The efforts of the Secretary to establish the healthfulness of our meats against tho disparaging imputations that have been put upon them abroad have resulted in substantial progress. Veterinary surgeons sent out by the department are now allowed to participate in the inspection of the' live cattle from this country landed'.at the English docks and during the several months they have been on duty no case of contagious pleuro- pneumonla has been reported. This inspection abroad and the domestic inspection of live animals and pork products, provided for by the Act of August 30,1890, will afford as perfect a guaranty for the wholesomeness of our meats offered for foreign consumption as is anywhere given to any food product, and Its non-acceptancu will quite clearly reveal the real motive of any continued restriction for their use; and that having b een made clear, tho duty of $he Executive will be very plain. BEET SUGAR INTERESTS. The Information given by the Secretary of tho progress and prospects of the beet sugar industry is fuU of interest. It has already passed the experimental stage and is a commercial success. Tno area over which the sugar boot, can be successfully cultivated is very large, ana another field crop of great value is offered to the choice of the farmers. into effect peton, Sao and Fox, Iowa, Ppitawatomies and Absentee Sbawnees and Coeur d'Alene tribes bave not yet reaeived tbe sanction of Congress, Attention is also called to tbe tact that the appropriations made in tbe case of tbe Sioux Indians have not covered "11 tbe stipulated payments. This should be promptly corrected. If an agreement is confirmed allot its terms should be complied witb without delay, and full appropriations should be made. LAUDS U-OK SETTLERS. Tbe policy outlined in my last annual message iu relation to tbe patenting of lauds to settlers upon tbo public domain nas been carried out in tbe administration of tbe LandQl* fi.ce, No general suspicion or Imputation of fraud teas Seen allowed to delay tbe bearing an4 tvidual oaa^s upon their mefc' - - *- -U & parfeot the ti"- The Tariff nntl Its Effects. SOME STATISTICS. The general trade and industrial conditions throughout the country during tho year have shown a marked improvement. For many years prior to 1888 the merchandise balances of foreign trade bad been largely in our favor, but during that year and the year following they turned against us. It is very gratifying to know that the last fiscal year again shows a balance in our lavor of over $08,000,000. The bank clearings which furnish a good test of the volume of business transacted for the first ten mouths of the year 1890 show, as compared with the same months of 1889, an increase for the whole ooun^ trv of about 8.4 per cent., while the increase outside of the city of New York was over 13 per cent. During the month of October the clearings of tbe whole country showed an increase of 3.1 per cent, over October, 1889, while outside of New York the increase was lltf per cent. Those figures show that the increase in the volume of business was very general throughout the country. That this larger business was being conducted upon a safe and profitable basis Is shown by the fact that there wero 800 less failures reported In October, 1890, than in the same month of tne preceding year, with liabilities diminished by about $5,000,000. INCREASE IN EXPORTS. The value of our exports of domestic merchandise during the last year was over $115,000,000 greater than the preceding year, and was only exceeded once in our history. About $100 000 000 of this excess was in agricultural products. The production of pig iron—always a good gauge of general prosperity—is shown by a recent census bulletin to have been 153 per cent, greater in 1890 than in 1880, and tbe production of steel 890 per cent, greater. Mining in coal has had uo limitation except that resulting from deficient transportation. Tbe general testimony is that labor Is .everywhere fully employed, and the reports for tte last year show u smaller number of employes' affected by strikes and lookouts tban in any year since 1884. The depression in the prices of agricultural products bad been greatly relieved, and a buoyant and hopeful toue was beginning to be felt by all our people. ' THE LATE TARIFF AOT. Tbe general tariff act has only partially gone into operation, some of its important provisions being limited to take effect at dates yet in tbe future. (/The general provisions; of the law bave'been in force loss than sixty days. Its permanent effect upon trade and prices still largely stand in conjecture. It is curious to now that the advance in tbe prices of articles wholly unaffected by the tariff act was by many hastily ascribod to that act. Notice was not taken of the fact that tbe general tendency of the markets was upward, from influences wholly apart from tho recent tariff legislation. The enlargement of our currency by tbe silver bill undoubtedly gave an upward tendency «" andhuda marked effect on prioes; but MUST HAVE A FAIR TRIAL. There is neither wisdom nor justice In the suggestion that the subject of tariff revision Shall be opened before this law has had a fair trial. It is qulto true that every tariff schedule Is subject to objections. No bill was ever framed, I suppose, that in all of its rates and classifications had the full approval even of ft party caucus, since legislation is always and necessarily the product of compromise as to details, and tho present law is no exception. Uut in its general scope and effect I think it will justify the support of those who believe that American legislation should conserve American trade and the wages of working-men. The misinformation as to the terms of tho act which have been so widely disseminated at home and abroad will be corrected by experience, and the evil augprles as to Its results confounded by the market reports, the savings banks, internal trade balances and the general prosperity of our pftoplc. Already we begin to hear from abroad and from our custom houses that the prohibitory effect upon Importations imputed to tho act Is not justified. The imports at the port of New York for tlio first three weeks of November wero nearly 8 per cent, greater than for the same period in IHSfl, and ia per cent, greater than in tho same period of 1888. And so far from being an act to limit exports, I confidently believe that, under It wo shall secure a larger and more profitable participation in foreign trade than we havo ever enjoyed, and that we shall recover a proportionate participation in tho ocean carrying trade of the world. SOUTH ATLANTIC AND GULP PORTS. The South Atlantic and gulf ports occupy a very favored position toward the new and important commerce which tho reciprocity clause of the tariff act and the postal shipping bill are designed to promote. Steamship lines from thcsb ports to some northern port of South America will almost certainly effect a connection between tho railroad systems of the continents long before any continuous line of railroads can bo put into operation. Tho very large appropriation made at tho last session for the harbor at Galveston was justified, as it seemed to me, by these considerations. The great Northwest will feel the advantage of new trunk lines to the South as well us to the East, and to tho new markets opened for their surplus food products and for many of their manufactured products. TUB INTERNATIONAL DANK PROJECT. I had occasion in May last to transmit to Congress a report adopted by the international American conference upon tbo subject of incorporation of an international American bank, with a view to facilitating money exchanges between the States represented in that conference. Such an institution would greatly promote the trade we are seeking to develop. I renew tbe recommendation that a careful and well guardedocharter be granted I do not think the powers granted should include those ordinarily exercised by trusts, guaranty and safe deposit companies, or that more branches in tho United States should be authorized than are strictly necessary to accomplish the object primarily in view, namely, convenient foreign exchanges. It Is quite important that prompt action should be taken in this matter in order that any appropriations for better communications with these countries, and any agreements that may be made for reciprocal trade, may not bo hindered by the inconveniences of making exchanges through European money centers,or burdened by the tribute which is an incident of that method ot business. RELIEVE THE SUPREME COTTHT. The bill for the relief of the Supreme Court has, after many years of discussion, reached a position when final action is easily attainable, and it is hoped that any dllfertmces of opinion may be so harmonized as to save the essential features ot this very important measure. In this connection I earnestly renew my recommendation that the salaries of the Judges of the United States District Courts be so readjusted that none of them, shall receive less than $5,000 per annum. SPANISH AND MEXICAN LAND GRANTS. The subject of the unadjusted Spanish and Mexican land grants and the urgent necessity tor providing some commission or tribunal for the trial of questions of title growing out of them, were twice brought by mo to the attention ot Congress at the last session. Bills have been reported from the proper committees in both houses upon the subject, and I very earnestly hope that this Congress will put an end to the delay which has attended the settlement of tho disputes as to title between settlers and the claimants under these grants. These disputes retard tne prosperity and disturb the peace of large and important communities. The Governor of New Mexico, in his lust report to the Secretary of the Interior, suggests some modifications of the provisions of the pending bills relating to the small holdings of farm lands. I commend to your attention the suggestions