Page 3 article text (OCR)
Daily Times Herald EDITORIALS Friday, April 5, 1974 Subject Freedom College students, or at least a bunch of them who were queried at Iowa State University, have some curious ideas about what "academic freedom" means. According to a report on a survey by sociologists Dwight G. Dean and Brent T. Bruton in Human Behavior magazine, of 606 students enrolled in their introductory sociology classes, only 12 could write an acceptable one- sentence definition of the term. All the rest thought it meant "freedom for students, not faculty." No less than 419 of the students thought academic freedom meant freedom from required courses. Numerous others said it was the right to attend the college of their choice or the right to personal off-campus freedom or the right to have a say in the hiring of teachers. One student came up with what is perhaps the definitive "undefinition" of academic freedom by writing that it is "the freedom to study what/I want, when I want to, if I want to." If students don't understand the term, the sociologists ask, "what can we expect of the general public?" Well, the genera) public has a more than acceptable record in this matter of permitting the untrammeled pursuit of truth in the groves of academe, despite some rather extreme expressions of that freedom, by both faculty and students, on some campuses in recent years. A more pertinent question may be, if these 606 less 12 students at Iowa State and their counterparts elsewhere haven't learned what academic freedom means by the time they leave college, what can the general public expect of them? Tax Loopholes In 1970, according to Internal Revenue Service figures, Americans reported $806 billion in personal income. But more than half this sum $465 billion - was untaxed. Dr. Roger A. Freeman, a senior fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace and author of numerous books in the field of public finance, compared the current tax laws with a huge sieve. They let half of what is supposed to be collected slip away through "loopholes" - special provisions, exclusions, exemptions and deductions - which whittle down taxable income. Some proponents of tax reform call for the elimination of many, if not all, of these special provisions. Well- known tax critic Philip M. Stern, for instance, advocates "abolishing all the preferences or loopholes for the unrich many as well as for the wealthy few." Before Americans hop on the bandwagon in an effort to recover these untaxed billions, however, Freeman would remind them that, historically, many "loopholes" were written into the tax laws to benefit the "unrich many." "Most of these tax differentials," he says, "aim at providing greater equity among taxpayers by taking into account differing circumstances and offering relief for hardships. They also serve to provide incentives to taxpayers to engage in our enlarge activities which are held to be desirable as matter of public policy." To name only a few of those that benefit middle- and lower-income families: Interest on mortgage payments. Interest on consumer loans. Finance charges on credit purchases. Property taxes. State and local income, sales and gasoline taxes. Deferred profits on sale of a residence. Medical payments. Alimony payments. Exemptions for dependent children over 18 who qualify as students. Freeman agrees that special exemptions which benefit only a smalt number of taxpayers should be repealed, but cautions against wholesale repeal of the present provisions which would affect millions of middle- and lower- income families. "When these people see their existing privileges threatened,'^ he says, "they will rise in wrath to defend their established benefits. What some regard as a 'loophole' is to others a birthright, an indispensible lifesaver and a means of achieving tax parity with others." Barb's "Springtime" is when your lawyer brings the bail money to get you out of the slammer. A new groom sweeps clean — til the luster of the honeymoon wears off. Dear Abby t,f J M. ^f "• J — Advice on His Generosity Stands •VK > -m » • V "•" 7 „ 1 ". . .pleased to meet you!' Washington Notebook Make Room for Japan Bruce Biossat 'By Biossat OITA, Japan (NEA) - I have seen tomarrow's steel mill, and it works. Here on the northeastern shore of Japan's Kyushu island, a new plant is rising which in time will be one of the two or three largest and best in the world. This country] already produces more than 100 million tons of steel a year and is chasing hard after the United States and Russia, the only nations which surpass it. The feat is being managed though the Japanese must import 99 per cent of their iron ore and more than 