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EESULT OF PROTECTION. Cheaper Groceries, Cheaper Farm Mftohlnory, Cheaper Clothing. „„ Whnt thc bt Hon. .Tame* F. Wilson. they do not appear to prevent n good share at least of the benefits resulting from Improved methods and Increased production from reaching the consumer. cmocBtuns. "Everybody Is Interested, directly, In th« price of groceries. And the two bdsf known and most successful trusts In this country are upon articles which come under thld h&ul, sugar and kerosene. This is the place, thin, where we are to find the benefits of Increased production and modern methods all absorbed by rich and cruel monopolies "The price is not given to* 1880, thla being la the month of April. [Comparison with price* of turn product* September 1 would show still more to the advantage of the Iowa farmer. In this regard, attention needs only to be called to the present prices of corn ami oats which Bre about twice those of 1880.—T5D. | PRODUCTS. Senate, as in committee of tho whole, ng under consideration the bill (H. B. 0,410) 5£J , uco *?! revonu o and equalize dutlos on Iraporta, nnd for other purposes- Mr. Wilson (In.) snld: Mu. PRESIDENT: I have listened to there- .marks of the Senator from Arkansas (Mr. Ber- ,ry) with definite attention, and I am free to say with some degree of distress. It is always nn uncomfortable thing tome to nnd a Senator en- .deavorlng to discuss n question In respect of •winch lie has BO small an amount of definite information as Reems to have been possessed by .tbo. Senator from Arkansas. He started out with the general statement that all of the beneficial results arising from n tariff system wore absorbed by tho manufacturers. .Ho took tho precaution to state in substance, If : not. in terms, that ho was not definitely Informed as to all tho details covered by tho field of tho subject which ho was discussing, and I . desire now to give him some of that detlnite Information which may relievo tho distress of mind under which ho has labored. Ihavo In my hand an arllcle which appeared In tho Fort Dodge (Ia.) Messenger of April 10, 1890, arid which I propose to give to tho Senator from Arkansas during tho few remarks I .shall mako, in order that ho may take It with him to tho privacy of his room and home and get out of it that consolation which he has not boon able to derive from his studies of this .question. I know very well the authorjof this article. Ho • is a man of honor und good standing In his community, and I have no doubt has written tho truth. The article is as follows: "Wo are very far from affirming or believing that our social order Is perfect. There .•Is much Inequality and Injustice In the distribution of burdens and rewards. Hut the important question is whether matters are growing better or worse. Are the rich growing richer and the poor poorer! Are the trusts and monopolies of which we rend so -much making life harder for the man who works by tho day or month, nnd for the farmer who must sell bis produce In competition with tho •world? AM the inequalities of life becoming .greater? Are the poor more In the power of the rich than formerly? Is It true that none of the increased production of civilization goes to labor? These are the living questions. Facts are bettor than opinions, and we have gathered :a few facts that are very convincing. I'UICKS IN 1880 COMPARED WITH 1890. '•What better method of' determining these ..questions Is there than to compare the present •with the past in cold figures? Do the wages of Ihe working-man buy more or better food, .clothes, comforts and luxuries now than formerly, or ,do they not? If riot, then it is true that he is not getting any benefits from the • development of tho age. But If we find a general reduction in the cost of what he has to buy it is evident that he Is being benefited by the increased production. "We have accordingly applied to one mer- -chant in each line of trade In Fort Dodge for a . comparative statement of his retail prices now and in 1880. We have chosen the year 1880 for comparison instead of one more distant because we wish to show tho comparatively recent reductions. If 18TO or 1800 had been chosen the ..comparison on all manufactured articles would, -of course, have shown much greater reductions. Wo have endeavored to procure a strictly fair . statement, requesting that care be taken to compare articles of the same grade and If possible of the same brand, and to give the cash price In each case. There are sometimes so ninny grades of the same article that some con- vluslon may arise unless It is borne In mind that the 18$) and 1890 prices given are for one and the same grade. In some cases, where there are many makes and grades and prices, It is more intelligent to give the percentage of reduction on all. FARM IMPLEMENTS. "Let us take up the case of the farmer first, as he Is the largest factor in the Iowa agitation -of this problem. There have been great fortunes made in the •manufacture of farm Implements, and much talk of combines and exorbitant profits. Let us see whether the millionaires have been able to absorb all the benelita of inventive skill und large production of these implements. COMPARATIVE PHICES OF 1880 AND 1890: An.TICI.iK8. Sugar, granulated, per Ib Sugar, Standard A Sugar, C Kerosene oil, 150 test, per gal.. Kerosenes oil, 175 test, per gal Salt, vjr barrel Flour, percwt Coffee, Java Coifoe, Rio Canned tomatoes, per can Boston butter crackers, per Ib Soda crackers, pur Ib Sbap. per cuke I'fiCf in 1880. 