of the Secretary of the Interior upon this subject • A NATIONAL BANKRUPT LATV NEEDED. The enactment of a National bankrupt law I still regard as very desirable. The constitution having given to Congress jurisdiction of this subject, It should be exorcised, and uniform rules provided for the administration of the affairs of insolvent debtors. The inconveniences resulting from 1,110 occasional -and temporary exercise of this power by Congress, and from the conflicting State codes of insolvency which come into force intermediately, should be removed by the enactment of a simple, inexpensive and permanent National bankrupt law. INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT. I also renew my recomm endation In favor of legislation affording just copyright protection to foreign authors on a footing of reciprocal advantages for our authors abroad. IN BEHALF OF " '"' It may still be possible for this Congress to inaugurate, by suitable legislation, a movement looking to uniformity and Increased safety in the use of couplers and brakes upon freight trains engaged in inter-State commerce. The chief difficulty In tho way is to secure agreement ns to the best appliances, simplicity, effectiveness and cost being considered. This difficulty will only yield to legislation, which should be based upon full inquiry and Impartial tests. The purpose should bo to secure the cooperation of all well-disposed managers and owners, but tho fearful fact that, every year's delay involves the sacrifice ot 3,000 lives and the maiming of 30,000 young men, should plead both with Congress and managers against any needless delay. WATER FOR ARID REGIONS. The subject of the conservation and equal distribution of the water supply ot the arid regions has had much attention from Congress, but has not as yet been pixt upon a permanent and satisfactory basis. The urgency of tho subject does not grow out of any large present demand for the use of these lauds for agriculture, but out of the danger that the water supply and the sites tor tho ' necessary catch-basins may fall Into the hands of individuals or private corporations and be used to render subservient the large areas dependent upon such supply. The owner of the water is tbe owner of tho lands, however the titles may run. All unap- propriated natural water sources and all necessary reservoir sites should ba held by the Government for the equal use, at fair rates, of tbe homestead settlers who will eventually take up tneac lands. The United States should not, in my opinion, undertake tne consii-uutitm ot dams or canals, but should limit its work to such surveys and observations as will determine the water supply, both surface and subterranean, the areas capable of irrigation, and the use, location of, and storage capacity of reservoirs. This done, the use of the water and of the reservoir sites might be granted to the respective States and Territories, or to individuals or associations upon tbe condition that the, necessary works should be constructed and the water furnished at fair rates, without discrimination, the rates to be subject to supervision by tho Legislatures or by boards ot water commissioners duly constituted. Tho essential thin/? to be secured is the common and equal use at fair rates of tbe accumulated water supply. It were almost better that these lands should remain arid than that thoso who occupy them should become the slaves of unrestrained monopolies, controlling the essential element of land values and crop results. A GOVERNMENT TELEGRAPH. The use of the telegraph by the Post-Office Department as a means for- the rapid transmission of written communications is, I believe, upon proper terms, quite desirable. THE RECIPROCITY FEATUUB. In many of tbo products of wood and iron, and in meats and breadstutts, we have advantages that only need better facilities of intercourse and transportation to secure for them large foreign markets. The reciprocity clause of the tariff act wisely and effectively opens the way to secure -a large reciprocal trade in exchange for the free admission to our ports of certain products. Tbe rigbt of independent nations to make special reciprocal trade con- sessions is well established, and does not impair either the comity due to other powers or what is known as tbe "favored nation clause" so generally found in commercial treaties. What is given tbe ono for an adequate agreed consideration can not be claimed by another freely. Tbe state of tbe revenues wasWfsuoh . that we could dispense witb" any! import duties upon tea, hides and tbe lower grades of sugar and molasses. That tbe large advantage re suiting to tbe countries producing and exporting these articles by placing thorn on tb* free list entitle us to expect a fair return In a way ot customs concessions upon articles exported by Thcre were bur, two methods of maintaining control of tills qusstlnn open to Congress. To- place all of the-ts nrtlcles upon the dutiable fist subject to