82 per cent of the coking coal used in the steel-making process. The Oita works is the newest of 10 belonging to Nippon Steel Corporation, the country's top producer. It is one of many modern, waterside plants whose volume of output and quality of product are helping Japan sweep the world with its steel exports. This plant, like numerous others in these islands with incredibly long, winding shorelines, is built upon land 80 per cent of which was reclaimed from the sea. In addition, it stretches an angular pier out into the water to allow two 300,000-ton and one 200,000-ton ore carriers to dock at the same time. it is intended to be the most pollution-free steel plant that can be built. At every stage of the materials- handling and manufacturing process, there are sprinklers and dust-catching mechanisms at work, settling or trapping the deadly dust. Super-tall stacks carry the cleansed by-product fumes high into the air, and sensitive recorders around the plant and at eight key locations in the surrounding countryside carefully measure polluting elements so the makers can keep the air at acceptable levels. Already the Oita works is bordered by 100,000 young trees in a developing green belt, and eventually the tree plantings in and around the factory area will reach one million. Right now, 2,000 ducks are berthed at small ponds on the ground. Beyond the small, old town of Oita, Nippon Steel is erecting a modern housing project to hold more than 1,500 famines. It is part of the mammoth Akeno housing complex of apartments, houses, shopping, recreational and other facilities rising at the edge of Oita. Just the anti-pollution equipment is figured by plant officials to cost up to 13 per cent of the total plant development expenditure. Still, the sums involved are unquestionably moderate when set beside the cost of installing anti-pollution devices in existing steel mills build without them. A place like the giant Oita works can absorb this large initial cost because its output will be so great and its processes so thoroughly automated and computerized. Right now, with just one blast furnace (making iron), two basic oxygen furnaces (converting huge slabs into long, coiled sheet steel), Oita is producing 3.5 million tons of steel a year. When additional furnaces and rolling mills are finished (a second blast furnace is already under construction), Oita will be able to turn out an enormous 13 million tons of steel a year. Only Nippon Kokan's Fukuyama plant, with a projected 15 million tons annually, will be larger in Japan. The scale of things of Oita taxes belief. Two great unloaders at the slender dock can take 5,000 tons of iron ore per hour from berthed vessels. Belt conveyors carry the ore (and the coking coal) first to storage yards and then to the top of the blast furnace. Only four men are needed to run the conveyors, which themselves have a capacity of 6,500 tons an hour and stretch over what amounts to more than 15 miles. Later there'll be a third unloader, and much more storage space. The single blast furnace now working is a phenomenon. It produces 10,000 tons of pig iron a day (roughly four or five times as much as any the United States had when World War II began). Oita's second blast furnace will have a capacity of 12,000 tons a day. The plant, like others in Japan and a very few in the U.S., is integrated — with raw materials flowing in at one end and finished steel products emerging at the other, ready for loading on ships for export or consumption in Japan's big urban centers. Oita unmistakably is the perfect example of what has made the Japanese "economic miracle" of the late 20th century. By Abigail Van Buren DEAR ABBY: Your outdated advice to the woman whose husband wanted her to have sex with other men really irked me. I'd have advised her to ask her husband why he wanted to share her. If it was because he didn't love her and wanted to get rid of her, then I fully agree, she shouldn't put up with it. But, did you ever stop to think that maybe the husband enjoyed her so much in bed that he wanted to show A b b y others what a great wife he has? Or it's possible that his sexual enjoyment may really be heightened if she has sex with other men? Please don't call this perverted, or say that this man needs a psychiatrist. He doesn't need one. Read the sex manuals. This is an accepted sex practice and is widely accepted nowadays. SEE THE LIGHT DEAR SEE: I'm sorry I cannot agree with you. No man in our culture who truly loves his wife wants her to have sex with other men. If his own sexual enjoyment is heightened by Your Personal Finance Step Ahead of Next Crash If you're feeling a little nervous about the