Galesburg Register-Mail from Galesburg, Illinois on July 21, 1973 · Page 4
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Galesburg Register-Mail from Galesburg, Illinois · Page 4

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4 Galesburg Register-Mai 1, Galesburg f in. Sot., July 21, 1973 "Now It's as Clear as Black and White!" EDITORIAL Comment and Review | Test Ban 2 What a difference a decade makes. tXTen years ago the United States and the Soviet Union, still smarting over the Cuban •missile crisis, viewed each other with thinly felled hostility. Today, the two superpowers lire hell-bent on detente on every conceivable front. But the kiss-and-make-up ^nood of 1973 probably would have been impossible if Washington and Moscow had j^iot agreed in 1963 to prohibit all except SUnderground nuclear weapons tests. * Efforts to conclude such a treaty had >been under way off and on since 1958, ^Uthough American, British and Soviet Representatives meeting at Geneva agreed |bh 18 sections of a draft treaty, the U.S.S.R. gra essentially unyielding in its demand j|or a power of veto over on-site inspections. m * Then, in September 1961—at the height |bf the Berlin crisis—the Russians resumed fnuclear testing in the atmosphere. The •biggest blast in the series had a force of ^8 megatons, the explosive equivalent of 38 million tons of TNT. President Kennedy Announced the following March that the |jjnited States, too, would conduct a new *eeries of aboveground nuclear tests. These back-to-back series of tests, combined with the subsequent Cuban missile Crisis, had a sobering effect on American $md Soviet leaders. Soon after the Cuban Jprisis had ended, Soviet Premier Nikita 25. Khrushchev indicated renewed interest 3n a test-ban treaty. Kennedy's response <ame in a commencement address at ^American University in June 1963. "We are jjxrth caught up," he said, "in a vicious Sand dangerous cycle in which suspicion on •one side breeds suspicion on the other, and » | Magic Word m Ours is often referred to as a "plastic" society, with unfavorable implications of ^cheapness and artificiality, In strictly liter- , yi terms, however, we have only begun to Jlmploy this versatile material. at ; Seers at the Stanford Research Institute, Jjbne of America's leading think tanks, have , feazed into their crystal ball and predicted a •phenomenal growth in consumer use of plastics by the year 2000. SI Their figures suggest that just 27 years •from now a good segment of the population frill: * Be driving plastic cars. Will be living in ylastic houses. In some parts of the country Jjnay be Jiving in a city covered by a clear jjjblastic dome. « According to the experts, the automobile of the future may have enough plastic JJn it to cut the average total weight of § car Jn half — from today's 4,000 pounds to 2,000 {pounds. Gas tanks, structural frames and jbossibly even axles and entire engines will &e made of plastic rather than metal. | In homebuikiing, fiber-reinforced plas- Jics may be used for the beams of the 21st- tentury house beautiful. Polycarbonate win- Plus Ten new weapons beget counterweapons." From that point on, progress toward a treaty was astonishingly rapid. In a speech in East Berlin on July 2, Khrushchev accepted what he had long rejected: a pact banning tests in the atmosphere and in outer space but permitting underground tests, thus sidestepping the inspection issue. That broke the ice. American and British negotiators journeyed to Moscow on July 15, and 10 days later they had their treaty. Strange as it may seem today, it was by no means certain in 1963 that the test- ban would go into force. Theodore Sorensen recalls that President Kennedy's "chief concern was that enough Southern Democrats might combine with Republicans to prevent the.. .two-thirds vote" needed in the Senate for ratification. Accordingly, Kennedy pleaded for support in talks with key senators and in a number of news conferences and television speeches. The pact was ratified with votes to spare on Sept. 24, 1963. More than 100 nations now are signatories of the test-ban treaty. The two most glaring exceptions are China and France, both of which are determined to become full-fledged members of the nuclear club. A proposed new round of tests by France has drawn strong protests, especially from Australia and New Zealand. But the larger purposes of the treaty have been or give promise of being achieved. Kennedy asserted on July 26, 1963, that the pact "can be a step toward reduced world tensions and broader areas of agreement." If the President were alive today, he no doubt would be gratified and surprised to see his prediction borne out so accurately. Is Plastics dows (which resist breaking or scratching), plastic window frames, plastic rain gutters, plastic siding, piping and plumbing fixtures could make housing relatively much less expensive than it is today. As for air-conditioned, domed cities, we already have domed stadiums, and soon shopping centers and mal\s will be protected with clear plastic domes. One of the most important things about plastic is that it can be made by utilizing far less of our natural resources than in processing other materials. For example, only 0.104 kilowatt-hour of energy is needed to make one cubic inch of polystyrene. This compares with 2.231 kwhr to make a cubic inch of copper piping instead of plastic, or 2.034 kwhr to make a cubic inch of aluminum residential home siding instead of plastic, or 1.101 kwhr to make a cubic inch of steel automobile part instead of one of plastic. Today, only about one per cent of our total energy stream is used for making plastics, says Ralph L. Harding, president of the Society of the Plastics Industry, out of 40 per cent of the energy stream used by all of American industry. for Ervin WASHINGTON (NBA) - Sen. Howard Baker -or Tennessee, Republican vfce-chaifman of the Senate committee investigating Watergate, plans to get hi"? proposals for the format of the committee's final report put into the mix very early. He already has said publicly that he wants the report to be truly "definitive," yet to stop short of fixing personal blame in a way that would make "defendants" out of any of the key participants in the Nixon administration's complex spying and sabotage plans and the later cover-up. As Baker presently perceived it, he told me a useful, effective report ahouJd do three main things: First, set forth very carefully all the areas of testimony where conflicts as to what truly happened are unresolved. These may very well be numerous, but Baker assumes that an ex* haustlve combing of the record —include the matching up of both verbal testimony and allegedly supportive documents and depositions-will reduce the conflicts somewhat. Sharp delineation of the unresolved conflicts could be of inestimable assistance to the gov* ernment's spedal prosecutor, Archibald Cot, in preparing lor possible legal action against car* tain Watergate figures. Obviously a basis for perjury actions egainst some could be laid down. Second, for the understanding of all concerned—the public, the Congress, and the government's prosecutors—Baker believes a definitive report should lay down as complete and well-organized a narrative of the whole Watergate affair as the provable facts permit. Beyond question, both the general public and close watch* ers of Watergate (including investigators) have found that the veritable blizzard of facts about the scandals has made difficult the comprehension of the "whole story" — meaning a well-threaded, chronological unfolding of events in which all the puzzle pieces fit together as tightly ias the hard evidence makes possible. Once that narrative has been laid down, Baker wants to move on to the third and most crucial element of what he regards as ia definitive report: the establishment of clear linkages between decisive Watergate activities arid individuals or groups within the Nixon White House or re-election committee fold. Baker calls mis a "fixing of responsibility" for what happened, white he concedes he is drawing a fine line, he insists this can be done without assigning personal Wame in the baldest ano most open sense. Says Baker: "1 don't think the report should come out flat, for example, and say that 'so-and-so' was the 'mastermind' of Watergate." What Baker seems to be striving for is a report that may, then, be suggestive of where blame 3ies—without asserting it in the manner of a grand jury handing down an indictment. Even if Chairman Sam Ervin and his committee accept this approach, it may be hard to bring off. Press response, tending always to quick black-and- white interpretation, is likely to turn "fixing of responsibility" Into finger-pointing blame. Nevertheless, Baker wants to try to keep the committee in its proper investigative role and awtay from the posture of a super-grand jury imposing upon the judicial realm. (Newspaper Enterprise Assn.) Intelligence Testing Great Controversy Today's topic: Brains — who has 'em, who hasn't and why. The old IQ is being hassled around a lot these days. Many of our most cherished illusions about intelligence are getting knocked on the head and piled up in neat rows. For example: For the past 50 years, psychologists have equated ad- vianckig age with declining mental power. As soon as it was discovered that man loses his brain cells from the moment of birth at a rate which