Galesburg Register-Mail from Galesburg, Illinois on September 27, 1963 · Page 26
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Galesburg Register-Mail from Galesburg, Illinois · Page 26

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Galesburg, Illinois
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Friday, September 27, 1963
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24 Golefebyrg Register-Moit, Go lesbur§, 111. Friday, Sept. 27, 1963 Event of 25 Years Ago Made 'Munich' a Bitter Symbol By CARL HARTMAN MUNICH, Germany (AP) — it was the day "Munich" came to have a new meaning and the umbrella became a bitter symbol. It was the day, 25 years ago when Adolf Hitler and the premiers of France and England signed the Munich agreement sealing the fate of Czechoslovakia. "Munich" came to mean appeasement. Political critics today still speak of "another Munich" to condemn real or imagined failure to stand fast in the cold war that followed Hitler's downfall. It all stems from a crisis that had the world on the brink of war in September 1938. A week before the Munich meeting Hitler brought the crisis to a climax in a meeting with Chamberlain at the Dreesen Hotel at Bad Godesberg. Couldn't Wait There Hitler declared he could no longer wait for a popular vote in the German-speaking border areas of Czechoslovakia—the Su- detenland he coveted. At Berchtesgaden only a week before he had agreed to the voting. Now he insisted on marching in and occupying the area's fortifications by Oct. 1. Neville Chamberlain was shocked—but he didn't say no. The Munich agreement, virtually as Hitler wanted it, was signed between 2 and 3 a.m. Sept. 30, 1938, at the Fuehrerbau, the building where Hitler had his Munich office. The structure still stands, and that section where the conference took place is occupied by the Munich Conservatory of Music. Same Old Room At Bad Godesberg you can still have Hitler's room—106. One of the Dreesen family will explain that the bed is now in a different spot, but the black-and-green tiled bathroom is the same and so is the wonderful view of the Rhine and the wooded hills beyond. Chamberlain made his first trip to Germany after the French urged him to make the best deal be could on Czechoslovakia, which they were bound by treaty to defend. Hitler had him go all the way to Berchtcsgaden at the extreme southeast lip of Germany, then an all-day trip from London by air and rail. It was the first time that Chamberlain, 69, had been in a plane. The talks were held in Hitler's favorite residence, the Berghof, on a mountain overlooking Berchtesgaden. (Badly damaged in the war, it has been rebuilt as a restaurant). Hitler took Chamberlain into his study, the same room where seven months before he had browbeaten Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg into surrendering Austrian independence. Chamberlain agreed that Hitler could have the Sudetenland "on the basis of self-determination"— that is, the local population would decide by a vote. There was resistance but t he Czechs had to give in. Hitler Reneged Then, at Bad Godesberg, Hitler reneged. War looked almost certain despite all the British and French could do. They urged Hitler's fellow dictator—Benito Mussolini of Italy—to mediate. But the two dictators agreed that they must one day fight the West side by side. They met Chamberlain and Edouard Daladier, the French premier, in Munich, Sept. 29. Czechoslovakia was not invited, nor was the Soviet Union, which insisted on its readiness to fight for the Czechs if the French would. Mussolini presented a compromise drafted for him in Berlin. The German occupation of the Sudetenland was set for completion Oct. 10 instead of Oct. 1. Everyone promised a vote later and guarantees for the rest of Czecho­ slovakia—promises that were never carried out. It took 13 hours to arrange the details. Quick With Pen After a few hours' sleep, Chamberlain brought Hitler a pledge that the agreement before was "symbolic of the desire of our two peoples never to go to war with one another again." Hitler was quick to sign. "I believe it is peace in our lime," Chamberlain told a jubilant crowd when he returned to London. Less than six months later Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia, and six months after that he invaded Poland. Britain and France then declared war. What France and Britain should have done in the Munich crisis still is controversial. In his history of the period, Winston Churchill speaks of the "tragedy of Munich" and says: "For the French government to leave her faithful ally, Czechoslovakia, to her fate was a melancholy lapse from which flowed terrible consequences. The British government not only acquiesced but encouraged the French government in a fatal course." Had the French honored their pledge to fight for Czechoslovakia, many people believe, Britain and the Soviet Union would have followed suit. The Czechs had a considerable army. Generals Ready Inside Nazi Germany a conspiracy of generals, already organized, might then have toppled Hitler and prevented World War II. Others think Chamberlain did as well as could be expected. Lord Home, Britain's present foreign secretary, was with Chamberlain in Munich. In a recent interview with the London Observer, he said: "I think the main thing to grasp is that Chamberlain like many others saw communism as the major longterm danger. He hated Hitler and German fascism, but he felt that Europe in general and Britain in particular were in even greater danger from communism." His views are largely shared by Paul Schmidt, German Foreign Ministry official who was chief interpreter between Hitler and Chamberlain. Schmidt, now 64, heads a private school for interpreters. "Today, 25 years after the signing of the Munich agreement," he told The Associated Press, "I still believe as I did most sincerely in September 1938 that the Big Four of Munich achieved a result which was beneficial to mankind as a whole. "Munich 1938 was a good thing although it was short-lived and ended in disaster less than a year later as a result of Hitler's betrayal and his policy of brinkmanship, the failure of which should serve as a lesson to all present day brinkmen." Henderson Family Returns from West HENDERSON — Mr. and Mrs. Harry Paul have returned home from a 4-week trip in the West. They spent two weeks visiting a niece at Delano, Calif. They visited relatives in Santa Fe and Albuquerque, N.M. and Paul's