state of our economy these days, you've got good company. One afternoon not long ago, a member of the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission in Washington picked up his phone and called the attorney for a bond fund on the West Coast. It's a fund that Smith restricts investments to bonds and other securities of the very highest quality, and it heavily emphasizes safety and liquidity. You could say it's conservative — or you might say it's running scared. "I've been reading your prospectus," said the SEC staffer, "and I had a question about your procedure for redemptions. It says that when shares are redeemed, the shareholder will ordinarily be paid by a check on your bank — or payment may be made by postal money order. What does that mean?" "Gee, I thought it was clear enough," said the attorney for the fund. "We either send the shareholder a check, when he wants shares redeemed, or we might pay him by postal money order." "Yes, said the SEC man, "but why postal money orders?" Pause on the phone. "Well," said the fund's attorney, "if the banks were clossed..." "That's what I thought it meant," said the SEC staffer and thoughtfully hung up. That's how thing look them on Hamilton Avenue in Palo Alto, Cal., where the Capital Preservation Fund has its offices. The no-load bond fund (no sales commissions) has been operating on the principle that things were bad, and getting worse, since James M. Benham got it started a year and a half ago. As the fund's name suggests, preservation of capital is the name of today's game, to Benham, and the bit about postal money orders is part of his precautionary view. "If the banks are closed," he says, Polly's Pointers Are Litter By Polly Cramer DEAR POLLY - Our Pet Peeve is with those businesses and organizations who place advertisements on car windshields, back of the wipers. They usually end up littering the streets and parking lots. In winter they often freeze to the windshield and are hard to remove. Such advertising should be done in the papers and magazines. POLLY - BARBARA. DEAR POLLY — Marlyne wrote that she wanted to remove tar from a suede belt and I had the same problem with a purse and dipped a toothbrush in a little vinegar, brushed it into the suede, left it overnight until dry and then brushed it again. I hope this works as well for her. - PEGGY B. DEAR GIRLS and Marlyne - Test the effect of the vinegar first. Many authorities suggest scraping as much of the tar off as possible, when the material is dry cleanable. Then sponge with a cleaning fluid. This process, or any other, may have to be repeated. -- POLLY. POLLY'S PROBLEM DEAR POLLY - Our family disagrees about where the cherished pictures of relatives should be hung. The others say in a bedroom or den — By Carlton Smith "what good is a check on our bank to one of shareholders?" (The fund writes its checks, incidentally, on a $2 billion bank. Nothing there to make Benham nervous.) "But there's one way we can always turn shares into cash," he went on. "Our custodian takes Treasury Bills, for example, down to the Federal Reserve window. The Federal Reserve is the agent of the U.S. Treasury; it has to give us cash for our Treasury Bills, as long as the government is solvent. "Then our custodian takes the cash to the post office, buys a money order, and sends it to our shareholder. And — again, as long as the government is solvent — you're going to be able to get cash at a post office for a postal money order." Well, that's certainly covering all our exits. But how seriously is Benham worried about the possibility of banks closing? "If we can get to the point of waiting in line for gas," he replies, "what's so unthinkable about waiting in line for money? You know, I was a Federal Reserve bank examiner, years ago, before I got into the mutual funds business, and I never got out of the habit of reading 'statements of condition'. Here Benham shuffled through some papers and held up a pair of statements clipped from newspapers. Both were from large, West Coast savings and loan associations. "Look at this one. Total assets, one and a third billion dollars. Of that, the cash and liquid assets are $64 million. "Now, look down Here under the liabilities. 