10 W~i on 0 10 0 25 0 STi % 25 4 50 0 S3 035 0 15 0 12tf 0 10 0 07 J'riet In 1890. SO 07 0 0»a-5 005'x* 0 13 0 15 1 85 S 50 0 3!) 0 25 0 10 0 10. 00ft!/, o ori "Crockery, 25 per cent, reduction; Tea,. 30 per cent, reduction; Tobacco, 35 per cent, reduction. Oats Corn Bye Flnxseod.... Barley Hogs Cattle Roll butter. Tub butter. Eggs 1 •'< 80 21 10 18 to '•!(. 55 1 aft 50 ?> rx> to n 75 8 00 to 4 00 !«to 18 18 to 88 07 ' rir.e lit mo. AMERICAN SHIPPING. The Two linig Tlmt Have Uecn Passed My the Senntfl-How They Will Benefit V* If They Boooinp Liiwn—Kvery Citizen of the tilltnil State* Should Interest Himself In These Questions. Tho Senate has passed the Farqubar IHtolfO 18 80 a TO to .•( HO 8 M) to It 50 13 to 15 08 A "Hero is a surprise. The products of two great 'trusts,' sugar and oil, show quite as great a reduction as any thing. Is it possible, after all, that the assertion Is true that to achieve any permanent success a trust must sell its products for lest than private manufacturers, and make its money out of economies possible in largo production under ono management? One tuing is certain, namely, that the consumers of oil and sugar uro gutting them for much less than ten years ago. DHY GOODS. "In dry goods we find the sumo downward range of prices, showing that the benefits of labor-saving machines and largo production go to all consumers. Here are a few fiVuros: AUTTCLKS. Unbleached muslin, per yard.. Calico, per yurd 1 Gingham, per yard Worsted dress goods, per yard. *' 41 tl II tl II J'ne • In 1880. $0 08 0 07 0 12'/s 0 15 0 35 0 05 1 00 1'1'lc • In 1800. $0 06 0 05 0 10 0 1214 o »-> 0 50 0 75 ARTICLES. Self-blndors Corn-planter and check-rower. 14-inch steel-beam walking plow Biding cultivator Mowing-machine Strowbrhlge seoeder. Two-seiUod spring wagon I'rice in 1880. $315 00 80 00 . SSOO 45 00 Si 00 85 00 85 UO 15 00 8500 00 00 I'rcf. in. 1880. $130 00 40 00 14 00 «5 HO 20 03 50 OJ 1300 6 00 -• no oo 75 03 "Harrows, corn-shellers, buggies und carriages reduced about one-half. "The above are the princpal implements in .•common use. Tho reduction in their cost to the farmer since 1880 runs from, 33 to 60 per cent. And the machinery is made better than before. "It should not be strange If, with these great reductions in the cost of farm implements and with farming land free to settlers, there was an enormous increase in the production of farm 'staples from 1880 to 189U and a shrinkage in prices. Furthermore, has not the working-man who labors in the factory where those implements are made a legitimate right to look for some benefits to himself from these great labor-savers which he sees go out in the fields .of production? Does not the very principle for wilt-ill our restive friends are contending demand that tho benefits of cheaper furm Implements shall not be all absorbed by the farmer, but that they shall reach all of the consumers . of farm produce? HARDWARE. "The stock of a hardware store can almost *bo classified as farm implements, and we will • examine hardware next. At the top of the list we nlaco barb wire, us Us consumption is wholly by the farmers. Our farmer friends will hardly be able to realize that ten years ago they were paying ten cents a pound for barb wire. fbut we know they were, for we have examined the charges upon the books of one of the best firms in Fort Dodtga. All of the prices here worn procured lj'^examining the books of this firm for 18*). >/ "This is not, therefore, mere guesswork upon the part of thu compiler of this article. "Laces and embroideries, 33% percent, reduction. "Silks und velvets, 85 to 33)4 per cent, reduction. "Carpets. 23 to 33M per cent, reduction. "General reduction on, stock of dry goods •tore, 23 to 33>«; per cent. CLOTHINQ. "On clothing comparative figures can not well be given because qualities vary. There has been, however, since 1880 a general reduction on ready-made clothing ranging from 30 to 50 per cent., and there has been a decided improvement in the stability of ready-made clothing. A pair of overalls sell for $1, are warranted not to rip, and last In every-day hard labor for months. Good serviceable suits can be had for *7 to $10. It is tho universal opinion of all familiar with the trade that tho tariff cuts no figure whatever In tho cost of such goods as laboring men and farmers wear for common. Such goods are as cheap here as in England. Tho tariff gets in its work on the dress suits and nil fine goods, just us thc protectionists intend it shall. BOOTS AND SHOES. "Inventive genius has accomplished wonders in the boot and shoe business since the village shoe-maker took orders for the foot-wear of the neighborhood. Great progress had been made in the manufacture of footwear by machinery prior'to 1880, but we are not dealing with that time now. The average reduction in the retail price of foot-wear since 1880 is 33^ per cent. So all of the benefits of Improved methods In the production of shoes have not by any moans been absorbed by the manufacturer. WATCHES. CLOCKS AND CUTLERY. "The old-time watchmaker has gone to join the old-time shoe-maker. Who gets the benefit of Inventive genius there? The silver watch which retailed In 1880 at $20 now retails at $12. The set of knives and forks sold In 1880 at $8 