The Pantagraph from Bloomington, Illinois on November 23, 1963 · Page 7
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The Pantagraph from Bloomington, Illinois · Page 7

Bloomington, Illinois
Issue Date:
Saturday, November 23, 1963
Page 7
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1 runtticraph, BliMHiilnjfton, III,, Saturday, Nov. 23, 1963. "J 1917-1 963 President John F. Kenne dy By Associated Press . troops still were maintaining 'strated. The Diem government; and other Soviet bloc nations troops were sent to bases near' nounced following the U.S. Steel) A coalition of conservative John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 35th President of the 'and guarding medium-range i raided pagodas and jailed Bud- j which had been hit by drought. Birmingham for possible use. move. i Democrats from the South and Jnited States, was the first American rhief PYPnitivP missile sites thev had previous- dhists. Some Buddhists burned Past American policy had The President read a statement; Blough and Kennedy met at conservative Republicans from 0 face the possibility of nuclear war and to risk it with ly constructed in Cuba. 1 show of force to protect American interests. But later! Tne Defense Department, in le succeeded in achieving an accord with Russia limit- rePlv- publicly exhibited aerial ng nuclear tests. photographs purportedly show-Domestically, he was confronted by a racial prob- inS hw he Russians had deem that epitomized a contemporary world issue-the str0'ed their intermediate and Kennedy, at a news confer ence, acknowledged "there still is elationship between the black and white races There were foreign problems ld and new during his admin- change in the status quo which ; stration. Inherited from previ-ius administrations was the Vmerican troops in Southeast sia to thwart Communist pen themselves to death publicly in discouraged U.S.-Soviet trade asserting the government would the White House again. The. the North thwarted the Presi-protest. -but Kennedy saw such benefits do all it could "to preserve or-peeling was called "useful and, dent on some of his favorite The United States blamed Ngo in the deal as improvement of der, to protect the lives of its 'cordial." The President told admeasures. Dinn Nhu, the President's the balance of payments, in-citizens and to uphold the law news conference "this adminis-: The 87th Congress rejected brother, who was considered the -crease in gold supplies, of the land." He expressed dis- tration harbors no ill will his proposals for Federal aid to second most powerful, if not the strengthening of the farm econ-may "at the efforts of those against any individual, any in-public elementary and second-most powerful, man in the omy and a reduction in the U.S. ;who would replace conciliation dustry, corporation or segment ary schools, health insurance country. ' i wheat surplus. land good will with violence and of the American economy." ,for the aged under Social Se- Thrnn'nh norsuasion and the "This transaction advertises hate." I rwit this aiiranre hnsi-'curity, a Cabinet Department of o hnriu navipt mi mnrv u rnnrawa nr rpnain pronoHuc iu "uu o uuuuut tuc. i ic auumiuu auiuucicu np rpma non linear nv wnn its vwmh owi, equipment and technicians" in aid, it sought to persuade Diem; could the success of free Amer-j progress was sought through bi- leaders called government in- production of surplus farm Cuba, but he disclosed the ! to rid himself of his brother, ican agriculture," he said. (racial talks. But the peace was terference in its operations. 'croPs and stand-by authority to Racial Strife Occurred siiatterea on epi. u wnen a Kennedy sought to dispel this in '"''' piujcis At home Kennedv found him-bomb exploded in the Sixteenth ,, kpfnrp the United and reduce income taxes to He ordered a quarantine on; withdrawal. Later the Kremlin I Buddhists and counter-charged ; self deep in the Civil Rights Street Baptist Church during a states Chamber of Commerce, combat economic recessions, all such offensive weapons fori acjvise(j it was withdrawing ; the Buddhists with aiding the problem from the very start of Sunday School session. Four Ne-; Bu( af(pr the spm,n sornpi The Congress approved an in- Communist cause tnrougn meir his administration. gro gins were mucu nu mo-,m. mniainPH that crease in tne minimum wage demands. In the spring of 1961, his first er persons were inji-d. The ,, ,:..ornmimt cHowpH from $1 an hour