Corsicana Semi-Weekly Light from Corsicana, Texas on February 14, 1939 · Page 5
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Corsicana Semi-Weekly Light from Corsicana, Texas · Page 5

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t 7 "" ^4^-E *** "'A ')T I TfcE CORSICANA SEMI-WEEKLY LIGHT, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 14, 1989. FIVE MEAD OF CATHOLIC ' CHURCH OF WORLD DIED EARLY FRIDAY POPE PIUS XI PASSED AWAY QUIETLY; NEARING HIS 82ND BIRTHDAY By RICHARD G. MASSOCK '•. VATICAN CITY, Feb. 10. k __(^)_Pope Pius XI, "The Pope of Peace," 261st head of the Church of Rome, died today at dawn just .1 five days after the 17th anniversary of his reign. His frail body, wasted by illness and with features shrunken, WBJS borne in the afternoon to tho red-draped 15th century SIs- tlne chapel, where the new pontiff will be elected, to lie In state for the homage of dignitaries. Tomorrow the body will be taken to St. Peter's Cathedral where the first of nine funeral services will be held Sunday. Burial will be Feb. 15 in St. Peter's. The death of the pontiff, nearly 82, marked an interregnum in the administration of- the church which Eugenlo Cardinal Pacelll will /111 as "chamberlan of the Holy Roman church" until a new pope Is elected. The conclave of cardinals may convene Feb. 23, though It can be called as late as Feb. 28, to choose the successor to Plus XI. Three United States cardinals were expected to leave New York tomor- . row to attend the assembly for the first time as a group. The new pope will be elected by a two-thirds majority of those of the 62 cardinals who attend the conclave. The tlmo of his coronation will depend on how quickly the ballot- Ing Is ended. From tho dead popes' hand Cardinal Pacelll took the fisherman's rfcig, symbol of papal authority. V seal, In a new ring, will be _Jven to the new pope as a sign "of his selection. Dies Just Before Angolus. „ Pope Pius XI died Just before the church bells of old Rome sounded morning Ang'elus. Approaching his 82nd birthday anniversary on May 31, he had been 111 since Tuesday of Cardiac asthma which caused death, although he had weakened gradually in general health since a severe Illness In December, 1936, and another attack, November 25, last year. Dr. Amnlta Milan), called from a sick bed, nodded that the end had come at 5:31 a. m. for the "pope of peace," on the fifth day of the 18th year since his election as head of the Catholic church. During the administration of the last rites witnesses said they saw the pope's lips move. Some close to him thought they heard him say: "Our last rites, like those of al mortals. Sister Thereso of the Infant Jesus, art near to us God Is merciful. May His will bo done." Saint Therese whom Plus can. onlzed was the saint to whom he had entrusted his health. V Death came while the holy father was preparing to embark upon a • new task—an extraordin « /-a*y address tomorrow to all Ital C ian bishops on the tenth anniversary of the Latern accord with Italy—by whichh he became the first pope in 59 years to emerge from the Vatican walls. He had been expected to dea with the status of the concordat Bell Starts Tolling. The news was given officially to all Rome by the deep-throatec "campanone," 11-ton master of the great bell tower on St. Peter's which started tolling Its requiem at 6:33 a. m. The bell sounded for 20 minutes. j At the order of Cardinal Selva glanla, as the pope's vicar in the Rome diocese, proclamations o: death were nailed to the doors of the city's 400 churches. Hla last years were saddened by war between the peoples he rv loved In Spain, by troubles be tween the church and state in Germany, and by the' racial meas urea of the Fascist Italian state Death was believed hastened by his determination to celebrate fit tlngly two proud anniversaries o his reign—that of the Latern trea ty Saturday and the 17th of his coronation on Sunday? Oxygen had been administered last evening after a severe at tack during which the Pontlf: lapsed from consciousness for 31 minutes, but at midnight he was said to be resting easily. A change waa noticed soon af ter 4 a. m. Dr. Flllppo Roechl, who had at tended since Tuesday in the absence of Dr. Milan!, noted a , pulse could hardly be felt and no I \ titled the papal secretary of state Eugenio Cardinal Pacelll, the end was near. Monsignor De Romania, the Pontiff's sacristan, administered extreme unction as Cardinals, Dr Milan!, and other functionaries were summoned hastily. The Pope's nephew, Count Fran co Rattl, Monslgnor Do Romania Cardinal Paoelli, nuraea and a few other dlgnatarles knelt by th> bedside. ' Dr. Archllle Lulgl Bonanome famous urologist, had been sum moned last night about 9 p. m. Shortly afterward, sources close to the pope said, the pope palei