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Nuclear Terrorism: Thinking the Unthinkable FUNNY BUSINESS Distributed by the Iowa Daily Press LONDON — Sooner or later, say the calmaity-howlers, a bunch of terrorists is going to lay hands on an atomic bomb, and there will be hell to pay. More reasoned warnings come periodically from people who have been connected with the scientific aspects of nuclear devices. Two recent statements from American authorities have focused on the two separate parts of the problem: the rapid increase in the supply of material that could be used as an explosive ("active material", in the jargon), and the security of the weapons themselves. The central feature of both reports is that the production of active material is the secret and difficult part; making a weapon once you have got it is easier. Plutonium or enriched uranium will begin a sustained chain reaction when there are enough atoms together — in other words, when it is in a sufficiently big lump. If such a lump, known as critical mass, is created rapidly enough it explodes. The simplest technique for doing this is to assemble two masses, each slightly smaller than critical size, put one in each end of a tube such as a gun barrel with shielding between them, and then blast them together by conventional explosives at the appointed time. This was roughly the technique used in the Hiroshima bomb of 1945. Of course, it is fairly crude, and has been replaced in all modern weapons by an arrangement known as "implosion". Here a sligntly sub-critical mass is suspended in the exact center of a hollow sphere of high explosive. The sphere might be two feet in diameter, the active material as big as a large orange. The high explosive is detonated at all points simultaneously (a considerable technical problem), and the force of the explosion compresses the aactive material so that it goes critical rapidly — and poof. Because of the technical difficulties, creating an implosion weapon is quite beyond most terrorist groups or even most nations. The best use a terrorist could make of a captured weapon would be to remove the active material for reassembly into a gun bomb. However, it would require several of these small nuclear Times Herald, Carroll, la. .V\onc»jy, April 29, 1974 8 cores from impolsion weapons to make a big enough lump for a gun-barrel bomb, easier said than done. Nuclear weapons are kept under extremely tight guard, they are heavy and they can be detected some distance away unless speically shielded. The second possibility for getting enough active material together is to get it from an operating reactor. Reactor fuel itself is not sufficiently concentrated for weapons purposes, but towards the end of their life the fuel rods in some kinds of reactors becomes impregnated with a high enough concentration of plutonium. The trick here is to know when the rods are being removed for disposal, and steal them then. The big problem a thief would have with stolen nuclear weapons or fuel rods would be to get the active material into the right shape for his .gun bomb. All sorts of highly specialized shielding, handling equipment and machinery are required. Otherwise anyone fooling about with it is more likely to kill himself than anyone else. Plutonium is one of the nastiest and most highly poisonous substances known toman. Besides making a bomb, there are other possibilities for the terrorist. A lump of plutonium in the ventilation duct of a building would probably not kill eveyone breathing in the building, as is sometimes suggested. But a piece, say, as big as a golf ball blown to pieces at Times Square by a five-pound block of gelignite would certainly cause a lot of radiation casualties. The United States in particular has tried to account for every gram of plutonium it has ever produced (plutonium does not occur in nature; it is all man-made). Despite that, enough has been "lost by inventory" since 1945 to make a bomb. It is certainly not all in one place, but the idea is disquieting. As nuclear material proliferates through new reactors, the prospect of terrorists getting hold of it, and using it, increases. Technical and security safeguards should make that possibility distinctly remote but it is great enough to warrant the world taking a lot more notice. The Kcnnomisl of London HD IT'S HIS TORM TO Combines Home Lif e and Business Operating the family-owned ice cream distributing company is a joint venture between Mr. and Mrs. Raphael Wolterman. Mrs. Wolterman 1 handels the bookkeeping, and her husband takes care of the route work. Their home, as well as Wolterman's Distributing Company, is located at 314 N. Clark. The couple has lived in Carroll for about 15 years. They purchased the business 11 years ago. They have five children — Peggy. 16. Daryl. 15. Beth. 11. Todd. 8. and Craig. 