to $1.25. It in- cannot be accepted by this coun try, if our courage and our com ;old war witn soviet Russia. mitrnents are ever again to be"""', o"es " r iihe niem Bovernment resisted nesmte Soviet Prem er Nik -!tmtDri h D;th triBA ignited Mates ana nuss a werejine uiem goyernmini res. ieu, trusted bv either friend or foe a wirusncnevs determination o rid West Berlin of Allied oc- l i a. ir i. i i i upauon iroup,, jxenneoy neia Cuba and said ships carrying! more of its troops from the is American forces there He keP them would be iuvei bacl irooPs mt in? He called on Khrushchev to withdraw we a p o n s already ifrotinn in that nroa Thrnimh I wlului clw Economic help he sought to aidire,and(cea Preparation of in,0H; o f I missile sites. If this were not aganda from Cuban Prime Min- fon hKe sfald- fuArtner actlon. ster Fidel Castro, avowed dis-ifould be aken' Aerial surveil-:iple of Khrushchev. And heilance wouId continue- he add" iple acted in similar fashion in Africa where newly emerged na-:ions groped their way unsteadily toward stability, often with violence. In Europe there was the prob lem of keeping the North At- ed. A week before Kennedy made his broadcast aerial surveillance had obtained evidence of missile sites ready and being prepared in Cuba. The public was not told there were days and nights of debate and action by lantic Treaty Organization in-thp vmnpHv aHminktrntinn ,,n. tact-a problem enlarged by ! til the blockade decision was French President de Gaulle's announced intention not to take direction or protection from the United States. At home, in addition to the integration crisis, Kennedy became embroiled with the steel industry over a price increase which he halted, faced a nationwide railroad strike which resulted in Congressional action, fought for a tax cut which he called necessary to spur the economy and to avoid a possible recession and watched avidly the United States race into space with the Russians. The nuclear crisis broke in the waning months of his second year in office when he confronted Premier Khrushchev with a demand to remove Russian missiles set up in Cuba and pointing at the United States 90 miles away. Ordered Naval Quarantine Kennedy ordered a naval quarantine on such offensive weapons being sent to the island nation, said ships carrying them would be turned back and called on Khrushchev to withdraw the weapons already there. For five days the nation and the world waited for word from Khrushchev, sworn foe of the Free World. On Sunday, Oct. 28, 1962 came intense relief. Khru shchev announced he had order- reached Days were Tense 1 The days following the quarantine announcement were tense. Military forces were built up in the Southeast. The Organization of American States met the next day and unanimously adopted a resolution offered by Secretary of State Dean Rusk authorizing "the use of force individually or collectively" to enforce the blockade. With that legal backing, Kennedy issued the proclamation to become effective at 10 a.m. the next day. Twenty-five Russian ships were reported en route to Cuba. Meanwhile, United Nations Acting Secretary General U Thant asked both Kennedy and Khrushchev to suspend both the arms blockade and arms ship ment for two or three weeks pending negotiations. Khrushchev accepted. Washington agreed to cooperate to avoid a confrontation. Twenty hours after the proclamation was issued a Russian ship carrying oil was intercepted. It was allowed to proceed. Tension mounted. The Kremlin stalled. On Friday, Oct. 26, the State Department called attention to the President's speech in which he said if missile site preparation continued "further ed work stopped on missile ; action will be justified.' bases, said the missiles would be crated and returned to Russia and promised that the United Nations would verify the dismantling. The crisis involving Cuba was not Kennedy's first with that small Carribbean nation. Soon after he was inaugurated Jan. 20, 1961 Cuban refugees with United States backing invaded their homeland in an attempt to wrest it from Castro. The invasion was a fiasco. Castro's Russian-built military might crushed the invasion. Anticipated defections from Cas-tro'i forces failed to material ize. And the United States did At 9 p. m. that night a letter arrived from Khrushchev. Although not explicitly stated, it contained an offer to withdraw the offensive weapons under U. N. supervision in return for a