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4 Gotesburg Rggister-Moil, Gotesburg, Sot, Oct. 12,1963 Weekend Review Qalesburg Regfster -Ma.1 HALLOWEEN IS NOT A WEEK and we feel impelled to call on Western Illinois people to discourage making a week of it, insofar as the nocturnal excursions of the small folk are concerned. We're going to hand out treats to the goblins who call, on Halloween night alone — meaning Thursday, Oct. 31. Those who visit on previous nights, for the same purpose, will be turned down, and if it has to be "tricks" it may have to be a matter of calling the police. People who don't have small children themselves, and hence don't have to be a party to the prowling, are invited to take the same stand, namely, to tell premature haunters there is nothing for them that early. People who have Halloween-minded children are respectively requested to discourage their prowling other persons' property on nights other than Thursday, Oct. 31. * * * ELDERLY OR INFIRM people, at home alone, ought to have some protection from the pranksters. They can't get to the door quickly when someone is there, and children ought to be instructed to make allowances for such situations. Another problem is the "trick or treat" callers who are too old and too big to be going through a routine that is excusable in small children. Parents of Junior High and High School youth would be taking appropriate action if they discouraged these young adults from "taking candy away from babies" by door- knocking on Halloween. When people reach Junior High age, and feel that Halloween is still an occasion to celebrate, they ought to do it with social gatherings, movie-parties and picnics, as other sensible grown-ups do. * * * THOUGHTS WHILE TOURING. Filling station cleanliness means more to a motorist than one might suppose. And that's quite aside from the obvious, surface facts such as the patron's own interest in cleanly surroundings. It has a bearing on motor performance, said an oil company counsel at a recent hearing of the House Small Business Committee in Washington. Slipshod stations are likely to have dirty storage tanks. Gas containing even minute amounts of dirt or water can cause real trouble. * * » •O, THERE'S A TAVERN IN THE TOWN'. Perhaps our most interesting telephone call this week was from a woman with an accent right from Piccadilly. It was the day after the Register-Mail had printed a telegraph news item from Downham, England, relating that an Angelican church vicar there conducted a church service in the village tavern. He was quoted as saying that "If the people won't come to us, we will go to them. ... So many people have the idea that those who go to church are a bit queer. We aim to show them we are just ordinary people." Our telephone culler declared she had "just flipped" at reading this, over here In Galesburg — "I used to live in Downham and I know the vicar and the pub also." * * # HIGH TOWERS are now centers of interest in the middle west. At St. Louis the huge arch is being built on the Mississippi River waterfront to mark the claim of that booming metropolis as an East-West gateway in mid- America. At Chicago Mayor Daley has plans far advanced for erecting a tower 900 feet tall on the lake front. These structures will vie with France's Eiffel Tower at Paris and with that nation's gift to the United States, the Statue of Liberty at New York City. Of course the idea is not new, but as old as mankind's recorded aspirations. Legendary, of course, is the Tower of Babel. Historically documented are the Colossus at Rhodes and the 400-foot Pharos of Alexandria, a lighthouse, one of the wonders of the ancient world. Visible today are the leaning tower of Pisa, in Italy, the Washington Monument at our nation's capital, and many other examples of the impulse to erect tall monuments. * * * STORY IS TOLD of a young school teacher who complained of how all the mommas were trying to tell her what to do and not to do about their kids in the classroom, etc., and declared it was none of their business what went on there — until she married and then sent her own youngster to school, after which the shoe was on the other foot, so to speak. It's a little like that with National Newspaper Week. All year long an editor must tussle interminably with reams of propaganda for this Week and that Day and so-and-so Month, tooting horns for special fields of interest. He wants to help as well as possible without keeping precious news columns jammed with private propaganda. So he may incur a "no" feeling about such material. But then, once a year, the newspaper industry has its own Week; and that's different. Now, on the threshold of this annual event, we feel it appropriate to mention that your local newspaper is just as democratic an institution as a business concern can be. It is just as much a public utility as its staff knows how to make it. It is rooted in the Constitutional guarantee of freedom of speech, and grounded on the people's right to know the details of public affairs. We'll try to expound on