now retails at $3. Every thing in the store has suffered a reduction of from 33M to 50 per cent. No gobbling up of all the benefits of Improved methods there." Mr. Spooner-—And the Liverpool watch has gone, too. Mr. Wilson, of Iowa—Yes. FURNITURE. "Tho retail prices of furniture have suffered a reduction since 1883, ranging from 25 to 50 per cont. A half dozen wooden chairs, such as sell now for 33, sold then for $4.50 to $5. Bedsteads, sold now ut $1.75 and $3.50, sold then at $1 and $8. The cut Is heavy on all articles, but most on the machine-made articles. The big manufacturers of furniture have not been able to absorb all the benefits of improved methods. It should bo borne in mind in. this connection that the raw material of which furniture is made has not decreased in price, nor Have the wages of laborers in tho factories been reduced. LUMUKH. "At first thought one would not expect much reduction in lumber since 1880. Standing pine costs more now than then, but inventive genius has been making the saw mills more productive, and tho mill-owners have failed to holdall the benefits for, themselves. Freight rates are also lower. Prices compare as follows: "frici ARTICLES. \ I'rice in 1880. Dimension lumber First sheeting Shlngl os First shiplap Fencing Posts, each Finishing lumber Lath Siding Doors.wludows.sash and blinds. in 1890. $30 00 18 0.) 4 50 34 00 20 00 1« 4000 3 50 3000 SI 13 00 3 00 18 03 16 00 11 30 00 2 50 SO 00 (*) ARTICLES, Burb.wiro, per pound Fence staples, per pound Iron nails, per keg ,Stoel nails, npr keg Plain wirjv-^er pound - Wash-boifCr , Stove-pipo Joint Horseshoe*, per keg -Tool steel, per pound Plow steel, per pound •Cook-stove.... Mattock and handle "Wrench • Blossburg coal, pur cwt Bullring • Putty, per pound Shot, per pound :iron, per pound Tour-tinea fork , Seat-spring, pair Lantern »Common olevis Milk-puns, per dozen.... Bwargy springs, per pound Swedes Iron, per pound • Cartridges, per box Wlreclotl), per foot Post-auger •, Cast washers, per ixmud Slop-pail. •Tin cup ••• Zinc, per pound Pipe collars Door-knobs . Cast butts, with screws Chain's, per pound j-lle....". • Tin. per sheet Door-latch.es "Basket Hoof saddle Door-koy Covered p^U • Wheelbarrow Oil-can Plane • Pie-plates, per dozen Movti.so lock , Cistern pump Universal wrlngur in 1880' $0 10 10 600 3 85 25 800 20 13 3300 1 40 75 80 40 10 13S 05 75 1 75 1 50 SO 3 25 20 8* 06 3 25 05 1 00 10 10 10 30 30 33' 05 35 3.) 85 1 00 10 SO 3 25 85 I 03 70 90 4 25 700 Prlct in 1890. $001 05 3 80 OSr-s 1 75 20 4 50 13>/, 08 v, 3100 85 40 45 25 05 03 03 50 1 00 75 10 1 00 10 06 15 03 135 03 85 05 10 05 10 18',i 13 95 20 10 45 65 05 10 165 40 60 • 35 35 8 35 300 ••pocket and table cutlery reduced one-half. • window-glass reduced SKS per cent. "We might bave gone on through Va» whole stock of a hardware store wJtb similar results. "*30 per cent, reduction. HAKNKSS. "Harness costs but little less than ten years ago. This is because most harness is made by hand and the labor cost Is as great as ever. In all machine-made goods there are considerable reductions. DllUO-STOriE STOCK AND BOOKS. "The general line of drugs are from 20 to SO per cent, cheaper than in 1880. Paints are £0 per cent, lower; lamps, one-half lower; stationery, one-half lower; toilet brushes, 30 per cent, lower; paint brushes, not so much. The books of standard authors are away down; cost about one-third what they formerly did. School books are much lower." INTEREST. I suppose this has reference to the money sharks of whom we have heard.»• "How bas tbe capitalist who lives on the Interest of his money fared during this time? Is bis Income as large as ever? Up to 1879 the county of Webster paid 10 per cent, on its indebtedness. In 1819 it made a loan at 7 per cent, to clean up Its old debts. In 1888 it made another loan, for tbe purpose of reducing the,' interest,rate, and sold it•) 5 per cent, bonds at a premium of $1,010, so the rato is now actually less than ft percent. Tbe bonds of the Independent school district of Fort Dodge draw 5 per cent., having been reduced from 8 to tt and from 6 to tbe present rate. "Ordinary loans do not show the same reductions in tbe interest rate, because Eastern capital does not come West as freely to private borrowers as on county or school district bonds. Tbe loan agent gets between the principals on private loans and makes an expense. In 18SO borne money generally commanded 10 per cent, and Eastern capital 7 and 8 per cent, with a commission. Now, home capital commands 8 per cent, and outside capital 6 per cent., with a commission which makes not quite 1 per cent, more." RAII.UOAI) OHAHGES. Tbis article Is getting pretty generally over the ground of tbe industries of this country. "How bave tbe railroads fared during these ten years? They are the cormorants, we are told, who devour tbe substance of the country. In 1880 the freight rate on wbeat from Fort Dodge to Cbicago was 33 cents and on other grain 87 cents per hundred; now tbe rate on wheat is 83 and otber grain 20. In 1880 tbe rate on all stock from tbis point to Chicago was $09 per car 38 feet long; now tbe rate is 865 for cattle and $15 for hogs, per car of 35 feet. In 1880 tbe freight on a barrel of salt from Chicago to Fort Dodge was 63 cents; now it is 33 cents. In 1880 tbe rate on lumber from Dutmque to Fort Dodge was H cents; now it is 8.3 cents. In 1880 tbe rate on first-class freight