guarantee the United States would not invade Cuba. The following day Saturday a second land. With the Cuban c risis still simmering, West Germany Chancellor Konrad Adenauer flew to Washington to confer with Kennedy on the Berlin problem. It was the aged Adenauer's third visit to the young president and during each the Berlin issue dominated the discussions. The divided city of West and East Berlin had been a thorn since the end of World War II. Khrushchev called West Berlin, showplace of the Free World surrounded by communism, a bone that must come out of the Russian throat. He threatened to sign a separate peace treaty with East Germany and turn over access to West Berlin to the East German Communist government. The East Germans whom the Western powers did not recognize, said the city should be theirs. Khrushchev stepped up his offensive by questioning the invi olability of Western air access to Berlin. The West insisted on its right to unrestricted use of the air corridors between West Germany and West Berlin. The Soviets charged the United States with airlifting saboteurs and spies into West Berlin for action against East Germany and other Soviet bloc nations. In replying to this charge, the White House said in a statement: "The United States must serve a solemn warning to the Soviet Union that any interfer ence by the Soviet government or its East German regime with free access to West Berlin would be an aggressive act for the consequences of which the Soviet government would bear full responsibility." Allies Hold Fast Throughout the spring and summer of 1962 Kennedy issued warnings to Khrushchev that the Western Allies intended to remain in West Berlin. He repeatedly asserted that the United States would stand by its pledge to defend West Berlin. In June of 1963 he reempha-sized this in a visit to West Germany, where he was greeted enthusiastically. To a West Berlin throng he The drama came to a climax vear in office. Necro and white bombing climaxed the first ., . ... ' ... ... ; ,,. , i . , e llfinicu Ul.-UMC tnemscives ween o umm. meg, u,u u, CHUnteraction Nov. 1, 1963. Vietnamese mih-:groups, tary leaders captured key (Freedom calling Riders, sought to three white schools. play of power" in itsi" Social Security benefits on against US ,an" ''berahzed requirements for .qiiHHivmij unner me program. points in Saigon and attacked! break down bus station racial In the midst of the Rirming- ' Thp adminslration quiotiv ac. It passed a Trade Expansion the Presidential palace. Soon barriers and ran into violence ham trouble, the Kennedy ad- , , . . , increases1 Act which gave the President w-.. o it,. Onhnmn Thnra n ora irw.i. ' miniut rnt inn an tanc M with ' . ' . ..... . . . ancr uawn nuv. i mc innaicu nwumua. mm. .............. ..... , . , iistrv hi Ann m unprecedented crant oi new fell. Diem and his brother were dents at Anniston, Birmingham Alabama's Gov. dead. Some said the brothers, and Montgomery, among nth-. Wallace over the admission of . " iU across-the-board a bargaining lever for mutual committed suicide. Others saidlers. The worst was at Mont-, two Negro students to the Un- ... n ' 8V,h nn in. tariff concessions bv the Euro. they were assassinated. The gomery. jversity of Alabama. Although i;lst year I oppose it pean Common Market and other military installed a civilian as At least 20 persons were beat- Wallace made good a threat to now' K d ' id ' non-Communist countries. It an-Premier of a caretaker govern-'en with fists and clubs in a;stand on the school house steps ' ' , " Kpi).ltlproved establishment of a pri- ment. (bloody riot there. The rioting and forbid the students tm- J- me r corporation to develop, own The United States, which con- around the Greyhound bus sta- trance, he bowed to federalized ; - ,H ,""f ;rk fyPnJland operate a communications sidered the country vital to the ition continued for nearly two .Alabama National Guardsmen i;' "t lection ot lack oi con-: lL .... .... - . 