a.nd Buffered an attack of asthma Realized End .Near. Persons nearby said the., thought the pontiff finally real Ized the end was near, following an attack of asthma which occur red about mignight. After that, they said, he appeared resigned to death. The Vatican newspaper, Osser- vatore Romano, said the holy fa ther "appreciated the gravity o his condition and evidenced a de i • alre to receive the aacred sacra / ment." ' At 5 a. m. aa the' pope's condl tlon became steadily more alarm Ing, oxygen waa administered for - a second time, f As the oxygen mask was applied to the pontiff's face, Monslgnor Deromanla began reciting prayers while those gathered around th tiff's hand. Start Traditional ent. The Pious passing accurred In fact, a few minutes later. "At 5:30 Monslgnor Dcromanls approached the great pontiff and asked him to repeat with him the admirable Christian prayer, "Jesus, Joseph and Mary, may my soul expire in peace with you.' "Calmly" said the paper, "with a serenity which reflected the purity of a life devoted entirely to God, his holiness, turning his head toward the right yielded up his fine soul to God." After Dr. Mtlanl pronounced the Pope dead, Cardinals Pacelll and Clccla _ Dominion! kissed the pon- Coremony. In the traditional ceremony of the church. Cardinal PacelH, as Interim ruler, made the official pronouncement of death of the 261st popo—born Achille Rattl, the son of an Italian silk worker. As if the pope still lived, Car- Inal Pacelll approached the death* cd and drew back the white veil hat covered the pontiff's face. Flickers of light from dozens of andles fell upon the aged coun- enance. "Achille" called the thin, ascetic :ardlnal who or many years had worked closely with his temporal •uler. The call echoed through tho mall, plain bedroom. No answer. 4 bed knelt Oaaervatore Romano aald the pope attempted to join the rltua with gestures of the head anc hands. At B:20, the narrative continued "the rasping became even mor< , fatiguing and Professor Milan I announced to the grave consterna- r tlon. of those* present that the end must be considered Jmmln- "The pope," said the cardinal, 'is truly dead." In quavering voices those In the room began the "de profundis," chant for the dead: "Out of the depths, O Lord, do I cry unto thee." Cardinal Francesto Marchelll— telvagglanl, the pope's vicar for the Rome diocese, began to say mass In the pope's private chapel a few feet from the death bed. Cardinal Pacelll and the other cardinals removed their violet mantellettas, their distinguishing mark of rank, since they now were more than cardinals—each with a chance to become the next pontiff. Cardinal Pacelll went soon to his offices to start notifying the diplomatic corpa of tho holy see papal representatives abroad, Including Archbishop Clcognanl in Washington, and the American cardinals—O'Connell of Boston and other eastern churches and manifested Interest In all movements of Christian unity. But he made It plain that If this unity was to Include the Roman church t could be consummated only by a return of all other sects to the urladlctton of the Holy See. An encyclical Issued In October, 1928 declared that restoration of the status which existed up to the time of the Lutheran reformation and the secession of the Anglican communion from the Jurisdiction of Rome, waa the only basis he could consider for church unity. Parichln] School Training Favored He emphasized his adherence to the tenet of church education of children when he Issued an encyclical "On the Christian Education of Youth" by putting out the document In modern languages, the first time such a message had been couched In other than the traditional Latin. Its condemnation of co-education caused considerable discussion In the United States, as did Its broad implication that Roman Catholic children should attend none but parochial schools. Plus was zealous for missionary work In all fields and strengthened the Congregation for Propagation of tho Faith. He also revived the biennial World Eucha- rlstlc Congresses, which had languished through the World war years. Starting In 1922 at Rome, these congresses were organized for Amsterdam (1924), Chicago (1926), Sydney (1928), Carthage (1930), Buenos Aires (1934), Manila (1937), Budapest (1938) and Nice (1940.) Plus hailed each successive gathering as an enormous Influence In perpetuating reverence and church loyalty. Fame as "the 'saint maker' came to Pius In the latter yeara of his tenure. A dozen of the 30 names he added to the venerated list were canonized within the "holy year" 1933-34, especially ordained by him to'mark the 1900th anniversary of the passion, death and resurrection of Christ. Among these new saints were Don Giovanni Boaco, Saleslan monk, whoso educational work Is revered throughout Latin