from Chicago to Fort Dodge was 93 cents; now it is 70 cents. Wo should explain tbat 70 cents was the rate in force until a few weeks ago. At present, however, ibis rate is cut, but it will probably be restored to somewhere near tbe old figure before long, so we make no account of tbis cut, CONCLUSION. '•Tbis closes tbe comparison of prices on what the farmer, mechanic and laborer bag to buy. It is beyond dispute tbat tbe development'of the age has accomplished a large reduction to all manufactured articles. Now, unless tbere bas been & corresponding reduction in the products of tbe farm »»;diathe wages of tbe mechanic »nd tbe laborer, — our claim tbat. never "There was no market for wheat in 1M.1. as the farmers In this locality hnvfe iibumioncd growing it entirely, nnd now grow corn, oats, hoors and cattle instead. "We submit to the candid farmer whether, with his bountiful yield of last year, and his implements, barb wire and supplies of all kinds reduced as above, he is not in letter relations with tho world now than in April. 1880, with prices on produce as above and his supplies at the old figure. "And now what about tho mechanic and laboring man? Is it not a fact, undisputed, that, labor of every kind is as well paid now as in 188)? As a rule In the cities labor is constantly fighting for a betterment of its condition and constantly gaining either an increase in wages or shorter hours. American workingmen were never more alert to their interests than they are to-day, and their movement for fewer hours of labor and better pay never has commanded tho interest and the sympathy that It commands to-day. They were never 'so Intelligent as they are to-day, and that means both that they deserve more and that they know how to get mo.re. Tho workingman is winning on both sides of the question, more hours to himself and better wages on one side and cheaper living on the other side. It is doubly false, then, to assert that the development of the age is not benefiting the workingman." Now, Mr. President, there is one fact in connection with this matter of worklnptmen that we might give some attputinn to, and that is the fact that with the knowledge which the peoples of all the countries of the earth have of the conditions existing In the United Stntes. they have through all of our past years discovered that tho worklngman's condition, to say nothing of other classes, was better rn the 'United States than in any other country on the globe, so that in 1880 the census tells us that there were of foreign birth 6,079.093 of the population Inhabiting tho United States. Mr. Sherman—And from all the civilized countries of the world. Mr. Wilson, of Iowa—From all the civilized countries In the world. It Is estimated, and I have no doubt'that the result will prove it correct, that the census of 1800 will show at least 10,000.003 people from all the civilized countries' of the world of foreign birth inhabiting the United States. That fact should not be passed by carelessly because It Involves a great deal. Men do no' sunder the ties of the fatherland or abandon the associations of their lives lightly. Itis.no light thing for a man to make up his mind thai he will remove with his family, his wife and his children, to a country of which he knows nothing except what he has heard and read. Bu they have come here by these many millions. It is a curious fact in the same con nection that the people of the United States intelligent as they are and with their genera information concerning the conditions of th< world, do not no out to other countries. It is the people of other countries who come here. Mr. Snooner—And stnv. Mr. Wilson, of Iowa—Yes, they come here tt stay. That is the reason why our population •of foreign birth, to say nothing about descendants, goes on Increasing at this great rate from 1880 to 1890. Mr. President, when we come to get at th« material facts which are Involved In the field covered by this protective policy, we find every thing to encourage and nothing to discourage. Now and then we find alarmintr s^tements made concerning the condition of farmers and their depressed situation just as we found in regard to farm mortgapes in Iowa. It was stated that the farm mortgages in Iowa amounted to nearly $600,000,030. I have the exact figures here. It was stated that in Iowa the farm mortgages amounted to $567,000,000. When I saw that I had a profound conviction that it was not true, and I set about to discover if possible where thc Inventor of this falsehood obtained his data. Turning to the compendium of the census of 1880 I found there that the asrutrneato valuation of farms in Iowa In 1880 was ?597,000,000. ^ Mr. Paddock—The ass°ssed valuation? Mr. Wilson, of Iowa—Yes: so .this man who was seeking for truth that he might Rive It to the people that the people could understand how dreadful thoir condition was. took the assessed value of the farms and told the farmers that, the mortgages on the farms amounted to that in the State of Iowa. Our Governor set abrmt a line of investigation t.o find out how much of a lie this was, and he found that the outsirto limit of the farm mortgages In Iowa would not. go bovond $71,000.000. There is nnt verv much difference, of course, between $567,000,000 and $71.010 nw! Mr. Pnddock—The actual valuation of the pronerty, of course, is more than the assessed valuation. Mr. Wilson, of Iowa—Oh, that