'i ur m ..i, m.trH thn fit once on the nart of business. ! ' - western aeiense position in nouis utuuie me wmic - .uuv. .... - . ,,,. ,, n,,w f,,,w.i1 nnwer to nrv m i i i'lji j in uie iirasui; tniuj;- i i " t las Dillon denied it. He said the tp(,t Pllbli" against hazard- i ..t. ..u j i :.. nn Hmiit wpro tir;intt Now The unrest spurred the Presi- - - - " Si ta 7 PS nekd a riso -that is. in the high prices that'fr()m 4 to 5 cents for first class Southeast Asia and had invested numbering close to 1,000 at university $2.5 billion in aid and 16,500 troops, watched closely. Nuclear Ban Sought In an assessment of his first year in office Kennedy told a news conference that failure to reach agreement with the Soviet Union on a nuclear test ban had been his greatest disappointment. He achieved a limi ted test ban in 1963, his third year in the White House. Nuclear testing had been a note from Russia offered U. trade Cuba bases for bases in Turkey. The United States, parrying the Turkey bid, advised Khru shchev that if he was offering to remove offensive weapons for an end to the blockade and times was broken up with tear gas by state and city police. President Kennedy's brother, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, ordered several hundred U.S. marshals to Mont- Requested Legislation dent to send a special message trt P.iniTrocc in .timo akinit it tn heln end '''rancor, violence. dis-'Prevailpd before the break' unitv and nationnl shame" by! Kennedy noted the talk in a letters, were adopted. A $600 million aid program . I - -.l..j T : nassinc what was described as commencement address at Yalei u Vwu iui M n gomery. The Guardsmen with the most sweeping civil rights University. He said it was false 0Ul 01 11 8rew ine Alliance fixed bayonets scattered a bowl-i bill since Reconstruction days. !to ascribe "any and all unfavor-i'(,r 1 re-Kress, a program to aid ing mob that tried to overwhelm Federal marshals protecting a Negro church mass meeting. I ii i r .1 . 'thn iinilpvnlrinert nmprfv strlrk. The bill brimmed with wcap-; TFu,dU e i ,n " , .tL Vnfth nn aaninet rncinl H kr-rim ina- I WIlCCl " 10 laCK OI COIlIlQenCe in i ' - tin in cfnmc h(,toi !.nH nthfr his administration. By executive order Kennedy The Governor particularly KI- in c,.hnnc ;n inhc The' stock market said in a! established a Peace Corps to constant problem. In September i blamed the marshals for caus-,and lv booths The rr(,si.; special report that Uie May laid underdeveloped nations and 1961 Russia junked a three-year ing the outbreak at the church. dent 'callpd its ennctment "im-'plunge was touched off largely : Congress appropriated money moratorium in atomic weapons, He said he still admired the p(,rative , by the investment public's sell- for its existence, attributing its decision to pres-Kennedy administration but, He th'ided Congress for not ing of long term holdings. Democrats Keep Control sure from "imperialistic coun- added that "the President and:enadi earijer proposals and f'v earIy November the pop- Democrats continued in con-tries." the U.S. Attorney General made ,.jie resut 0f continued u'ar st(,t'k averages had re- trol of the 8(!th Congress which Kennedv called the decision 'a mistake in this matter." t,,'r- InriiclntM'n in:iftinn will C'OUOOU all the cround lost in the onened in Januarv 1!)C2. The "utter disregard of the desire of j Attorney General Kennedy bg (,ontjnuedi if not increased, precipitous drop. Investors 1962 off-year election increased mankind for a decrease in Undeclared, however, there would' , if ,', At same time moved back, this time interest-1 Democrat representation In tha arms race. . Russia proceeded with the tests in Central Asia between September and November. Khrushchev said one blast in the series was on the plus side of 50 megatons fa 50-megaton have been "an extremely ne appealed to Necroes to rein cd in stocks which showed good Rail Strike Threatened A four-year-old dispute be- Senate from 64 to 68, reducing the Republican minority from 36 seats to 32. There were 259 Democrats in the House against 176 Republicans in contrast to 261 Democrats and 175 Republi- bloody and costly riot'-m Mont-1 thejr demonstrations ' so Con-earnings and paid good div- gomery dui ior me presence oi, an ely work its wiU." .idCnds the marshals. jn a move to impress Con- 2 Die In Riots eress. Necro leaders called for Far worse rioting- Two per-'a "March on Washington." On tween the nation's major rail- sons were killed occurred Sept Aub. 28 more than 200.000 Ne-i roads and the unions over work cans in the 87th Congress blast is equivalent to 50 million 30, 1962 when Negro James H. groes and whites arrived in the rules landed in Kennedy's lap! Among the new Senators was ions oi Merecntn sougni to register at capital by plane, train, bus, during the summer of 1963. line president's youngest Drotn- This was in defiance of world-the all-white University of Miss-car