America; Thomas More, chancellor to Henry VIII of England, who resisted to martrydom the divorce of the Dougherty of Philadelphia, and j Church of England from the jurls- Mundclein of Chicago. He sent a formal notification to King Vlttorlao Emanuele of ,he ' Holy Sae acknowledged the House of Savoy as the ruling fam- ly of United Italy. The accom- )anying concordat stipulated Ca- hollclsm as the religion of the Italian nation and permitted re- iglous Instrlcton In primary and secondary schools. But Premier Benito Mussolini held this did not abrogate the right of the government to say how children should be trained for citizenship and this dispute, after a sharp I flare-up In 1930, never was fully | resolved. So, too, Pope Plus claimed that decrees of Adolf Hitler's nazi government In Germany, hostile to Catholic Youth organization, waa a violation of the concordat of 1933 Censorship of sermo..., especially after th- absorption of Austria and the annexation of tho Sudetan area of Czechoslovakia, Irked the church. Also the nazl sterilization law was ahhor- cnt to the popo and Hltlorlsm's anti-Semitic measures drew sharp rebukes from him. Spanish Insurgency A "Good Cause." Spain's civil war was a recurring sore spot. The Vatican saw communistic, Italy, s Premier Mussolini and the heads of other states. The cardinals were expected to gather hero as quickly as possible to fix the date for election of a new pope for Feb. 28, since 18 days Is the longest delay allowed for the assembly. The pontiff had had the longest reign of any pope since Leo XIII died in 1903. His tenure was more than twice that if his predecessor, Benedict XV. Elected on Feb. 6, 1922, he was in the fifth day of the 18th year of his stewardship. Funeral Probably Wednesday. The funeral will be In St. Peter's probably the afternoon of Feb. 16, with burial, as the pope wished, in the grottoes of St. Peter's near the tombs of his two Immediate predecessors—Plus X and Benedict XV—and but a few yards from the tomb of St. Peter. Requiem services lasting nine days start Sunday. • Arrangements were made for Sculptor Arelio Mlstruzzl to make a mask of the pontiff and then for the body to be embalmed, dressed and removed to the Sistine chapel for viewing by church and civil dignitaries. Earlier plans to set up the. bier In the throne room were abandoned. The public will be permitted to pay homage later when the body Is placed In St. Peter's in the choir of the chapel with the feet projecting through Iron gates to enable the faithful to kiss his slippers. The great square before St. Peter's was almost devoid of life as the Pontiff breathed his last. Swiss guards stood in door ways leaning on their halberds. Three automobiles swept into the passageway that leads around St. Peter's to the Papal apart- loyaltst Spain and exchanged envoys with the insurgent government organized by Gen Francisco Franco. A Vatican broadcast on August 29, 1930, asserted that multitudes of the faithful In Spain were praying for the triumph of "the good cause", an expression which typified the attitude of the church toward Franco and represented too the resentment over anti-church riot- Ing under the leftist government of the republic. Plus found much to condemn In what he saw as a growth of world Immorality. Lightening of marriage ties by making divorce easy, and the era of high skirts and low necks In women's fash- Ions weer denounced. In fact, he deplored every manifestation of tendencies to change the concept of motherhhood as the chief privilege of women, Including In his denunciation beauty shows, athletic meets for girls and modern dancing. At one time he offered a prize for a design of a modest dress, tho medal going to a model with high neck, long sleeves and ankle-length skirt Plays and musical comedies diction of Rome; Joan of Arc and ) marked by risque situations and ------ lines, sexy novels and "Indecent films" also aroused his wrath. On July 2, 1936, he ordered Roman menta. The guards paid little atten- tlon, other than to make sure the occupants had authority to enter. Other persons summoned to the death bed were within Vatican City and went to the Vatican on foot The Swiss guards in the square were ignorant of the death. They received their first news from an Associated Press correspondent. When, the Cardinals left the death room this morning, a group of Vatican priests known as the Vatican Penitentiaries took charge of the body. Directed by Dr. Milan!, the penitentiaries washed the body with warm perfumed water and It was embalmed, then dressed In the Pontiff's usual robes—a white Cassock, sash with golden tassels, surplice, boship's gown and red papal cap and stole. Biographical Sketch Pope and His Career As "pops of the conciliation," who ended the 69-year-old "Roman question" and