such treaty agreements as co'ttta be secured, or to place thorn, all presently, upott the free list, but subject to the relmposttiort ot specified duties If the countries from whlott, we receive them should refuse to give to tt* •' suitable reciprocal benefits. This lotte* method, I think, possesses great advantage It eitpreflso?! In advance tnS consents. Congress to reciprocity arraftgB* : ments affecting these products, Which most * otherwise have been delayed and unascertained until each treaty was ratified by tne ' Senate and the necessary ; legislation enacted by Congros. Experience Was shown that some treatis looking to reciprocal trade have failed to socuroo a two-thirds vote In the Senate for ratification, and others havo Ing passed the stage have for years awaited tho concurrence of the House and Senate in su«h modifications of our revenue laws as wero necessary to give effect to their provisions. We now have tho concur* renco of both houses In advance 1ft a distinct and definite offer of free entry to our ports Of specific articles. The Executive is not required to deal in conjecture as to what Congress will accept. Indeed, this reciprocity provision is more than an offer. Our part Of the bargain is complete; delivery has been made and when tho countries from which We receive our sugar, coffee, tea and hides have placed on their free lists such of our products as shall be agreed upon, as an equivalent tat our concession, a proclamation of that fact completes the transaction, and in tho meantime our own people have free sugar, tea, cot 1 fee and bides. LOOKING FORWARD. The indications thus far given are very hopeful of early and favorable action by tho countries from which wo receive our large import s of coffee and sugar, and it is confidently believed that if steam communication with these countries can be promptly improved and enlarged tho next year will show a most gratifying increase in our exports of breadstuffs ttnd provisions, as well as of some important lines of manufactured goods. us to them was so obvious that to havtjgratu- natural and desired effect of tbe silver leg- ituously abandoned tbiu opportunity to «m%rae 'two"was by many emmwuBly attr^bu^ed. 10 I our U- nH " °">"'<i ^«"» *">«" <>» nnna.ranna.ix* '- - ••—* " I error. Coming Legislation. ' WORK THAT REMAINS TO BE DONE. In addition to the important bills that became laws l-eforo tho adjournment of the last session, some other bills of tho highest importance were well advanced toward a final vote, and now stand upon tho calendars of the two houses in favored positions. The present session has a fixed limit, and it thoso measures are not now brought to a final vote all the work that has been done upon them by this Congress is lost. The proper consideration of these, of att apportionment bill, and of tho annual appropriation bills will require uot only that no' working day of the session shall bo lost, but that measures of minor aud local interest shall not be allowed to interrupt or retard the prog" ress of those that are of universal interest;^ In view of those conditions I refrain Iron bringing before you at this time some sug#; gestions that would otherwise be made, most earnestly invoke your attention to tbo duty of perfecting the important legislation now well advanced. To some of those measures which seem to me most important I now briefly , call your attention. DEVELOP AMERICAN STEAMSHIP LINES. ' , I desire to repeat with added urgency the i recommendations contained in my last annual message in relation to the development of American steamship lines. The reciprocity clause of the tariff bill will be largely limited, and its benefits retarded and diminished if provision is not contemporaneously made to encourage the establishment ot first- class steam communication between our ports and the ports of such nations as may meet our overtures for enlarged commercial exchanges. The steamship carrying the malls statedly and frequently, and offering to passengers a comfortable, safe and speedy transit, is the first condition of foreign trade. It carries the order or the buyer, but not all that is ordered or bought. It gives to the sailing vessels such cargoes as are not urgent or perishable, and, indirectly at least, promotes that Important adjunct of commerce. There is now both in this country and in the nations of Central and South America, a state of expectation and confidence as to increased trade that will give a double value to your prompt action upon this question. BETTER ELECTION LAWS. If any intelligent and loyal coV nany ot American citizens were require'?' 