picks up speed to as many "as 100,000 per day by the age of 60, it was taken for granted that old folks were, by and large, more stupid than young folks. This assumption not unnaturally fueled the "Youth Movement" of the Sixties, which saw such spirited sprouts as Mario Savio and Jerry Rubin giving everybody over 30 the Bronx cheer and commenting loudly and obscenely on the hung-up ineptitude of the Geritol set generally. But now what have we here? Time magazine reports that Santa Clara University phy- chologist Jon Kangas has found that the IQs of 48 San Francisco men and women went up 20 points, not down, between childhood and middle age. Apparently the loss of brain cells is more than compensated for by the little-known fact that we only use about one-third of our brain anyhow; the other two-thirds just hangs around goofing off. It's strange, nay, downright eerie, that nobody has ever managed to come up with a consensus definition of the ornery little word "intelligence." This is especially true among educators, a state of 'affairs comparable to the American Medical Assn.'s inability to define "health." WEBSTER DEFINES intelligence ias "the capacity to apprehend facts and propositions end their relations, and to reason about them." So-called "IQ Comment tests" are constructed to meet this definition, and it doesn't surprise me at all that older people, up to a point, do better on them than youngsters. After all, we've had a lot more experience apprehending all kinds of facts and considerable more practice reasoning about them over the years than have our offspring.. In my salad days, the "water tumbler" theory of intelligence was widely held. The mind was THE MAILBOX visualized as a kind of finite container, designed by nature to hold just so much smartness and no more. Later on it was likened to ia muscle, which could be enlarged and strengthened by exercise. Today, it's fashionable to think of it as a supercomputer, clicking away with neurons and synapses. Probably all these versions will be looked upon as ludicrous by our descendants. It's in the field of racial IQ, however, that the real donnybrook is currently going on. After a generation of being told that race has nothing to do with intelligence, a whole recent rash of studies by such men as Arthur R. Jensen, William Shockley and Richard Herrnstein has concluded that intelligence is not only racially determined but.. genetically sealed.. In other words, if you're .stupid, there's not much the school can do about it, and that goes for your children, too;. V.> :^^k $1 THIS, OF COURSE, comes as V V a nasty shock to the environ- - mentatists, who- believe that man is infinitely perfectible by a benevolent society. Inasmuch as this group includes most liberals and all activists, there is at present a vast and vocal anguish being bleated by a lot of folks who wouldn't recognize intelligence if it came up end bit them, but who are nevertheless picketing, pelting and pummeling, Jensen et al for daring to upset their favorite misconceptions. If you ask me, which no one has, the truth is that there are at least a dozen different kinds of intelligence. When I was a boy, IQ was tested verbally,, with heavy emphasis on vocabulary and ability to make sense out of complex arrangements of words. Now we know that while this is one kind of intelligence, there are others, including numerical and motor skill know- how, for example, which depend not at all oh one's expertise with language. One ethnic group may end up top dog in one sector of intelligence, another in another. I suggest at least a 27-year moratorium on the whole argument. Let our grandchildren decide it around the year 2000. By that time, they should have the necessary instruments. We don't. ,. Copyright 1973, Los Angeles Times Letters to the Editor Girl and Lincly Editor, Register-Mail: I never knew that Charles A. Lindbergh, the man who made the first solo flight across the ocean to Paris in a plane, once had dinner with Galesburg's poet Carl Sandburg. This visit with Sandburg shouldn't be lost in the library. I missed it three years. But the other day I was in the Galesburg library and picked up a 1,000-page book presented to the library in memory of J. E. Tribbey by public spirited couples in Galesburg. Crossword Puzzle Bookworm Aarwsr to Preview funk ACROSS 1 Novel by Haggard 4 Novelist Gate SCleopatra'a make (pi.) 12MaacuUne nickname 13 Greek god of love 14 Stead 15 Son of Gad (Bib.) 18 Scorched ISCravinga SOUmeab aiBarano! island 23 Engrave 34 "The— SB fruit drinks 27 "Brother ii 30 Fancy 32 Kind oi creed 34 "Way of All flesh" author 35 Snuffle 36 Be Quiet! jr-Jl and Fall of the Roman Empire" 36 Lively (music) 40 Pedal extremities Mi*erebW» 42 Young bog 45 Loving 49 Opposed 51 Bowing implement 52 Nautical term 53 Bwi&i archer 54 Drees atone 55 Hardy heroins 56 Mystery writer Gardner 57 Broadway sign DOWN 1 Cart off 1 "Tortoise and the—" 3 English Queen 4 African equina 5 Shield bearing 6 Rumored 7 Onager S Hebrew letter 9 Forefather 23 Verb form 24 Chest bones 25 Toothed (comb, form) 26 Eagle's nest 27 Manuscript alterations 10 Hammer head 28 The dill 11 Lather 28 Far off 17 Warning signal . 