regained temporal power for the Vatican; as "saint maker," adding 30 names to the roster of men and women beautified or canonized, and aa "fighting head of the church," denouncing religious persecution,' godlessness and "exaggerated nationalism," Plus XI stood out as one of the most forceful pontiffs of modern times. Elected head of the Roman Cath- ollo church on February 6, 1922, when he was Achille Cardinal Rattl, he became, seven years later, the first pope after Plus IX to reign temporally as well as spiritually, the first pontiff In 69 years to greet paternally the king queer and princes of united Italy, the first head of the church since 1870 to leave the limits of the Vatican. This last step, ending the "prisoner of the Vatican" habits of his four predecessors, he took on July 26, 1926, when he was carried In procession around St. Peter's Square. Significant, too, of the new freedom was a motor trip across Rome on December 20, 1929, to St, John Lateran, "mother churcl of Christendom," to celebrate.a half century of priesthood. The next day, before 70,000 obeerlng devotees, he observed the fiftieth • anniversary of his first mass. Aa a spiritual leader Plua clung to the traditions and prerogatives of his office and the historic noeitlon of the church. When tile "godless" campaign apread through the Soviet Union he made overtures for closer relation* with the Russian Orthodox the French nun, Sister Therese "of the little flower of Jesus". Causes were Initiated later for the possible elevation of several Americana and the first of these, Mother Frances Xavler Cabrlnl, founder' of the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart, was formally beautified In St. Peter's on November 13, 1938 with Cardinal Mundeleln of Chicago as celebrant of tho dedicatory mass. She was the first, United States citizen to bo so honored. Plus took every opportunity to strengthen the church In the United States. He knighted leading laymen, elevated half a dozen sees to archplshoprlcs and, when he established the Pontifical Academy of Sciences In 1936, named six Americans as members of the body. In October, 1937, a quietus was put on a subject which for nearly two years had been causing American comment Rev. Charles E. Coughlln, Detroit's "radio priest" had become the center of a controversy by outspoken opposition to the New Deal policies of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. He climaxed this In the 1936 presidential campaign by calling the President a liar and betrayer, expletives which brought a rebuke from Bishop Gallagher of Detroit and an apology from Father Coughlln. Prayer and protest was the formula of Pius in dealing with the many grave national and International problems which confronted his regime. France, Mexico, the Union of Soviet Socialists Republics, Spain, Italy, Germany, and, after "anschluss" Austria, all posed questions which taxed the diplomacy of the church. Plus fought religious persecution whether of Christian or Jew; *' o fostering of atheism in Russia and of "neo-paganlsm" in Germany, the mediaeval idea revived by totalitarian regimes that the Citizen belonged to the state, rather than vice versa, and Mexican and Spanish constitutional laws which limited the clergy, dispossessed the church of much property and banished many cltl- "zens of its workers. Dramatic Methods In Campaigns Having a high sense of the dramatic, he used deeds and words, both spoken and written, In these campaigns, projecting his Ideas by encyclicals, pastoral letters, radio and, sometimes, by his personal appearances. Hiss mass of expiation for the anti-religious movement In the Soviet Union, said In St. Peter's March 19, 1930, he turned Into a solemn protest which echoed throughout the Christian world. Down through the years he persistently condemned communism, In 1926 he called upon all Christians, regardless of sect, to pray for Mexican Catholics, the hierarchy of that republip having withdrawn the priests from all churches in protests against suddenly enforced constitutional regulations. The controversy lasted three years, flamed at one stage Into open revolt, Involved at another the deportation of all Cath- ollo bishops and aroused proposals of a 'Cathollo boycott against the government. But the pope frowned upon boycotts, ordered his priests to stay out of politics, forbade them to take up arms and when they finally returned to their parishes, they resumed work under a liberalized Interpretation of the laws. President Cardenas of Mexico, In 1838, boasted there was freedom of worship In the country, provided the church "keeps its hands out of governmental affairs." The French questlbn confronted Plus at the start of his reign. The gap between church and gov- enment thee, caused by expulsion of religious orders