1 *" .jctarigue the essential human conditions of lire.H do. not doubt that with absolute unanimity it would begin with "free and honest elections." And it is gratifying to know that generally there Is a growing and non-partisan demand for better election laws. But against this sign of hope and progress must be set the depressing and undeniable fact that election laws and methods are sometimes cunningly contrived to secure minority control, while violence completes the shortcomiua-s of fjaud. .PASS THE ELECTION LAW. In my last annual message I suggested that- the .development of the existing law provid- , Ing a Federal supervision of Congressional-,'* elections offered an effective method of re- forming these abuses. The need of such a law has manifested itself in many parts ot the country, and Its wholesome restraints and^ penalties will be useful in all. The constltu- " tionallty of such legislation has been affirmed by the Supreme Court. Its probable ' effectiveness is evidenced by the character ofs the opposition that is made to it. It has been* denounced as if it were a new exercise of Fed- • eral power and an invasion of tho rights ot theV States. Nothing could bo further from tbe-'S truth. Congress has already fixed the time fo£ v j the election of members of Congress. It has de-y clared that votes for members of Congress! must be by written or printed* ballots; .it has provided for thaS appointment by the circuit courts in cerv-7 tain cases, and upon the petition of a*;: certain number of citizens, of election super»*2 visors, and made it their duty to supervise« the registration of voters conducted by thela State officers; to challenge persons offering tp 4 * register; to personally inspect and sornt^ip inizo tbe registry lists, and to affix tbei?ri names to the lists for the purpose of ldentift»s| cation and tbe prevention of frauds; tos attend at elections and remain ..w-JHN&fflSl boxes till the vo|es ore all * oast -anal counted; to attach to- the registry^'; list and election returns any statement toSob*^ Ing the accuracy and fairness of the registry j and election, and to take and transmit to the. : | Clerk of the House of Representatives any'; • evidence of fraudulent practices which may^s be presented to them. The same law provides-' for the appointment of Deputy United States-; Marshals to attend at the polls, support tbe>'"'< supervisors in the discharge of their duties ' and to arrest persons violating the election j law. The provisions of this familiar title io,i tue Revised Statutes have been put to exercise';> by both the pol-tlcal parties, and in tbe Nortb.-i as well as in the South, by tho filing witb tjjf court of the petitions required by law. $ It is not, therefore, a question whether~W&,i shall have a Federal election law, for we noyfji have one, and have had for nearly twenty! years, but whether we shall have an efteotivoJ law. Tbe present law stops just short of efcs rent.iv«nnas. for it surrenders to the lOQjul authorities all control UY</C «.U Q '""•ilflfwtuua •which establishes the prima facie rigbTwTil seat In tbe House of Representatives. TbjJi defect should be cured. Equality ot repret; mentation and the parity of tbe electors must; be maintained, or every thing that is valuable] incur system ot government is lost. Thequalr ideations of an elector must be sought in tbffi law, uot in the opinions, prejudices or feprs flf any class, however powerful. The path ot tha; elector to> the ballot-box must be tree from; the ambush of fear and tbe enticements w fraud; the count so true and open that none; shall gainsay it. Such a law should be abso* lutely non-partisan and impartial. It should; give tbe advantage to honesty and tno OOP- trol to majorities. Surely there is uothl~~ sectional about this creed, and if it sb happen that tbe penalties of laws intended r _ enforce these rights fall here and not there it is not because the law is sectional, bu because, happily, crime is local and B universal. Nor should it be forgotu that every law, whether relating to eleotioi or to any other subject, whether enacted) tbe State or by tbe Nation, bas force behind I The courts, tbe marshal or constable, t! posse oomitatus, the prison, are all and alva; behind tbe law. , If to promote witb zeal and ready Intew every project for tbe development of its »ftl rial interests, its rivers, harbors, mines JN factories, and tbe intelligence and peacft'iu security under tbe law of its communtieajw its homes is not accepted as sufficient evidM of friendliness to any State or section, I omj add connivance at election practices tbaM| only disturb local results but rob tbe elettg ot other states and sections of tbety fg priceless political rights. " ~f| APPROPRIATION BUM. N J| Tbe preparation ot tbe general bills should be conducted witb care and closest scrutiny of ex;.. propriatlons should be adequate toft of the public service, but they sbottjbj lutely free from prodigality. I venture again to remind you tbftj ! time remaining for tbe oonsiderfitioJM) portant legislation now awaiting so| tlon oflers no margin for waste, u toe duty is discharged wiib dUjxenpe. wu courage tbe work of tbe Jmff-fUpl may be confidently submit ted %;m I ate judgment of tbe people. ';% * ' J' ?>ir S i *- f& ~^~ - .v Xi"- f •*•*-• ^ ViMfef

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