brother in Newton, Kan. Move To Henderson Mr. and Mrs. Forrest Mahnesmith and Diana 12, Stephen 8 and Timothy 1 have moved into the Richard Morris house. They formerly lived in Coldbrook. Mahncsmith works for the Jergen Plumbing firm of Monmouth. Cook a package of frozen cauliflowerets and add it to creamed shrimp for an interesting flavor combination. Ecumenical Council Convenes Sunday By LOUIS CASSELS ROME (UPI) — Actions of far- reaching importance to the world's 500 million Roman Catholics—and to millions of non- Catholics who seek Christian unity—will be taken at the second session of the Vatican Ecumenical Council which convenes Sunday. Among the major items on the council's agenda are proposals to: —Allow parts of the mass to be said in English or other modern languages. —Decentralize the administration of the church. —Encourage Catholic biblical study. —Give the laity a more important role in Catholic life. —Place the church unequivocally on record in favor of religious liberty for all men. —Modify canon laws on mixed marriages. Both Catholics and Protestants are hopeful that the council's labors will smooth the pathway toward eventual reunion of the divided Christian family. But the primary objective of the council, proclaimed by the late Pope John XXIII and forcefully reiterated by Pope Paul VI, is internal reform—the "renewal and modernization" of the Catholic church itself. The first completed document to emerge from the council may deal with liturgical reforms, including the long-awaited permission to use the language of the people rather than Latin in some portions of the mass. While its contents are still officially secret, it is known that the liturgical document retains Latin for the central portions of the mass—the offertory, consecration and communion—but grants wide latitude to national episco­ pal conferences to authorize use of modern languages in other portions of the service, including the scripture lessons and many of the prayers and chants. There is no doubt that bishops will be quick to advantage of this permission, and it is probably only a mutter of months before American Catholics will be able to participate, in English, in large portions of their Sunday worship. Of less immediate popular interest, but far greater potential significance, is a proposal to decentralize the administration of the church by vesting more discretionary powers in local bishops and national episcopal conferences, §uch as the National Catholic Welfare Conference in the United Slates. Pope Paul has said that this is the most important proposal before the council, and has made plain his desire that his "fellow bishops" be accorded substantially greater authority and prestige. The result could be a sharp reduction in the vast powers exercised in the name of the pope by the ecclesiastical bureaucrats of the Curia. Another major document likely to receive early mention is schema No. 1, dealing with Divine revelation. The original version of this document was drafted by the Curia's holy office, the "watchdog of orthodoxy," headed by the leader of the council's conservatives, Alfredo Cardinal Ottaviani. It strongly reiterated the assertion—which is anathema to Protestants—that oral tradition is on a par with scripture as a source of Christian doctrine. It indirectly but unmistakably condemned the biblical scholarship movement which has burgeoned in the Catholic church in recent years, and which has done more than any other one thing to bring Catholics and Protestants into a fruitful doctrinal dialogue. Progressive influence on the committee work done during the council recess is evident in the fact that one of the 17 schemata deals exclusively with "the lay apostolate"—that is, the rights and duties of laity in the over-all mission of the church. Also of particular concern to American Catholics is a declaration on religious liberty which will be placed before the council by Cardinal Bea. It will place the Catholic church officially on record, for the first time, as holding that every human being has an inviolable right to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience and that every government (including the governments of predominantly Catholic countries) should recognize and protect religious liberty. One of the 17 "schemata" which survived the boiling down process deals with "the sacrament of marriage." Richard Cardinal Cushing, archbishop of Boston, has publicly voiced hope that the council will modify the canon law which requires the non-Catholic partner to a mixed marriage to sign a prenuptial pledge that all children will be reared as Catholics. The cardinal said this requirement has caused a great deal of friction and hasn't done much good, because it is often honored in the breach. The last of the 17 "schemata" is a catch-all document entitled "presence and activity of the church in the modern world." Its contents have not been made public, but the word is that it will cover a wide range of current topics, including such controversial ones as population control, nuclear disarmament, relations with Communist regimes, and racial justice. Neiv Windsor Group Works on Vets Project NEW WINDSOR-P i c c i n g blocks for knee robes, which will later be sent to veterans hospitals, and sewing rug rags, occupied the 17 members of Unit 80 of the War Mothers at meeting Sept. 23. Mrs. Emil Johnson was hostess to the group. Mrs. Alma Vanstrom, Mrs. Emily Enstrom and Mrs. C. C. Mead, social workers, assisted in the sewing. A donation of $10 was voted to the state project. Visit in Edenburg ALEXIS—Mr. and Mrs. Harold (Jess) Robbins and there two children of Viola and Ray Richardson of Alexis spent Sept. 1 in Edenburg with Mrs. Richardson's folks, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Hil- cheth and family. Mrs. Richardson wasn't able to make the trip, as she has been quite ill all summer. Postal Group Meets NEW WINDSOR—Mr. and Mrs. Percy Thomas attended the meeting of the Stark County Rural Letter Carriers Sept. 23 at the clubhouse at Lake Calhoun at LaFayette. the CATS out oftheBAO irfcdis ... With their \a It "\ ,>, ,i v>>, r W v. m A # t U r F ,4 , *l i ! j . t > ' 1.» This Is the Largest Dividend Ever Paid By A Western Illinois Savings And Loan Institution. i CUi' WHIM MMMtf Hit If If WNMTIfl Week anted ^J4ome5tead Of cjCoan ^A^iAociation 250 Eait Main Street oan Galesburg, Illinois Coll 342-4145

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