In 1905, had been bridged only In 1921, when a papal nuncio was returned to Paris. But the structure waa constantly Imperilled by activities If French royalists, all ardent Catholics. Plus braced the bridge Into rigidity by putting "L'Action Fran- catse," official publication of the royalists on the Index, thus banning It as reading for all faithful Catholics, and paved the way for cordial relations between Vatican City and Paris, Controversies with the totalitarian regimes in Italy and Germany hinged largely upon the pope'a Insistent- upon the right of the church to train children In church schools. There were political questions too with Italy, but these were resolved by the Lateran treaties, under which the Catholic bishops throughout the world to censor films shown In their dioceses and to admonish members of the church from attending those which fell under the ban. Less than three months later he said world pictures had liecome "morally better." Stood For European Conciliation. Aiming to conciliate peoples still under the spell of war-time propaganda he urged his views upon the, International conference which assembled In the spring of 1922 at Senoa. He expressed them In a letter to the bishop of that city, sending the missive through the foreign affairs department of the Vatican. The conference embraced 29 European governments, Including the Soviet Union, the first time that the bolshevik regime had been seated at an International council table. The significance of this from the church viewpoint was that the conference was the first to approach postwar questions from a reconstruction angle, Instead of from the viewpoint of reparations or other penalties. The fact that It eventually broke down because Belgium, backed by France, In. sfsted upon restitution for al foreign-owned property confiscated or destroyed in Russia, did not erase the significance of tho pope's letter. Pope Plus XI was born May 31, 1857, at Desio, near Milan, to Francesto and Teresa Rattl, and was baptized Achille. His father was a silk worker who later became manager and then a partner In the business. From boyhood he was an honor scholar. He completed his academic education at the Lombard Seminary In Rome and was ordained a priest on December 20, 1879. Soon afterward the death of his father forced him to make his own way, but ha managed to complete his studies In 1882. His scholarship record was so high that he was presented to Pope Leo XII, together with a classmate, Lualdl, who later became a cardinal and sat In the conclave which chose Achille Rattl as pope. He returned to. Milan aa a teacher In the theological seminary there, remaining until 1888 when he took up research In literature and philology In the Ambrocl- ana library, Milan. He became prefect of the Institution In 1909. Two years later Plus X made him coadjutor prefect of the Vatican library. Evolution of a Diplomat. In 1914 Pius X appointed him prefect and made him a monslg- nor with the added titles of apos- tollo protonotary and canon of St. Peter's. He took up residence in the Vatican and through the World War years began to show the diplomatic qualities which wore to bring him preferment and elevation to the throne of St Feter. He waa, for example, a go-between when Italian leaders Intimated that the church, by Austrian Intrigue, had been responsible for the disastrous defeat of Italian arms at Caporetto In October, 1617. Mgr. Rattl waa credited with giving Cardinal Gaspar- rl, papa) secretary of state, data which refuted the charge, In the spring of 1921, Qardlnal Ferrari, archbishop of Mlnal, died and In May the pope summoned Mgr. Rattl from Warsaw, created him a cardinal and appointed htm to the archdiocese of Milan. "The choice of his motto was prophetic. His coat of arms bore the words "re'ptum transit" mean- Ing "It passes rapidly." Just eight months after his elevation to the cardlnalate he was chosen Supreme Pontiff of the Roman church. Benedict XV died January 22, 1922, and Achille Rat- tl was elected February 6, receiving an almost unanimous vote on the fourteenth ballot. Explaining why he took the name of Plus, he said: "I was born under a Plus; I came to Rome under a Plus; Plus Is the name of peace—then Flu* shall be my name." PICTURESQUE RITES, TRADITION STEEPED, FOR POPE PIUS XI PROCESSION BEARING BODY TO ST. PETER'S MOST SPECTACULAR VATICAN~CITY, Feb. 10. — (ff) —There is no person whose death could inaugurate such a chain of picturesque rites as that running its course for Achille Ratti- Pope Pius XL From the moment the Holy Father died today until his body Is laid to rest In three coffins in St. Peter's Basilica and his successor has given the world his blessing, every action is embedded In centuries of tradition. The origins of some of these customs have crumbled