would be very manv times more. It was put out in order that the farmers mlfcht be induced into a condition of unrest. Just such misrepresentation as those figures and those made in rosrard to other States as to the general condition of agriculture — In ths country is what has put n. depression 00 I imon that industry. If the truth 'had been told alTiut agriculture, I know, so far as the State of Iowa Is concerned, that the farms In lowu would to-day have averaged from five to ten dollars more per acre, nnd the depression Is not from actual facts, but from tho lies that have b°«n told. So you muy say In regard to other States. Give to the people of this countrv accurate statements concerning their condition and you will find this state of unrest disappearing all over the land. Do you tell me. Mr. President, that under n system such as th$ protective system of this oinntry has been described by Senators on tho other side you could upbuild such magnificent commonwealths In the West as we have thorn? Could you with this persistent system of robbery pnintr on be unbuilding such a State as Iowa, for instance? I can speak for that, and other Senators can speak as well and cs favorably for their own States. There is a State, Mr. President, whose population this census will doubtless show to number 2,000.000, if not more. It has no debt. It has, I presume, the lowest rate of Stiite tax, or at least among the lowest, of any State In the Union. It is equipped In all respects with nubile institutions and public buildings as well as any State In the Union. Its conditions have been advancing towards the better every day during its existence. No man can ride over the plains of Iowa without being struck by the beauty and by what must be the happiness that is centered in tbe homes of that Stnte. Mr. Sherman—And the State is vounc. Mr. Wilson, of Iowa—Oh, yes. Th ft State was only admitted in 1846. The farmers of Iowa are not tbe depressed people tbey are described to I sent to Brazil," he replied, "and 1! yon will give me half an hour toloolc itovef, I shall show what interest GocWia and Ohio have in our line." He wont out in company with Senator Frye, I and turned in a short time with th|e infor THE POLITICAL FIELD. tadlfinn Republican* and Michigan Dert- oorftt* Nunle Candldatei for OflfcUkt Honor*—Other State Tlultetft. at random trom u of 18SQ, iw prices ia bard- ten years »l but the ubove were seleo day-book .n use ia the »y doubt ufair illustration? ware corop»re-uow with o. Tboi'e IMW man race would a day' forts as to-day. We' be. Mr. Spooner—And her illiteracy Is less than tbat of any other State. Mr. Wilson, of Iowa—Yes; I »m reminded, too, tbat tbere is another feature in Iowa's case that sits as a diamond of the first water in her crown, and that is that she stands at the bead of the column in respect to the low percentage of the illiteracy of her people. Now, could all these things be and the State go on in unbroken lines of triumph from its admission Into tbe Union if there were such depressions upon her leading industry and such robberies of ber people as have been renresented? Mr. President, I do not care to take more time of tbe Senate, and I should not bave taken what I bave but for the anxiety which my friend from Arkansas seemed to have concerning those people who work and do nnt get any share of benefits out of our protective system. _^ Telling the Time by Flower*. There is not an tour of tbe day tbpt is not the beloved hour of sorne blossom. Linnaeus, the celebrated botanist, conceived the pleasant notion of a flower clock. Instead of a rude metal bell to thump the hour, there is a little flower bell ready to open fit |jireo o'clock, a flower star that will shine forth at four and a flower cup, perhaps, will appear at five o'clock^to ramind old-fashioned folk that it is near tea-time. Claudp Lorraine, although he did not, like Linnaeus, make a clock of lour-and- twenty flowers in bis garden, was a. landscape painter most familiar witb nature; and when he was abroad be could at any tinje know whaj; o'clock it was by asking the time of the flowers of the Se^d.—PetrQit Free Pffttfr CHEMISTS^ to ft useful study toe the tiller of the soil It enables nii» t? tell the composition at plants *od pi the Subsidy bill, giving American built and owned vessels of over 500 tons 15 cents ier ton for the first 500 miles or fraction hereof sailed outward and inward; the ame sum for the second 500 miles or ractlon thereof, and 30 cents for each additional 1,000 miles, and pro rata for 'factions, when tho vessel Is engaged in oreign commerce, such vessels being officered by citrons of tho United States and carrying one native born*apprentice "or each 1,000 tons register. And It also >assed Senator Frye's Postal Subsidy )lll, giving subsidies to four classes of steamers that shall be capable of maintaining speeds of 20, 10, 14 and 12 knots an hour, and be fitted to carry guns and aot as war vessels when required. They are to receive W, S3, $1.50 and SI per mile as their only and maximum compensation. is extremely opportune for the industries oE the whole country, and particularly so for those of the South; tor, in addition to the employment and profits offered to the sixty odd trades employed in shipbuilding, each 1,000 tons of steamers built giving a year's employment to about seventy men after the materials are laid down at the shipyard, there