18 Pattern of perfection (comb, form) 31 Cylindrical 33 Catlike 38 Greek weight 40 Weird Sisters (Norse myth.) 41 Cuplike spoon 42 Begone! 43 Burrow 44 Individuals 46 Maul (Scot.) 47 Squirrel fur 48 Hence (Latin) 50 Female paint (ab.) I looked in the index. On Dec. 8, 1939, on a Friday Lindy and Carl got together. Present was Sandburg's publisher and w.fe, Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Harcourt. Harcourt retired in 1942. This was December following Hitler's rampage into Poland in Ja1e summer of 1939 beginning World War II. Lindbergh and his splendid wife, a talented writer, were taking walks in the woods together. Anne was busy writing an article, Prayer for Peace. Lindy wanted a home for his family: "I wanted a home and land to give them (his wife and children) the feel oi soil and growth and true elements of life that I found on the farm in Minnesota as a child," he wrote the day after his dinner with Sandburg in his big volume, The Wartime Journals of Charles A. Lindbergh. I can almost see him typing with his two fingers on his typewriter. Such a man would nave the right chemistry to appreciate Sandburg — and he did appreciate. Here's his note: "We had dinner with Mr. and Mrs. Harcourt and Carl Sandburg, who recent* ly finished his 'War Years' biography of Lincoln. He is interesting, kindly, and mild mannered — the type of man who gives one renewed confidence that a quiet, unseen vein of character runs through this country still, as it has in past generations. Possibly the times that are coming will bring it to the surface again. Sandburg has an air of infinite patience— ard one gains confirmation of this impression in glancing through his books — some million and a quarter carefully chosen words, Harcourt tells me, representing 20 years of study and work." , What Lindy wrote in 1939 still is true in this summer of Watergate. I have been glancing through those, words of Sandburg — and I know that "quiet, unseen vein of character" that runs through this country will make itself felt soon or later. We need Sandburg's patience as well as his words. —Reef Waldrep, Macomb. EDITOR'S NOTE: The Galesburg Register-Mail welcomes tempered, constructive expressions of opinion from its subscribers on current topics of interest, in the form of a letter to the editor. The Register- Mail, however, assumes no responsibility for opinions therein expressed. Because of apace limitations, letters should not exceed 800 words in length. They will be subject to condensation. The Register- Mail would prefer letters typed and double-spaced. Letters must include the writer's signature and address. Defamatory material will be rejected. No letters can be returned. r r 1 r i 1 F "1 1 r IA ii 12 u 14' II II r 18 If" ii a a ST 28 1" ki •1 w 41 •1 44 48 J Ji J M 84 J 88' 87 Qalesburg Register-Mail (NIWSP4WB INTMMISI ASSN.) Office 140 South Prairie Street Galesburg, Illinois, 61401 TELEPHONE NUMUER Register-Mail Exchange 343-7181 Entered as Second Class Matter at the Post Office at Galesburg, Illinois, under Act of Congress of March 3.1879. Daily except Sundays and Holidays other than Washington'* Birthday, Columbus Day and Veterans Day. Ethel Custer Pritchard, publisher: Charles Morrow, editor and general manager; Robert Harrison, managing editor; Michael Johnson, assistant to the editor; James O Connor, assistant managing editor. National Advertising Representatives: Ward Griffitb Co., Inc., New York, Chicago, Detroit. Los Angeles, San Francisco, Atlanta, Minneapolis, Pittsburgh, Boston, Charlotte MEMBER AUDIT BUREAU OF CIRCULATION SUBSCRIPTION RATES By Carrier in City of Galesburg 50c a Week ^ By RFD mail in our retail trading zone: 1 Year $16.00 3 Months 8928 6 Months $ 9.00 1 Month $2.00 No mail subscriptions accepted In towns where there is established newspaper boy delivery service. By Carrier in retail trading zone outside City of Galesburg SOc a Week By mail outside retail trading zone in Illinois, Iowa and Missouri and by motor route in, retail trading zone: 1 Year $22.00 3 Months $6.00 6 Months $12.00 1 Month $2.50 By mail outside Illinois, Iowa and Missouri: 1 Year $2600 3 Months $7.50 6 Months $14.50 1 Month 83-UM

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