into oblivion on the parchments on which they were written. An ancient but obsolete act was the removal of the entrails from the dead pope's body for burial in an urn In a crypt under the Basilica. Embalming Is a comparatively modern act. It will have only a few hundred years of tradition behind it. One of the most spectacular ceremonies will be the procession bearing the pope's body to St. Peter's. From BO.OOO to 70.000 persons can crowd into the church to watch a score or more of red-robed cardinals and costumed dignitaries carry out this task. Swiss Guards In medieval armor will line the corridors through which the burden must be borne. Not less elaborate and traditional Is the procedure of choosing the pope's successor. Under the chairmanship of the papal secretary ol state, the sacred college of cordl- nuls will undertake this election within 18 days. During the election and in the interim the cardinals will follow a strict protocol Some of Activities. In one meeting they will elecl two prelates to deliver orations al the funeral and at the election ol the new pontiff. But they wll' not hurry through to get to other business. Selection of barbers to shave them during their confinement in the electoral conclave, drawing of lots for cells In that conclave, appointment of a committee on cleanliness and decorum during the election, which may last many days, are some of the traditional duties to be performed now. One of the curious tasks confronting the cardinals Is the break- Ing of the fisherman's ring taken from Pope Plus' finger. This rlns is a gold band with an engraving of St. Peter fishing from a boat Records show It was used as a seal as far back as the thirteenth century. It will be given the new pope In token of the end of the "widowhood" of the church. To Follow Ancient Rules. The voting for the new pope will, follow ancient rules. It wll begfn after the youngest cardlna deacon has dropped a double hand fill of wooden balls Into a viole silken bag to select the scrutlnlz- ns- committee. It will go on at a efsurcly pace, two ballots being | oken daily until someone receives two-thirds majority, After each vote the ballots will be burned. Until there Is an agreement, the official In charge of burning them will mix a bit of damp straw with them to darken he smoke so the crowds outside he palace watching the chimney may know whether there in a lew pope. When the final fire, without the damp straw, sends up white smoke, that will be the signal of the election. Concluding the long succession of traditional events will be the mpresslve ceremonies for the coronation of the new pontiff. Before the general public sees ho pope, ho will receive the homage of his cardinals In a dramatic rcmony In which each will kneel icfore him to ktsi his slipper. Finally will come the coronation tsolf, with a wildly cheering crowd n St. Peter's straining for a glimpse of the new Holy Father and the gleaming, jewel-studded tolden tiara carried on a cushion 'or him. Heart Be With Body. VATICAN CITY. Feb. 10.—(#)— The heart of Pope Plus XI will be entombed with his body and not, like the hearts of many earlier pontiffs, have a. separate resting place. The custom of removing the heart and other Internal organs of popes on their death on placing them In an urn was discarded with the death of Leo XIII In Close Attention To Church in U. S, VATICAN CITY, F«b. 10.—(ff)— Pope Plus XI, the spiritual sovereign of twenty million American Catholics, gave close attention SEVENTEEN YEARS REIGN OF PIUS XI QNEMOSTIMPORTANT NUMEROUS EVENTS DURING HIS REGIME STAMP IT AS OUTSTANDING ONE 1903. Plx, creed X, Leo's successor, de- hls heart not not to be removed after death, and the practice has not been revived. Groat Bell Sounds Death Toll. VATICAN CITY, Feb. 10.—(ff) —The deep-throated "Campanone" 11-ton master of St. Peter's great bell tower, squnded the death toll bp which Rome learned today that Pope Plus XI had died. For 20 minutes the solemnly spaced notes sounded from the huge bronze throat. "Campanone" to Romans means "groat boll" the grandfather of all bells. The name fits well. Even the din of thousands of bells In almost 500 Roman churches was unable to drown the profoundly melodious notes of the giant bass of St. Peter's as it mourned the departed pope. , First to signal the pope's death to tht outside world, the "campa- none' spoke with authority. Its steady booming soon marshalled all the master bells in Rome into a funeral tolling. Conclave of Cardinal* • VATICAN CITY, Feb. 10.