is just now, in consequence of the high price of English coal, a very good opportunity to introduce the consumption of Southern coal in Mexico, the West India islands and in South America. This, as has been noted, will, by destroying a large part of the carrying trade of English ships visiting sucb ports, increase the freight on their manufactured wares, and to a great extent neutralize their advantage of cheap freights, for which they have expended so much money. The coal carriers from Southern ports, soon commencing to carry manufactures, will in a short time increase the sales of American goods to guch an extent as to call for steamer service, One admirable provision of tho bills is that calling for an apprentice for every 1,000 tons, though it would have been better if it had been fixed at one for every 500 tons, for there are in all of our large cities many boys who are liable, through the freedom from restraint and the many temptations of the city, to go astray, but who under the restraints of shipboard would make admirable sailors and develop into business men of integrity. All such resources to our boys have been cut off, as therft was neither incentive to ambition nor even opportunity with our rapidly diminishing shipping. The sooner these new avenues for employment and trade are opened the better it will be for the country. First and foremost would be the direct benefits that would accrue to labor in the revival of the shipbuilding industry. When we hav$ established our lines of steamers there will be at least a hundred and fifty millions of dollars annually saved in freight and passenger rates. But tho greatest benefit will come to all industries throughout the length and breadth of this broad land in the extension of out 1 trade with foreign nations. New markets will be opened up for our surplus products. The universal testimony of nations asserts that commerce follows the flag. Lindsay says that when the Pacific Steam Navigation Company first started, tho trade that its projector proposed to develop was "comparatively unknown" and tho prospects of the company "at that time were far from encouraging." "From 1860,"hesays, "the trade of the Pacific rapidly developed itself. The inhabitants of the coast now saw the incalculable advantages to be derived from a regular and increased intercourse between other countries. Steam here, as it has done everywhere els'3, opened up new and hitherto un- thought of branches of commerce." Indeed, Lindsay regards it as an axiom all through his great work on merchant shipping that trade increases with regular and rapid intercourse between nations. It was tho argument used in the French Parliament in support of the Mercantile Marine bill of 1881. Figures wore quoted to show how enormously French trade had increased after the establishment of steamship lines to South America and Eastern Asia. "Kngland," they said, /'has given the example of using mail steamers as the pioneers for the creation and extension of commercial relations." There are tbe South American peoples who ivre naturally prejudiced in our favor as ngainst European countries, adjudging American goods the best in the market, and .raising in abundance products that we use in large quantities. Yet we can not sell to them because we bave inadequate communication with them. A commission was appointed in accordance with an act of Congress "to ascertain and report upon the best modes of securing more intimate international and commercial relations with tbe several countries of Central and South America." The commission spent a year in visiting those countries, conferring with merchants and the representatives of tbe various governments, and in their report made in 1885 used these exact words: "In truth tbe question of trade between our country and South America bangs, first of all and above all, on an adequate steamship service. * * * An American dealer fills an order for a merchant of Montevideo or Buenos Ayres, or Valparaiso, or Lima by sblppng the goods to Liverpool, Hamburgh, or to some other European port, and thence to be re* shipped by some foreign line to bis customer. In sucb a condition of affa rs the struggle for supremacy in trade between our merchants and tbe European is so unequal as to be absurd." All tbat r oh trade is down tbere waiting only for American steamships to develop it. It would be difficult tq find a nook or a corner in the Union wbiob would not share in the benefits of an extension of Commerce. An agent of a line of steam- era for Soutb America appeared before a 'Congressional committee, and was ironically asked, "what interest Georgia Or Qh|o bad i* the maintenance of a of steamers wbiob touched at no either State." tbe manifest of ft« last cajfgo mation that Georgia had contributed $22,000 worth of goods to tho cargo. "But how about Ohio?" asked tie mem* ber from that State, The agent inquired what part of the State jhe was from, and found it to be Akron. He then showed the Ohio membei manifest that Akron itself, h town, had contributed $7,000 to the load. The cargo of the steamship A by the s own lianca, which sailed from New York for Urazil on April 2,1889, wag selected at random, and every article in it traced to its source. The investigation showed that thirty-six States and Territories contributed to the cargo of this , single steamship. These are some of the material advantages, merely; but, groat