5. Mrs. Wolterman finds it convenient to have the business and home at the same location. This way. she can work in the office and be near the younger children. She had worked as a bookkeeper in various jobs before. Within the last year, Mrs. Wolterman has taken up two new activities, bowling in the Tuesday afternoon league and serving as treasurer 6f the Holy Spirit Women's Guild. Rowling is a relaxing pasttime, Mrs. Wolterman laid. Reading and sewing clothes for herself and children are other activities she enjoys. Mrs. Wolterman said she would like to do more of both, but doesn't have the time. Helping care for the business, home and children leaves a shortage on spare time. One of the favorite family activities is to invite a few friends over to grill steaks in their backyard patio during the summer. The Wolterman's are presently planning a vacation to Silver Dollar City this summer. There home and office have been redecorated within the past few years. Mrs. Wolterman took charge of some of the changes, such as papering walls. "I had the ideas, but a carpenter did all the work." Mrs. Wolterman said. She classified her family as meat and potato eaters. Below are a few recipes the family prefers. The chocolate cake is prepared simply. Just combine the ingredients and bake as for any other cake. Beef Stroganoff 1 Ib. round steak or sirloin tip. cut into thin strips or cubes '2 cup sliced onion 2 tbls. margarine 1 can mushroom soup J 2 cup sour cream 1 3 cup water In skillet, brown meat and onion in margarine. Stir in soup, sour cream and water. Cover and simmer 45 minutes or until tender. Stir occasionally. Serve over noodles. Counter Talk -Staff Photo Displayed on.the wall of Mrs. Raphael Wolterman's kitchen is a collection of cups. She also has another collection of cups and matching saucers. Apple or Rhuoarb Upside Down Cake I 1 1 cup flour 1 "4 tsp. baking powder i egg :i i cup sugar 4 tbls. butter 'L- cup milk Place apples or rhubarb in the bottom of a pan. Sprinkle with sugar and dot with butter. Add topping. Bake at 350-400 degrees one hour or until brown. Chocolate Cake 2 cups sugar 3 cups flour 4 tbls. cocoa 1 tsp. salt 2tsp. baking soda :t -i cup shortening 2 cups water 2 tbls. vinegar 1 tsp. vanilla Bananas, if not eaten out of hand, are generally used for desserts, breads or salads. Some of the 11 billion bananas eaten annually in the United States become meat accompaniments. Bananas add a subtle flavor to cold or grilled sandwiches, Baked or broiled, this nutritious fruit goes well with ham. chicken, pork or lamb. For either variation, brush peeled bananas With malted lowaii Named a 'Star Farmer' DAVENPORT. Iowa (AP)—A 19-year-old Stacyville man has been named "Star Iowa Farmer" by the Iowa Future Farmers of America (FFA). Frederick Hardy received the Iowa FFA's top award at the group's 46th annual leadership conference Saturday. Hardy, a member of the St. Ansgar FFA chapter, owns and operates a 160-acre farm and raises 34 head of dairy stock and 110 hogs. He was selected winner of the award in competition with five other district FFA winners. butter. Whole bananas should be baked for 15 minutes at 375 degrees, just until tender. Cut bananas for broiling in half lengthwise and broil for about two minutes without turning. Top broiled bananas with chili for a new.flavor in an old favorite. Below are recipes to spark ideas for serving bananas in main dishes. Ham, Banana and Cheese Roll-ups Roll 1 slice ham around whole peeled banana. Place on a baking sheet and top with 1 slice process cheese. Place under broiler until cheese melts slightly. YIELD: 1 serving. Banana and Chicken Barbecue 1 broiler-fryer chicken, quartered 3 4 cup barbecue sauce 2 tablespoons minced onion 3 medium bananas Place chicken skin side up in a shallow 3-quart casserole or baking dish. Mix barbecue sauce and onion. Spoon 3 /4 of sauce over chicken and bake in 375 degree F. oven for 50 minutes. Remove from oven. Peel bananas and cut into chunks: add to casserole. Sppon remaining sauce over bananas and return to oven; bake'for 10 minutes. Serve immediately. YIELD: 4servings. West Branch Hit by Twister, 11 Hurt By The Associated Press Repair crews were busy Monday picking up the debris of four tornadoes which struck east-central Iowa Sunday night. Eleven persons were injured and at least 15 mobile homes were destroyed when a twister roared through a trailer court in West Branch about 7:30 p.m. A twelfth person was reportedly injured when the twister swept past the West Branch Country Club. The tornado was one of three sighted in Cedar County, while the fourth touched down in Clinton County. Eight of the injured were treated and released from an Iowa City hospital while another four remained hospitalized, officials said. The twister that struck the West Branch Trailer Court a mile north of town wiped out 15 of the 22 mobile homes in the park. Damage was also reported to two homes and several business places in West Branch, where trees were toppled and windows blown out of at least three stores. Ambulance crews were sent to the scene, assisted by the Iowa Highway Patrol. Johnson and Cedar County sheriffs' officers and the American Red Cross. Electric power in the area failed shortly before the twister touched down, hampering later rescue efforts. Power crews worked into the night to restore power while heavy wind and rain continued. C. G. Brown, West Branch fire department dispatcher, said the tornado "roared like a train" for about five minutes before passing through the area. Authorities said a tornado also touched down at Hills south of Iowa City, causing an unidentified family to flee from their mobile home which reportedly was flipped over three times. The public reported a twister near Bennett at 8:15 