and on f00t. Gathering at; With neither side able to ac-'er, Edward M. (Teddy) Ken-wide appeals not to test such a issippi in Oxford. He finally reg- the Washington Monument, they cede to the other and a nation-inedy, who was elected in bomb because atomic explo-, istered with the aid of U.S. marched down Constitution Ave. wide transportation strike seem-1 Massachusetts to the seat once moiis m me aunospnere cause imarsnais ana reuerai inmps to the Lincoln Memorial, cnani- ingly . assured, the President joccupiea Dy me rresiaeni. ins radioactive fallout small poi-ibut not before an awful night-ng and singing. Massed before sought legislation from Con-! a PP ranee in the Senate meant sonous particles which can! mare 0f tear gas and buckshot, the statue of the Civil War Pres-'Kress. There were protestations that the three Kennedy brothers harm life if received in large ' rifle bullets and flying bricks, mtt they shouted support of about such a course but Con- j were in the Federal govern- doses. screaming norucs oi peopie their leaders demands for "jobs gress passed a bill providing for The Soviet action caused a gone wild and blood and death. and frpCdom." Kennedy assert-arbitration of the two principal wave of angry protest and. It was t he biggest clash of ed "the-cause of 20 million Ne-'jSsues-whether diesel locomo-alarm over the danger to hu-; state versus Federal power groes nas been advanced" by tive firemen were necessary in manity that it created. The 1 since the Civil War. The nation thp assemhlv. Rut Concress did . . ... - . . . . w J J i IV4 T W I U l V 1. Tt.V UI1V4 VIV if White House denounced it as a and the world watched tensely m.t hurrv enartment of the! Richts bill and a broad tax re- device to incite "fright and ;as Mississippi's Governor Ross;Civil Rights bill. also barred a strike for ' 180 duction program which the panic. ment. Before the 88th Congress were two pieces of legislation which Kennedy considered "musts." They were the sweeping Civil jBarnett sought to defy the Fed-1 Kennedy had trouble, too, davs. A U.S. spokesman said the eral government which was de- w,h industry l l l . , i t , . . i. i i r-.--l- , couiury nan me capacuy anu icrminea 10 upnoin rt-ut-i-know-how to develop a 50-meg-al court orders admitting Mere- President said was needed as a spur to the economy. After much wrangling and described himself as a Berlin- !aton bomb but had concluded it dith to the university. pr." assprtina thnt. ,lnl frpp' . . ,. ...... . men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin. West Berlin was not Kennedy's only worry. The United States was involved with the Communists in such far off places as Laos and South Viet value. He said primary purpose was to create terror. After Russia's renewal of nu clear detonations, Kennedy an The action was without Fed- Steel Increase Fouqht 'eral precedent. Never in the his- The nation's business commu- torv of peacetime labor rela- maneuvering, a Civil Rights bill . . . . ....... . ...... i,..J L - it. . t er" assertine that "all free1 T - -i-. J-W, j. nity r,aSr)Cd ln April VM2 wnen tions bad Congress ever im-,wa!i repont-u oui or uie ,2! 1 " i;eiwas of questionable military! Meredith's struggle to enter . . . ' nn .;;,,) nnspH Brhitrtinn in ihr. Judiciary Committee with bi- Ole Miss began 16 months ear-.states steel fof announcing a $6 management dispute. partisan support. Prospects of lier. His application was reject-- . increase after sicn-l Kennedv followed thn UnitpH House adoption appeared Rood. oui mere was opposition in tne United Steel workers Union. I closely. The administration had been. The Russians, who had pion al courts. Meredith contended; i : f i i i i i r t i ,.f nounceu rumpuoa m u .uc.- ne nau oeen. re u eu uecu.w " fonowing the negotiations for a eTed in space exploration, had The tax reduction prograr 8S,?SiSdJ:lSraS2h SSi Si?" T;Mehdf8rintn,r(n "''contrad with mtch interest. It sent two men into 'space, one on also had critics who contend. t hp I niton tntp Sunn tPQTQ nn ' A nnonlc t mho n hie rnntpnt inn ... ... .. . : i. .l. ..u ... i., ..... Senate and a matter of time that cast a shadow. The tax reduction program a U.S. promise not to invade Nam ta Southeast Asia. Ul OOUineaSl ASia. Uh UnitoH Ktat Snnh tPts HnUnnonl. imhulH hie rnntpntinn L"',l,av-1 ' nnt'pZp n the M U was 8 dca1' Khru" .tc , ay a not create tne hazard of fallout' I Meredith made four attempts TV'"1 rTraP w incr