this a little more, since public understanding can lead to increased public participation in a task that is too big for just a group of special workers — the task of keeping up with what is going on in the world — Oct. 13-19, National Newspaper Week. Self-Preservation Need Dictates Mining Peace By JOHN CHAMBERLAIN WHEELING, W. Va. — In the Nineteen Forties I used to write a good deal about the coal industry. When the union contract time came up, the show at the Hotel Shoreham in Washington was always a good one. Invariably the United Mine Workers* boss, John L. Lewis, would stand before the coal operators and point to their hands. "There's blood on those hands," he would intone dramatically. There seemed to be absolutely no love lost, between management and labor as Lewis launched into his lurid but highly effective personalities. Joseph Moody, then the president of the Southern Coal Producers Association, was libelled by Lewis as a "churn- head." Ex-Senator Burke of Nebraska, who had preceded Mr. Moody as the southern operators' representative, was always good for a Lewis lashing for the simple reason that Nebraska is hardly noted for its coal mines. Other eminent executives were called "liars by the clock." Regardless of the question about "blood on the operators' hands," there was always blood on John L. Lewis's tongue. Well, times change. For the past few days I have been flying around the coal country with a group under the tutelage of the National Coal Policy Conference. The NCPC, whose members include men from coal management, men from the coal-carrying railroads, representatives of the coal-burning public utilities, and highly placed United Mine Worker officials (John L. Lewis himself was chairman of the conference until his retirement;, is an amazing organization in which lion and lamb lie down together in amity. The change in atmosphere over what prevailed 15 and 20 years ago is absolutely amazing to somebody who hadn't paid much attention to what was going on in coal circles in the iiities and sixties. HOW HAS the change come about? It happened because coal, as a fuel, was suddenly beset by what seemed to be a thousand enemies. The U. S. government built the Big Inch and Little Inch oil pipelines during World War II — and oil conversions became a stand- aid rule of the day in fuel consuming industries. The oil-burning diesel train caught on, not only in the West but in the coal-rich East. The need for coking coal in steel diminished. The Atomic Energy Commission started subsidizing atomic power. And one fine day John L. Lewis and his old enemies, the operators, decided they must make common cause if either set of participants in an old grudge fight was to live at all. Lewis, as is well known, supported every move of the operators to mechanize their mines wherever it was possible to do so. All he asked for in exchange was the highest union wage scale in the world. It seemed little enough to grant him in view of the savings that could be effected through the spread of mechanical cutters and loaders, and pushbutton sorting and grading equipment. Lewis and Joe Moody, who had become president of the NCPC, became the best of friends, willing to forget the harsh words of the past. WITH LABOR and management working in tandem, it might be thought that a monopoly system would be the natural — and menacing — result. But this has not happened. The threat of the other fuels — residual oil, fissioning uranium — is always there to prevent the gouging of the consumer. And in addition to this, the producing end of the coal industry lias developed its own threat to those old-time coal carriers, the railroads. The cost of coal transportation has fallen dramatically. The big threat to the railroads has been the coal slurry pipeline. The pioneer pipeline, built in Ohio, has recently been closed down. What happened is that the railroads decided to meet the competition by developing the "integral" coal train, capable of hauling tremendous tonnages to big electrical utilities with twenty-four hour turn-urounds at each end of the loading-unloading cycle. THE VERY HINT that a coal slurry line might be built from West Virginia and western Pennsylvania to carry pulverized coal to the eastern seaboard was enough to push the development of a Baltimore and Ohio unitized coal train able to knock $1.50 per ton off the coal-carrying price. This has enabled big coal producers such as the Valley Camp Coal Co. of Wheeling and the Consolidation Coal Co., with mines in West Virginia and Ohio, to cut the cost to the consumer — and still pay John L. Lewis's union men their high wages. Competition, competition, competition — it's been good for everyone. Everyone, that is, save lor the marginal miners in the "dog hole" mines spotted from the anthracite country of Pennsylvania to the southern Cumber- lands. That is another, and not so happy, story. Copyright 1963 Office iw South Prairie su-Mt, Oalesburg, lUlnoU rELKPHUNh. NUMBER Register-Mall Exchange 342-6181 Entered ".a Second Class Matter at the Pott Office at Galesburg