p.m. and another near Durant 10 minutes later. The two Cedar County communities are about 25 miles apart. No damage was reported and authorities believed neither touched the ground. In Camanche. an Aerial Tornado Alert System failed because of a power outage. While attempting to activate a backup warning system, two policemen, a fireman and an unidentified man were injured when a compressed air cylinder exploded. They were treated and released from a Clinton hospital, suffering burns and cuts about the face and chest. Ace Club Talks On Iowa 2000 ARCADIA — The feature "Iowa 2000" was presented at the Ace Club meeting held in the home of Mrs. Emil Grundmeier Thursday afternoon. In charge of the meeting was Mrs. Warren Andersen. Assisting her with four topics were Mrs. Wilbur Schroeder, natural resources, Mrs. Anna Marie Liechti, life enhancement, Evelyn Hoick, economic development. The Energy topic was given by Mrs. Andersen. Questions and discussion followed the topic presentation. Sixteen members and one guest, Mrs. Ralph Niehaus answered roll call with their favorite place in Iowa. Mrs. Stanley Grundmeier , president announced the orientation on upholstering will be held at the Extension Room on May 3. It was decided that the new officers will serve until August of 1975 so that the new club year can begin in September of each year. A game presented by Mrs. Alvin Anderson was won by Mrs. Warren Andersen. Mrs. Agnes Kruse received the hostess gift. Lunch was served by Mrs. Grundmeier assisted by her daughter. Mrs. Clifford Bruggeman will host the May 16 meeting. The piano and organ pupils of Mrs. Harvey Freese presented their Spring Variety Prog-am at the Ar-We-Va Grade School in Arcadia April 21. Many parents of the 28 students, relatives and friend were in attendance. Refreshments were served following the program and a free wil'l donation totaling $23 was received to be presented to the Arcadia Planned Recreational Projec.. Columbia Divorce Forbidden By Jorge Canelas BOGOTA, Colombia (AP) — Divorce is still a forbidden word in Colombian courts, but a rising middle class is pushing for it and other changes in a typical conservative, Catholic-inspired society. A survey by the Colombian Data Co", a sort of local Gallup, found that 62 per cent of the male population in the country's four main cities want divorce in Colombia. This percentage is basically established in the middle class. In the traditionally conservative Colombia these findings are likely to cause displeasure. However they reflect the passing of time. Not only divorce, but virginity, the pill and politicis are being re-examined by the younger generation of this country's 23 million people. The change toward a permissive society seems to be in sight. Eighty per cent of the student population, male and female, are pro-divorce, while 48 per cent of the housewives favor divorce. Recently other surveys showed that 72.1 per cent of today's Colombian women and 73.4 pent of the men have a liberal attitude regarding virginity. Birth control is encouraged by 85.9 per cent of the women and 83.7 per cent of the men. Divorce has been a topic of Congressional discussions for years. Despite the trend favoring it, the chances are it will not be included in the country's codes in the immediate future. A new Concordat with the Holy See to replace the one signed last century is ending a Middle Ages requirement which demanded "public adjuration" to the Catholic faith before a judge prior to a civil wedding. Both the influential Catholic hierarchy and the ruling two-party coalition are against divorce. Oddly enough, an important segment of the male population in the upper social class also is opposing it, though on different grounds: the lack of a divorce legislation in a country where civil marriage only exists as an exception encouragessuccessive weddings with no need for divorce. A civil marriage abroad is not a bar to a Catholic wedding here. TOUCH-TONE Bargain on Touch-Tone Service. Any three Touch-Tone home phones just $5.95 a month plus your basic telephone service charge. I Northwestern Bell 'Arrogance Grips Grass Roots Politics By Tom Tiede Upper Saddle River, N.J. (NEA) — Last autumn I asked the government of my small community for permission to walk in the local park after dark. It seemed silly to have to request such authorization, but a municpal law prohibits park use after sundown and I supposed if I didn't want to be thrown in the slam or worse, I had better seek exemption from the rule, even it it was dumb. To date, six months later, the government has not replied. It is as if my request and myself did not exist. I know the communication was received, for the government said early on it was a reasonable appeal which would be granted. It was note granted. It was ignored. And I walk in the park these days outside the law. This is admittedly a small matter in the affairs of men. I am admittedly suffering none but a bruised ego. Yet there are implications here which, in this period of governmental instability, reach beyond my village of 6,000 highly regulated souls. Polls indicate only 25 per cent of the people now believe in the President of the Republic; they also indicate only 21 per cent of the people have faith in the Congress of the United States. Were the polls to ask for belief