a " SS? ?cth!inJ:aierl.aTshchev's fateful message came Patched U. S. naval, air and ..We nave no other choice in 'to register at the university. On nc "d .a: re,w5!" tAiwas 9r thA ' 'hm nnrf I nnp . ..... i 111 lilt Iit'llHI S1IIII in 1 1 dui rllllrll militarily. U.S. prestige abroad plummeted. While the invasion was in progress Khrushchev warned Kennedy to "call a halt to the aggression" or else Russia would give "all necessary assistance" in resisting the invasion. But the President replied: "In the event of any military intervention by outside force, we will immediately honor our obligations under the inter-American system to protect this hemisphere against external aggression." Later, ln a speech, Kennedy warned Communist foes and non-Communist friends that the United States would act on its own against Cuba's Reds if United States security was threatened. This is what he did in October, 1962. The nation's first inkling came Sunday, Oct. 21. There were reports of tension in Washington, but newsmen were unable to pin down the cause. Tension in Washington On Monday it was announced Kennedy would address the nation at 7 p.m. on a matter of greatest urgency. Meanwhile, it was learned that Congressional leaders had been summoned back to the capital. At the appointed hour a serious, stern President could be seen on the television screen. Without wasting words he outlined evidence of atomic missile sites in Cuba. He blamed Soviet Russia, which had been assuring the United States It was sending only defensive weapons to the island. Said Kennedy: "This secret, swift and extraordinary build-up of Communist message the next day. He agreed. But the crisis still was un solved. Castro, thrust in the background during the tension-filled days, announced he would not permit U. N. on-the-spot in spection. A visit from U Thant land forces to the Thailand-Laos border because of a pro-Communist seizure of control of most of northern Laos. The maneuver was intended to demonstrate United States commitment in Thailand's defense and to place more troops closer to uld a 17 orbit mission, before U.ih should be coupled with a se Col. John H. Glenn boosted budget reduction, 'the House or in the belief such an agreement American morale by circling ,ePres('ntatives adopted a bill wmcn gave individuals and cor- fnilpH tn hnHnp him Russian ! . VT- T r, T n " V f landlocked Laos Russia announced 42 medium' range missiles had been dismantled and shipped home. The U.S. Navy verified it by inspecting freighters en route from Cuba to Russia. But the United States insisted 30 or more IL-28 jet bombers demand verification. Meanwhile aerial surveillance continued. Although the crisis eased, Cuba remained a problem. Cuban exiles in the United States worked incessantly for the release of loved ones captured during the ill-fated invasion of 1961. An effort to ransom the prisoners failed because of Castro's exorbitant demands. Finally, through private negotiations conducted with Castro by James B. Donovan, a New York lawyer skilled in under cover negotiations, another ran carried a protocol providing for withdrawal of foreign troops. Kennedy hailed the accord as a "significant milestone in our efforts to maintain and further world peace." He said, "It is a heartening Indication that diffi- f..lf!ll t ( 41 !kll!.: .... 4U r ,t I" mc uvuci : luiuiimeiii ui uie icaijuiisiuiiiiica mm u y nil uie lainuus uaincu ,, ,, ' ,i, ..i, 4u, , ,:, , cL i nf thp TinitoH stat. m ite nwn;u,.UH Hm nnH invntpH int. r. would force a price increase the earth three times on Feb. rl natpT9Pli ' " td the country's economic health. Isam. year by Lt. tween orders of the Federal . c-...-..l ,L iL'di.iiftl oil" iiH-n ncv.i wiai jr of Labor Arthur J. Goldberg' ground blasts or started atmos-i The governor blocked a sec- 11 . - " y viu . - pheric explosions. 'ond try and Lt. Gov. Paul 15. to"iJrd Prlf'e stbl V- . Sfhirra Jr orbIM the earth and reforms in the tax struc- ' VI linn Rf iM.r 1 lilt tlKfh nriiC. CIV nmm; Un holuro he il ua, PP. ThA T n ton1 StatPS rpsiimprf nf- Tnhnvnn Iha-artcrf a th rr The " " " "' I" uv..,.c ..c uiu - ..w ' - (V ,.f II C C.....I ...