'Advances from Federal Home Loan Bank, $108 million'. In other words, it doesn't have any real cash, or liquid assets of its own. It's borrowed the whole amount — and more — from the government." He displayed another one. "Cash, government securities and such, $29 million. Now look down here: Borrowed from the Home Loan Bank, $29 million. Look at almost any statement of condition and you'll see about the same thing. The 'cash on hand' is mostly borrowed money. "If it comes to a real crunch, and the bubble breaks, a lot of institutions are going to be in bad, bad trouble. It could shake up the country's whole monetary system. I'm not predicting it, mind you — but I like to be prepared for the worst." And that's what the SEC man thought he meant, when he phoned to ask about those postal money orders. It's enough to make anybody thoughtful, isn't it? but I believe they should go in the living room where everyone can see our loved ones. My question is which room is used for that customarily. Everyone can do what pleases him but I would like some answers on what the etiquette is, if any, on the subject. - BETTY F DEAR POLLY - To brighten the surroundings for the youngster who sleeps in the bottom bunk bed firmly fasten a piece of heavy cardboard or pressed wood to the underside of the upper bunk. Let the child decorate his own "ceiling" as he likes with wallpaper or magazine cutouts, drawings, etc. — KENNETH. DEAR POLLY - Your column is a favorite of mine and my husband also reads it and often calls my attention to a suggestion he thinks might help me. We have four small boys so need short cuts. When I buy or make a pair of knit slacks or shorts with a tunnel-type waistband that has elastic run through it, after the elastic is in place I stitch, with matching color thread, a seam up and down the width of the band in the front, back and on each side. The seams usually blend right into the knit and they keep the elastic from twisting inside the band. They also keep the waistband from turning over while wearing the slacks and they keep the gathered fabric evenly spaced on the waistband. - MARION. such a need, it suggests either that he may have unconscious homosexual feelings or that he consciously or un- consciiusly has a need to degrade his wife. DEAR ABBY: What happens to a man when he becomes 59 years of age and wants to be young again? My husband dislikes being addressed as "Grandpa," is now sporting sideburns and a mustache (which he dyes), asked for a bicycle for Christmas, and is shamelessly carrying on a flirtation with a 38-year-old woman. Our 24-year-old daughter, who is a nurse, refers to his behavior as "the male menopause syndrome," and I call it "the fountain of youth disease." What do you call it? CONFUSED DEAR CONFUSED: I call it "geriatriphobia" — fear of growing old. (Don't try to find it in the dictionary — I just made it up.) It's harmless, unless the flirtation has gone beyond the conversation stage. DEAR ABBY: I am not well-known, but I am a professional artist. Abby, you would not believe how many friends and relatives expect me to GIVE them a painting! They don't consider the hours I invest, not to mention the costs, such as canvases, paints, brushes, frames, etc. This is how I make my living, but in spite of all the requests I've had, none of these people have ever bought me as much as a meal. People obviously have the mistaken idea that an artist is supposed to be rewarded just knowing that someone wants to hang his painting. Many other artists have this problem. Help us all and print this letter, please. Also some advice, if you have any. TEXAN DEAR TEXAN: Consider it done. Now, if your friends and relatives get angry with you for refusing to give them a painting — give 'em the brush. Daily Times Herald 508 North Court Street Carroll. Iowa Daily Except Sundays and Holidays other than Washington's Birthday and Veteran's Day. by the Herald Publishing Company. JAMES W. WILSON, Publisher HOWARD B. WILSON. Editor W.L.REITZ, News Editor JAMES B. WILSON. Vice President. General Manager Entered as second-class matter at the post-office at Carroll. Iowa, underthe act of March 2.1897. Member of the Associated Press The Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use for republication of all the local news printed in this newspaper as well as all AP dispatches. Official Paper of County and City Subscription Rates By carrier boy delivery per week $ .60 BY MAIL Carroll County and All Adjoining Counties, where carrier service is not available, per year S20.00 Outside of Carroll and Adjoining Counties in Zones 1 and 2 per year $23.00 All Other Mail in the United Stales, per year $27.00 The Carroll Daily Times Herald is an ABC Daily Newspaper. The number ofsubscribers. recorded daily on permanent records and verified by the nationally recognized Audit Bureau of Circulations guarantees advertisers the paid circulation figures of the Carroll Daily Times Herald are accurate. Only an ABC newspaper can give assurance its stated circulation is accurate. BERRY'S WORLD © 1974 by NEA, Inc. "/n my opinion, at the rate we're going, we may be h&aded for a crisis crisis!"