in local governments, I believe the percentage of yeas would be even more disparagingly low. Despite lack of support for the federal electeds, they at least have popular interest and some 60-70 per cent of the eligible voters turn out for all national elections. By contrast, the vote in most local elections seldom rises above abysmal levels as the electorate stays away in legions. Politicians at the local level believe the reason for public aloofness is public apathy. "Who wants to get involved with things like sewer contracts and garbage collection?" Yet this is the knee jerk appraisal, and though it may considerably accurate it is not the whole of the answer. It may well be the public is not interested in local government largely because it is frustrated with it. There is a gentleman in my town, for'instance, who decied some years ago to question the local government about the dumping of refuse at the stream near his home. He pointed out that the municipal dumping w.as blocking the stream, creating a swamp, and moreover was inviolation of state codes concerning the natural flow of rivers. He went to 'the council meetings and was ignored. He mailed letters ,and was ignored. He telephoned officials and was ignored. Further, he was branded a public idiot, a chronic complainer, and an enemy by the men elected to serve his interests. As it happened, the gentleman above continued complaining, finally winning vindication and retribution by going over the locals to state authority. But he is the exception. Most people, once ignored or put down by local officials, steal off to lick their wounds, never to be seen again. The truth is observable in virtually any town council meeting in the nation; if a chap gets up with a complaint, and unless he has backers, money, considerable fortitude, or a degree in public speaking, he is often greeted with yawns. As a reporter covering such meetings in many locales, I've seen elected officials browbeat such people with an arrogance and delight that comes only with a bit of power and gavel-down muscle. The situation does not limit itself to community council meetings. Community schools often practice an exclusionary arrogance that borders on an "anti-parent" philosophy. Clerks in many community agencies practice a grim-faced, off-hand, demeaning public service that suggests they are_beneath their station in life and-or perhaps they have better things to do than their jobs. And city halls themselves are very often not people oriented but paper oriented; my local hall opens at 9 and closes at 4, almost perfect hours if the wish is to discourage visits from the working mail — and another city hall of my acquaintance, in Newark, is so dark and dank and unfriendly the people of the town stay away purposely. In this atmosphere, then, it is no wonder people ignore their governments. And so it develops, fairly naturally, the governments begin to ignore the people. Though most community officials are still required by law to make public decisions in public, the fact is the decisions are increasingly made in private. Councils or Supervisors or Selectmen hold secret "executive sessions" where the real business is done. The open meetings, to a greater and greater degree, are used merely to trumpet decisions to a few hardy spectators. The system is not of course meant to function this way. In early American — read it less populated and simpler America — people decided their public business in Town Meetings. Today some town in New England still carry on the tradition. I recall attending one where the village clerk had to rise before 500 of her townfolk and ask for a raise. One after another the folk, citing poor work and absenteeism, said no. It was bad for the clerk, but a grand display of people deciding the people's business. Unfortunately, there is no way most communities can return to the first principles of community democracy. There are too many citizens now to assemble much else than their mechanical vote. Yet if the Town Meeting system cannot be revived, that part of its philosophy dealing with individualism must be. Two years from now the nation celebrates its Bicentennial birthday. How better than for its citizens to recall and then insist on the implementation of a line from Thoreau: "There will never be a really free and enlightened state until it comes to recognize the individual as a higher and independent authority . . . and treats him accordingly." CLUB TO MEET Cards and crafts for senior citizens will be offered at the monthly meeting of the Friends and Neighbors Club Thursday, Mav 2, at 1:30 p.m. in the OutReach Center of Community Opportunities, Inc. GOOD NEWS m First FUTURA sewing machine sale ever! with , carrying case 900/581 Exclusive Singer built-in one-step buttonholer xclusive Singer * ush-bulton Iron in bobbin Advanced Ijjiur.j lectures include: Exclusive Sm^er' see-thru bobbin window, 22 built-in inierch.inge.ihle stitches, .1 ili.il controls, even-feed loot, more! FASHION MATE xig-xag sewing machine REG. 119.95 Model 252 CARRYING CASE OR CABINET EXTRA SINGER Sewing Centers and participating Approved Dealers For store nearest you, see the yellow pages under SEWING MACHINES. •A Trademark of THE SINGER COMPANY Copyright <0 1974 THE SINGER COMPANY. All Rights Reserved Throughout the World.