-.....l .. U IJ I 1 4 , iuviciii.i iifiu fin iwo nirri twin orbits,' one for four citizens and to the security of other free nations, he said. Meanwhile, Russia announced. it would hold more tests if the! court and the people of United States continued under- state. followed that Crndr. Mal colm Scott Carpenter of the Navy who made another triple roiind-the-earth flight on May 5 porations tax relief In two-step program beginning in January 14. Its supporters contended that less In revenue to the government would be offset partly I Mikovan flew to Cuba. but1. vi i The United States resumed at- Johnson thwarted a third, me V c ' , 1 ' . Castro .remained adamant tabhshing the neutrality of Laos mospheric tests in April 1962 but Justice Department abandoned J U.S. Steel persona ly the lull Return, fZL Wa,S Slg"edfln Genev" bvt a -jonly after Russia 'rejected aia fourth attempt when Federal a(lv1 nn,;Jy.of 1 ,e fn?t w T Russia Returns Miss,les natl0n conference. The treaty , nrohihitinff all testi. Rus-i marshals prmmnanvlnfi MerP.;er;ase. hUWh touthed off 72dayi r o . , . . . - r ------ sia promptly resumed tests in mid-summer and the United States followed with more tests in the autumn. Nuclear Treaty Reached Finally in June 1963 Kennedy dith were called back because hor! .f governmental activity of a possibility of violence and"'"1 "f .B,m ",s wm hnnHshprt l"-"u,u Riot on Campus During that period four anti trust investigations of the steel When marshals finally escort- M wer(J concelved by R0V. eamereauniodiic.paiu.icm un . . -,.... . hm tn ... days and the other or six. Cooper Makes 22 Orbits The longest American space flight ended on May 16, 1963. It was a 22-orbit 34-hour flight by Air Force Maj. Gordon Cooper. Kennedy called It "a great achievement for our society and unsettled international prob-1 j c-..:.i n..i. u lems, however complicated," a'toTi could be resolved in the samelrt to agree on ! "nSclMeS SPlm' lhan At ripmnnstrntinn nf its As time went on, however. i onJ, faith ho a-tA th I'mtpH there were indications that Laos' coalition government of neutralist, right-wing and left-wing was frail and Insecure. There really was no peace. Turmoil In South Viet Nam States would refrain from at mospheric tests so long others did likewise. A treaty banning nuclear weapons tests ln space, in the atmosphere and under water was initialed ln Moscow in Youngest Elected President It was on a freezing Jan. 20, 11 that Kennedy was sworn in as President in a ceremony of moving dignity, rooted In rich tradition as old as the country itself. He took the oath of office with his hand on a Bible that had been In his mother's family for generations, His inaugural speech was devoted almost entirely to foreign affairs. He set himself two goals-survival of liberty at home and peace in a world shiverina in iUn tU.far.BA kt ; mi. I; . 11 . . ! L.t -f . non-u whn had mnHp a fruitless u,c "" mis achievement was coun- an uncertain paiance oi ier- . . v. . opst rinvpp nf ;tif. In tho nn. t,.,.A k,, r .l. t.n ::rnr invited the communist join in a new begin- .i .. . ... ,. n .juiiid mm.! aim ini romn ursi oi ocr sex into snacn. I lip iiiMB oi uie nuesi ior peace vuni go i-fwii. fll,..4u th. UvA n( If Cil . .l.L. ' .. 1.1. ' .1 .. Meredith registered trie next ' w "ldn cucieu me giooe more man oeioiu ine uam powcis ui u.- rirnnnsn a "strntppv nf npnrp ,tho pnmnns nn siinnav Spnt ?,() . slhlp in pra fnnaf LV United States and an unruly mob of 2.500 sludents , ",2 7 : great achievement for free soluble international problems i th cvjet Union out of the "vi-'towhsneonle and out-of-towners n,usly ons tl(r,(1' 1,'Klsldtl"n men and women." can in fact be solved by patient 'Su, and Serous eyde" of oZn ed bwi h a ba rrago of ri ' ,'mpSP Pr".'eIan'1 wac "Peace has a victory as well diplomacy." liL.L'.l ?lTnXl.nlL trols on the industry was dis- as war." he said, "and this was . Krushchev, nW a simi-RAiH ni.h Mnklnff rpnrps .n,a.L(,H The rnarshals f,,,ht back CUSS('d' Uie HU. V one of the victories for the hu- ar theme, suggested that other U,' 0fthe United States-Great ! with tear eas. Meanwhile. Ken- ""WW in the dawn and man spirit today." nnsn Pfi iniorriBTinnai nrnw. .. . . " . . . inp iJOifn iifnarmi anneal for order dispatched ,yKl w MC,;1 1,1 ; y "ussia the following ror. ' federalized Mississippi National to divert purchases month. The Russians separately He Inv Guardsmen and troops to the fr"m. Un" ,States S,f'el' " a man and a woman, world to college town. Some other 8,ee! comP9nies first of her sex into space. The nlng of t They remained with him until , " a " sa.u ne Kennedy had expressed h t, ;,.h,ih in A,m,t "'ii ri c nao oeen uouoie-crossea that the Un ed States would Barnett and Johnson