Illinois, under \et of Congress of M •-h 8 1879 Dallv except Sunday. Ethel Custer Schmlih Publisher Charles Morrow Editor and General Manager St. H. fcddy Associate editor And Director of Public Helatlons H. H. Clay Managing Editor National Advertising Representative Ward-Griffith Company Incorporated, New Vork, Chicago, Detroit, Boston. Atlanta, San fran- elsco. Los Angelas Philadelphia, Charlotte. MEMfER AUDIT BUREAU OT~ CIRCULATIONS MEMBEK ASSOCIATE!; PRESS The Associated Press Is entitled «x- cluslvely to the use or republication of all the local news printed in this newspaper as well as all AP new* dispatches SUBSCRIPTION RATES By Carrier in City Of Galesburg 36c a Weelt By RfD mall in our ratal) trading l Year #10.00 a Months 13.90 6 Months $ 6.00 I Month 11.28 No mall subscriptions accepted In towns where there Is established newspaper boy delivery By Carrier in retail trading tone outside City ol Galesburg I week 90c By maU outside retail trading zone In Illinois lows and Missouri and by motor route IB retail trading zone 1 Year $13.00 3 Months 13.71 6 Months $ 7 .00 1 Month $118 By mall outside Illinois Iowa and Missouri 1 Year tie.00 3 Months 18.00 6 Months $ 0.50 1 Month $2.00 Schools May Have Failed In Citizenship Training By DAVID NYDICK UPI Education Specialist Millions of eligible voters do not exercise this basic right nor fulfill this responsibility. The reason may be that as students they probably were not fully taught what being a United States citizen involves. Some teachers and schools, recognizing their responsibilities, place an emphasis on the subject of good citizenship. Some junior and senior high schools have a token course. These are not typical of the nation's schools. Is there a teacher's college which offers a specific course in the teaching of citizenship? Perhaps there are a few but it is certainly not a standard procedure. This should be a requirement for the issuance of a teacher's license. It is everyone's fault, not because they object to this but because they have done nothing about it. Needs Citizens' Participation The strength of our nation depends upon the enthusiastic participation of its citizens. Some people might argue that the direct teaching of citizenship is indoctrination. But you cannot expect an individual to guess what his responsibilities are. He must obtain the knowledge and understanding through education. He must also develop the attitudes which are necessary to encourage his cooperation and participation in activities concerned with public welfare and government. This is not meant to indicate that all citizens neglect their responsibilities. But too many tend to be lackadaisical about these important parts of democratic living. Although not fully responsible, schools have not put the needed effort into developing programs concerning citizenship and related activities. Millions of dollars are spent yearly developing cir- riculums. Very little is earmarked for research concerning citizenship programs. U. S. History Fascinating The study of American history can be fascinating. A student is exposed to this several times in his school career. The practice of politics also can be extremely intriguing and important. The schools teach about our government's development and structure but they often neglect to include a study of political history and influence. The political parties and their members probably have more effect upon our government than most other factors. An individual surely will have a greater understanding and feeling for our government if he is aware of the growth of political parties and what they stand for. Citizenship responsibilities are more extensive in our form of government than in most others. The development of skills in the area of citizenship is as important as those in science and mathematics. A look at school programs should indicate were to begin solving this problem. REMINISCING of Bygone Times TWENTY YEARS AGO Oct. 12, 1943 Representatives of Galesburg public school teachers appeared before the Board of Education to present a revised salary schedule which they believe would aid in retaining teachers here and prevent the looting of faculty by neighborhood communities. It was reported 39 teachers have moved to higher paying jobs in other communities during the past few weeks. The teachers proposed to the board a maximum salary of $1,800 per year for persons with a BA degree. FIFTY YEARS AGO Oct. 12, 1913 Mrs. Medill McCoi'mick, wife of the editor of the Chicago Tribune, visited Galesburg to check on what can be done toward organizing Galesburg women for Arthur H. Shay, Progressive Party candidate for the Supreme Court bench. Mrs. McCormick met with several local civic leaders and appeared before the state convention of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, meeting in Galesburg. From p Ma t. The rd8,# £ Present He who conquers, I will grant him to sit with me on my throne, as I myself conquered and sat down with my Father on his throne.