as they are, the other considerations, which appeal to tho pr'de and patriotism of every true American, overtop them in importance. Some of tho most famous battles of which we boast of having won were fought on tlio water. We have ever been proud of our maritime 0|Chieve- ments, and no citizen of the Republic can help fooling humiliated whon ho contemplates our present disgraceful condition. Then the feeling of security that must be induced by tho existence of an American merchant fleet, manned by American seamen, anl commanded by American officers, all ready, for the naval service in an emergency, ought to be worth to this Nation the comparatively insignificant sunp of four or five millions a year require^ to build up a fleet which would mako, tbe patriot's heart swell with pride, i BENEFITS OF PROTECTION. \That Protection lias Done For the Farm, erg and the CoMntry. : The condition of the farmers of the United States to-day, notwithstanding the depressed condition of agriculture, is immeasurably better than before the war. I think there is no doubt that in proportion to their numbers there are fewer mortgages upon their farms. Their bouses are homes of luxury com' pared with the farm-house of that pe riod. The log cabins and the cramped and inconvenient farm-houses, the kitchen fire-places, the bare floors, the rough walls, the home-made furniture, the cupboard of rough shelves, which largely prevailed within my own recoL lection, have been largely supplanted by modern cottages, containing the conveniences of life, and the farmers' tables are loaded with food that was then cons dored luxuries. The appliances foi cultivation, the tools for plowing, sowing, reaping, and' thrashing, and the facilities for marketing have all been improved. The farmer, as a rule, works fewer hours, and his children do not go to the field at so tender an age. The hardest portions of his work, once done by hand, are done by machinery. His children are better clothed and better educated. In short, in every way the farmer of today, even if his farm is mortgased, lives better than the man who held the mortgage did in the ante bellum days. What does our experience as a nation during the century of our existence show as to the effect of a protective policy upon the farmer and upon the other productive interests of the country? As I read our history in connection with the tariff it shows that absolutely all tbe prosperity of tbe farmers of this country, as well as all the prosperity wo have enjoyed as a nation, has been enjoyed when the protective policy has prevailed, and tbat the abandonment of that policy in whole or in part has always caused depression, scarcity of employment, low wages, and hard times, and that at sucb times the farmer has always suffered most. — Senator Dolph. I'lllgbury on the ..Future of Wheat. Mr. Pilsbury, of Minneapolis, whose celebrity is recognized tbroughout the world .for the quality.and quantity ol his products of flour, said in a recent interview as follows: • Tho world lias been eating up Its surplus wheat for some years, and It has now ap pronchrd cl"Se to Its exhaustion of that groat surplus. In this country our consuiup- t on is Increasing 8,000,000 bushels annu illy and tho demand from al road is increasing as the udvanca In civilization demands better food. This demand is obviously againsi a diminishing supp y, as tho acreage o: wheat reached Its maximum development nve years ago. '1 heso facts mako it p> ssible and probable that prices will be forced up and stay un jfo remunerative standards. This wi 1 relieve to some extent tbe present industrial depression in this country. Mr. Pillsbury's estimate of the increasing demand in this country for flour is doubtlessly correct and so are bis views as to advancing civilization requiring higher standards of food, but we think be does not sufficiently regard the rapidly increasing supplies from India, Russia and the Argentine Republic, which if our farmers were not protected, would soon flood our seacoasts witb wheat grown by labor paid six cents per day of sixteen hours and brought by subs dized British ships at almost costless freights. Republican convention was called to of> der by Chairman Michenef, of the State Central Committee, at 10 o'clock with nearly all the 1,320 delegates present. The committee on organization made its report, recommending Colonel R. W. Thompson, of Terre Haute, for pernm* nent chairman, and C. B. Landis as permanent secretary. Colonel Thompson was then introduced and addressed the convention, saying he had attended a convention in this city fifty years affo whose object was to form tho Republican party. Tho platform was presented by Chairman DeMotte. It denounces trusts and and combines, champions cheaper transportation, indorses Governor Hovey's administration, indorses Speaker Reed, demands that the benevolent institutions bo placed above tho level of party politics, denounces mobs, deprecates the influence of the saloon in politics, denounces as unpatriotic tho condemnation of judges of courts by party conventions, opposes any increase in taxes and condemns free trade. The Harrison plank is as follows: We indorse the administration of Benjamin Harrison and the able statesmen selected as his colaborers and advisers as being wise, vigorous and patriotic. It has kept its pledges to the people, has carefully guarded and zealously