both:by the industry - Kennedy de-'land on the moon by 1970. He of fear, bul were cited for contempt of court nounccd the increase as 'whol- suggested that Russia and the .negotiate," for defying the court orders to u "Jumao, ; ana irresponii- united States make a joint ex- h admit Meredith. They faced ble defiance of the public inter- edition but Russia rejected the wa-nn..ihi ion .ni(.nrp anri He said the steel men had idea. ,M som of privately donated drugs v"6 "ulVih. rnm.. v - c . ,nuUaieu ,ntUM0SC0W,1 ,n and baby food was agreed upon IK f Jfp S1 SJ1 September. The three nations and 1.1?3 imprisoned Cubans lf 2S?,,Ws.5 i LLSSfEflAe a"d Cther flnun tn U nm net hnlnro r'--v .liauu II lUIKJncu auil. :B;;. "HJU3lu c,it in Communist hands. U. S. Kennedy said V.. V...A - ,.,f,. . . .. . " ... .... . . . n.' ' V 1 1 1 1 1 1 n rw. I ) 11 Kl T mil.' Ir, 11,1 ..... :u, nn nmhr.l r. , . P..!..nsA as day and began classes under J - . mm.! m uj nuu.s, me woni-li'ui.ini unn.annu a.nm.o the protection of marshals.-",' ... .. .. . d" "llJU,u i"'"-s in n nours. t-nguu an nuiiiinuy m ywuKu or accidental seil-desirucuon. "Let us never negotiate out but let us never fear to he said. Inaugurated with Kennedy as Vice-President Lyndon B. idea. Johnson of Texas. They had utter contempt for their possible jail sentences and Kennedv said the treaty "re- fines. "'"r" U,UI "nii'u"1 mc" mere were varied estimates served togemer in me senate, militarV advisers trieH to hpln flw.ta nn nnnnoccinnc ulthnp ln !!.. lal ctrifo hdili.rl ani.iv in '''How citizens. on how the Presitlpnt faroH uithl Kennedv at 43 was the younc- Kennedy greeted the returned1 the government of President'or bv the Soviet Union. It ' the snrlnB and summer of 19G3. lJ,0.un (ltlft'nded his com-Congress, which was controlled est man ever elected President. men in a ceremony in the Orange Bowl. Accepting the invasion flag, which the men brought back from prison, the President declared: "I can as sure you that this flag will be Ngo Dinh Diem but they spoke of the Viet Nam Involvement with the infiltrated Communist guerrillas in terms of years and millions of dollars. The situation became further reflects our common recognition soreadlne to other .Southern i)dr'y ? dC U ,n' proper pne- by nis 0wn Democratic party. He succeeded the oldest man of the dangers in further test-lstates and some northern cities, nS. ne said. was Involved in Administration leaders claimed ever to hold that office, Dwight ing." as Negroes demonstrated for , k(pmg productive facilities up- that the 87th Congress which D. Elsenhower, who was past The treaty caused Kennedy to'equal rights. Birmingham, Ala.,(to dat- an(l competitive in the met in 1961 and 1962 adopted 70 70 when his term expired, comment on the "pause in the took the spotlight when Negro "race among nations. pf.r cent of the President's pro' Kennedy also was the first rnlrl war" in a snwh hrfnrp mass ripmnnstratinn in Anrill Price Rite Recalled cram. Senate Minnritv I-parlpr Roman Catholic President. The missiles ln an area well knownireU'mcd' to this brigade in a complicated in 1963 by a politl-'the United Nations in Septem- and May were countered by t')re' U.S. Steel finally bar ked down Everett Driksen said. "Never in Democrats had had a standard-to have a special and historical :free Cuba. 'cal-relicious outbreak involving 'ber. hoses and nolice docs. after several major com panics the history of the nation has the bearer of that faith in 1928 relationship to the United States Early in 1963 administration i Buddhists, a majority in the and the nations of the Western i critics, spearheaded by U.S. .country, and the Roman Catho-Hemisphere is a deliberately j Senator Kenneth B. Keating, lie Diem family. The Buddhists, provocative and unjustified! (R-N.Y.), charged that Russian charging repressions, demon- A further thaw appeared in; More than 2.400 negroes and said they would hold the price Congress spent so much time Gov. Alfred K. Smith of New October when Kennedy ar,whites were jailed and two Nevline and Bethlehem Steel, accomplishing so little as it did York but he had been defeat-proved the sale of some four gro residences were bombed at second largest steel company, in the second session of the 87th ed overwhelmingly by Herbert million tons of wheat to Russia ,the height of the fury. Federal .rescinded the price rise it an- Congress." 'Hoover.

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