—Rev. 3:21. * * # For the finer spirits of the world there are two dwelling places: Our earthly Fatherland, and that other City of God. Of the one we are the guests, of the other the builders.—Romain Rolland. Crossword Puzzzle Travel Means Answer to Previous Punle ACROSS 1 Means of travel 4 Water travel means 8 Wintry travel means 12 Unclose (poet.) 13 Minute skin opening 14 Sheath 15 Negative word 16 Scaremongers 18 Penetrated 20 Puts up a poker stake 21 Southern general 22 Sea bird 24 Den 28 Ocean voyager is this 27 Golf teacher 30 Kindle 32 United in 34 Outfit anew 35 Looked curiously 36 Paid notices in newspapers 37 Benumbs 39 Offers 40Notiou (comb. form) 41 Genus of mice 42 English dramatist 45 Wrapped 49 Announces 51 Anger 52 Farm structure 53 Spiritless 54 Nothing 55 Redact 56 Clumsy boats 67 Measure (abj DOWN 1 Skeleton part 2 Prepositioa 3 Dregs 4 Kind of tire traveling 5 Pit 6 Sultanic decrees 7 Through 8 Be glossy 9 Misplaced 10 Italian city 11 Stone layer (Scot.) 17 Administer 19 Weird 23 Harvests 24 Italian coin 25 Old 26 High home 27 Dying 28 Organ part for r raca V e. 1- ft w E R V A C era E N E B A 1 L E E A C HE A T E a R E M E Si K •u A 0 M N| i Y D 5 A u 1 N Qi (SI A B til A Q 1 T 1 a B O fS N a W E M ISC a U fa R E tffl 1 =1 d> a A T hi E S e| ' B 6 1 i Hfly B A T 6 A U 5 T A' E X A L_ T s L. E Q Ni E L L 1 p. E 6 T 29 Chances 31 Kind of bicycle 33 Contradict 38 Placard 40 Ignoramus 41 Disguises 42 Retort (slang) IT 43 Geraint's wife 44Gudrun's husband 46 Seven days 47 Silkworm 48 Ravine 50 Wine vessel TTT ON THE STEPS OF THE COURT: The 1954 school desegregation decision was the first major controversy of the Warren Court. Biossat EDITOR'S NOTE: Decisions on such cases as racial "sit-ins" and state legislative reapportionment are expected to spark further controversy over the role of the Supreme Court as it begins its 11th term under the leadership of Chief Justice Earl Warren. In this dispatch and another to follow, a veteran student and reporter of the Court—and Warren —analyzes what the furor is about. KBWSTAPE* KNTE&F&ISE ASSN. r A Special Report: The Warren Court A Decade of Change years under Chief Justice Earl Warren have cut a huge swath through American life, raising issues of personal liberty, individual rights and religious practice that stir some millions to great new hopes and others to bitter anger. Negro children sitting beside whites in hundreds of school classrooms through much of the Old South. . . . Voters in long underrepresented urban and suburban areas casting their full voting weight for the first time. . . . Bible reading and prayer recital barred in schools all over the land. . . Men accused of crimes being aided in their defense by court-appointed lawyers the accused cannot afford to hire. . . . Changes like these, multiplied many times, register the everyday impact of what the Warren decade has done to the relations between men and their governments. In these years, Congress and the presidency combined have not come close to matching the Supreme Court as a force for basic social and political change in this country. * • • The school segregation cases, the prayer and Bible reading decisions, the Tennessee legislative apportionment matter, the major rulings on state court criminal procedures rank as the most closely spaced landmarks in the high court's history. Inescapably, the Court that has broken this new ground has brought down upon its collective head some of the most lavish praise and most furious criticism ever aimed at this always controversial tribunal. These waves break most sharply against the figure of the Chief Warren" is the peremptory call Warren is the peremptory call from billboards financed by the far right-wing John Birch Society. Segregationists use the phrase "Warren Court" as a term of derision. Set against these assaults are such judgments as this, from a prominent attorney practicing before the Court: "Warren has an enormously strong sense of justice. He intends to do justice. He has an accurate sense of what the country wants and where it is going. . . . "I think it will be found 50 years hence that Ihe Supreme Court under Warren went in the right direction, at about the right pace." * * * To gain appraisals of the Chief Justice, his eight colleagues on the Court, and the work of the Court since he took command a decade ago, this reporter canvassed the views of high court justices, professors of constitutional law, Veteran government and private lawyers who have practiced before the Court. No one puts Warren down as a great lawyer or legal scholar. To his enemies this makes him a "politician" unqualified to sit on the Supreme Court. His friends prefer to stress his humanness, his broad grasp of the problems of government in which this tribunal specializes. A New York lawyer with long experience before the Court suggests Warren, through his identity with the great issues of this era, may become the most famous chief justice in history. Still healthy and hearty at 72, Warren runs the Court as a fairly loose ship. In its public aspect this is seen as lawyers appear before the nine justices to