promoted their welfare and elevated the public service. At the conclusion of the reading the platform was adopted as an entirety and also a resolution designating the eagle as the party device for the head of the ticket. On motion of a delegate a telegram of congratulation was sent to "Thomas B. Reed, formerly of Maine, but now of the whole United States." J. M. Wynn, of Jennings County, Perry Scluiltx, of Franklin, and Milton Trusler, of Fayette, all farm erg, were put in npmination for Secretary of State. The firstballot resulted: Trusler, 783; Wynn, 385; Schultz, 102. Trusler was declared the nominee. '.Colonel I. N. Walker, of Marion, and William Hazen, of W abash, wore presented for Auditor of State. Tho ballot resulted in thc nomination of Walker, who received 828 votes and Hazen 492. John N. Lovett, of Madison, and W. T. Noble, -of Wayne, were nominated for Attorney-General and Clerk of the Supreme Court, rcspeulively, by accla mation, neither having opposition. John Worrell was also renominated by acclamation for Chief of tho Bureau of Statistics. James H. Henry was nominated for Superintendent of Public In- structio n and John M. Coulter for State Geologist. MICHIGAN DEMOCRATS. 'GBAND RAPIDS, Mich., Sept 11.—The Democratic State convention met here Wednesday. Ex-Congressman M. H. Ford, of this city, acted as chairman, and Thomas F. Carroll as secretary. After the usual committees had been appointed the convention took a recess until 2:30 p. m. Upon reassembling E. B. Winans, of Hamburg, andF. A. Dean, of Charlotte, were placed in nomination for Gov- ' ernor. Before the roll-call Mr. Dean appeared and withdrew from the contest and Winans was nominated by acclamation. John Strong, of Monroe, was nominated for Lieutenant-Governor. Frederick Marvin, Detroit; Arthur Meigs, Grand Rapids, and Frederick Braastad, Ishpeming, were placed in nomination for State Treasurer. Braastad was chosen on the first ballot. The convention completed its ticket by nominating Mayor A. A. Ellis, of Ionia, for Attorney-General; John W. McGrath, of Detroit, for Justice of the Supreme Court; Daniel E. Soper, of Newaygo, for Secretary of State; Colonel David Baker, of Niles, for Commissioner of the Land Office; Ferris H. Fitch, of Pontiac, for Superintendent of Public Instruction; David A. Hammond, of Charlotte, for Member of the State Board of Education, and D. J. Campau v of Detroit, for chairman of the Democratic State Central Committee. The platform denounces the McKinley bill and the high-tariff policy of the present Administration, and demands that the tariff and internal-revenue taxes shall not be higher than actually required to carry on the Government economically administered. MASSACHUSETTS PROHIBITIONISTS. WORCESTER, Mass., Sept. 11.—The State Prohibition convention assembled hero Wednesday. Dr. Blackmer waa nominated for Governor by aoc!arjaa» ion. The ticket was completed as folows: Lieutenant-Governor, George f empton, of Sharon; Secretary of State* George D. Crittenden, of Bucklaud; Attorney-General, Wolcott Hamlin, of Amherst; Treasurer and Recei-?er»Gen» eral, William H. Gleason, of Boston; Auditor, Augustus R. Smith, of Lee. Why Wages are Mr. J. Wallis Titt, of Warminster, England, gives a local, and very crucial, example of tbe direct effect of tbe "cheap loaf " on wages: "TaUe our agricultural interest, beg- gnred and ruined, for tbe sake of a cheap loaf. What has tbe cheap loaf cost tbe British workman? I will give you an illustration near borne, and I won't be afraid to mention names in connection with same. I will take Pertwood Farm. When bread was sold at one shilling a gallon it paid the British farmer to grow wbeat and cultivate tbe soil and to employ labor; but now that bread ia down to ninepence a gallon it does not; pay to cultivate the soil, and employ labor on it It is now all sown to grass, and witb the exception of one man as shepherd all labor ia dispensed with. In fact, where Mr. Pain, the former tenant, paid a thousand pounds a year in wages and tradesmen's bills, Mr. Stratum, the present tenant, is pay ing away leas than fllty pounds a year- And now I woulu ask you how are laboring men with oulj; ten or eleveu ghilliBga % week to improve their MIZNER'S LETTER. laptaln IMtts Received n Direct Order t» hurrend«r General Barrandl*. NEW YORK, Sept. U.—-A Panama special says: "Following is Minister Mia- ner's letter to Captain Pitts, of the Pacific mail steamer Aoapulco, in regard to the Barrundia case: '•UNITED STATES LEUATION, 11:30 p.m., Guatemala, Aug. 37.—n your ship is 1 'w|t|»^ n 0»e league of Guatemala territory and you bave aboard General Bammdia It becomes your duty, under the laws of nations, to deliver him to tbe Guatemalan authorities upon tbeir demand, allegations having been made to this legation that said Uarrundia is hostile to and an enemy to tbis Republic. Guaranties bave been mate tome by tbis Government that his We gball opt be endangered nor any other punishment inflicted upon him for causes stated, to the letter of Senor Auginuro t>> Consul-General Hpsmer, O^ted yesterday," '. LOST AT SEA. P*rt Qf the Crew of « Scfeooner Coi»e t« Orltrf, qrew of twenty of the poaching s»iU schooner C- H. White were brought tbis eity by tbe steamer *" Siberia, wniie in eighteen men from tb,e a boat, were sent out *a*A Po'g catoe us, and they lost tpa#k < iphoooer. After rowing lays two boats I *'J ii.it'