make oral argument in the lofty red velvet and white marble courtroom where the Court has labored since 1935. For most attorneys these appearances are once-in-a-lifetime. Nervousness is the rule. One lawyer reaching a crescendo in argument was startled to see his false teeth pop out. He caught them in mid-flight, snapped them back in and barely lost a verbal stride. * * * The Supreme Court is inevitably special in nature. There have been just 95 high court justices in U. S. history, and Warren is the 14th chief justice. Operating like a small club, the justices have only their secretaries and two Jaw clerks apiece to aid them in work which most observers agree is the most intensive mental effort indulged in on a sustained basis anywhere in government. Reports of intra-court feuds are heard frequently. They appear to gain substance when two justices clash publicly, as did Hugo Black and William O. Douglas last spring. Former Justice Felix Frankfurter notes these rumors have dogged most Court regimes. He scoffs at the notion a genial, persuasive chief justice can with a smile eliminate differences among Court members. He asks: "What judge worth his salt would have his convictions influenced by whether or not a chief justice is a charming man and a delightful raconteur?" # * • Frankfurter also seeks to answer the charge that the Warren Court, like some of its predecessors, has too few career judges on it to be a sound judicial body. Six of the present Court — Warren, Black, Douglas, and Justices Tom Clark, Byron White and Arthur Goldberg — had no prior judicial experience when they joined up. Frankfurter's researchers disclose that roughly a third of all justices in history had no previous bench service, and about half had ten years' duty or less. Limiting the Court to career judges would have cost it most of its greatest justices, including John Marshall, Roger Taney, Louis Brandeis and Hughes. The general judgment is that the Supreme Court is like no other, concerned as it is with relations between governments and with broad economic and social questions. Says a veteran Court practitioner: "If I were able to select the members of the Court, I'd look for men with a wide spectrum of experience, background and scholarship." From that view there is little dissent. And the Warren Court, however it may be judged on other counts, meets this test. * * * Black, a former Alabama senator whose fitness for the Court was questioned when he was named a generation ago, is at 77 an acknowledged master of Court work and a dedicated scholar. Douglas, though his fans today are fewer in the legal community, has made a similar effort. Justices John Marshall Harlan and Potter Stewart, conservatives with judgeship backgrounds, are respected for their sober approach to duty. Young White, surprisingly conservative thus far, is hardly measurable at this early stage. Many appraisers see much promise in the liberal Goldberg who, lining up with Warren, Black, Douglas and William Brsn- nan, is expected to give the Court a liberal majority for the first time since the Chief Justice took over. Harlan, Stewart, Clark and White form the conservative opposition. For all these men, of whatever stripe, the Supreme Court's.work is learned "on the job." Said Cardozo, many years a New York judge: "Nothing in my career prepared me for the tasks on the Supreme Court." (NEXT: Why the battle rages.) THE ALMANAC By United Press International Today is Saturday, October 12, the 285th day of 1963 with 80 to follow. The moon is approaching ih new phase. The morning star is Jupiter. The evening stars are Jupiter and Saturn. On this day in history: In 1492, Christopher Columbus took possession of land in the Bahamas in the name of Spain. In 1870, Gen. Robert E. Lee, the Confederate hero, died in Lexington, Va. In 1915, the English nurse, Edith Cavell, was shot by a German firing squad for assisting some 200 Allied patriots gain freedom from occupied Belgium. In 1940, Adolf Hitler postponed his planned invasion of the British Isles. A thought for the day — The Roman epigrammatist, Martial, said: "There is no glory in outstripping donkeys." QUOTES FROM THE DAY'S NEWS (Reg. U.S. Pat. Off.) By United Press International WESTMINSTER, Mass. - Mrs. Carroll H. Arnold, sister of Marvin W. Makinen, one of two Americans freed in a spy swap with Russia: "This is certainly news to us, wonderful news. Our many, many prayers have been answered." Pell, retiring president of the Indiana Bar Association, to Gov. Nelson Rockefeller on his arrival for a speech here: "After pollsters have reported on the Republican presidential situation, I want to express my ad' miration for your courage in coming to Indiana." SAN ANTONIO, Tex. - Sen. Barry M. Gqldwater, R-Ariz., when asked about his chances for the GOP presidential nomination: "I haven't given it much thought." FRENCH LICK, Ind. - Wilbur Now You Know ' i mi' ' u.' - 1 m By United Press International The first printing press in the United States was installed at Harvard in 1638, according to Collier's Encyclopedia.