-W)— Vatican prelates said today the conclave of cardinals for election of the next pope probably would convene Feb. 25 If American and other foreign cardinals weie able to arrive by then. Earlier U had been expected generally the conclave would open Feb. 28. Pope Plus XI exten -d the Interim between the death of a pope and the conclave to IS days — with three days more, if necessary. Fonttflclal Mais In Amarillo. VATICAN CITY, Feb. 10. —W—Pope Pius XI's seventeen-year reign will be ecorded by future writers as one of the most import- nt in the church's history of nineteen centuries. The'vigor of his rule, the ourago with which he embark- d on the most audacious tnno- atlons and his adamant opposi- on to all forms of Immorality nd violence have given his own artlcularly stamp to many years f the church'n development. The reconciliation ho signed ith the government of Italy and he modernization of the Vatican will perhaps stand out as his momst history-worthy achieve- lents. Vatican City became an inde- endent state, with all sovereign Ights including foreign repre- ontatlve, coinage, courts, cus- oms. From then on the phraae "First Ime Since 1807" was frequently sed in Vatican dispatches. Plus (I took part in a procession in "it. Peter's Square, received King 'Ittorlo Emanuclo and Queen 3Iena of Italy, went to St. John "latcran Church where ho had een ordained, went to St. Mary Major Church, to St. Paul's-Out- Ide-the-Walls, refitted the Papal ummer home at Castle Oandolfo .nd spent vacations there. Thus he no longer was a "prte- ner of the Vatican." The conciliation momentarily ol lapsed In tho summer of 1931 when Fascist Italy and the Vat- can fell out over the allegedly political activities of Catholic nc- lon—the church's lay organlza- ton. Catholic action clubs were bro- cen Into, the pope's portrait hrown from windows. The pontiff bowed his courage by publishing an encyclical latter against the government, a letter he had to muggle out to Paris by an Amer- can prelate, Monslgnor Francis ™. Spellman, now auxiliary bishop f Boston. Reconciliation was negotiated n September, 1031, and rela- 16ns between the Vatican and Hussollnlan Italy became closer han ever until 1038., In that /ear, the pope protested Mussolini's reclal restrictions In marriages "wounded" the concordat, ijnce they prevented marriages letween Jews and "Aryans" even hough both parties practiced the Catholic religion. He also accus- id fascist authorities of continu- Hayes of New York andArchblsh op Mundeleln of Chicago. Cardln als O'Connell of Boston an< Dougherty of Philadelphia had been elevated before his reign. He created five now ecleslastlca provinces In the United States bj elevating five dioceses to the rani of archdiocese and created eleven new dioceses. Ho saw that conditions among the clery never slumped, particularly- in the last years of his reign, when he often remarked he wished to leave everything In good order for his successor. The late popo showed a keen Interest In the United States, frequently saying he wished he could visit them. He asked American visitors many questions. On receiving bishops from the United States, the pope never neglected to include a blessing for all "our beloved sons and daughters of the great United Slates." The five new archdiocese created by the pope were Newark, Louisville, Detroit, San Antonio and Los Angeles. The new dioceses Included Am- arlllo, Texas- AMARILLO, Feb. 10.— {ft— Solemn pontlflclal mass of requiem for the deceased Holy Father will be held next Monday In Sacred Heart Cathedral of. Amarillo. The funeral oration will be by His Excellency, the Most Rev. Robert E. Lucey, D. D. Announcement of the service was made this morning by Bishop Luccy of the Amarillo diocese. i High Muss at Galveston. G'ALVESTON, Feb. 10.—</P>— Solemn requiem high mass will be celebrated in all churches of the Galveston diocese next Thursday for the repose of the soul of Pope Pius XI, It was announced here today by Most Rev. C. E. Byrne, bishop of the diocese. On the thirtieth day following the death of tho pope a solemn ponl pontlfl- clal high mass will be celebrated at St. Mary's Cathedral here with Bishop Byrne pontificating and priests from all parts of the diocese ottendlng. To Celebrate Moss In Dallas. DALLAS, Feb. 10.—(/P>—The Right Rev. Rudolps A. Gerken, archbishop of Santa Fe, was here with Bishop Joseph P. Lynch of the Dallas diocese when they were informed last night of the death of Pope Pius XI. They will celebrate moss today In the private chapel of the bishop, for the repose of the pontiff. .Archbishop Gerken was given his high order by the late popo while serving at Amarillo as bishop. To Hold Liner for Cardinals. NEW YORK, Feb. 10.—</P>—The Italian Line announced today the departure of the liner Rex would be delayed two hours tomorrow, so two and possibly three, of the American cardinals could sail for Italy. The Line said Dennis Cardinal Dougherty of Philadelphia . and George Cardinal Mundeleln of Chicago had made reservations to sail at 2 p, m. (EST) (1 p. m. CST) tomorrow. Cardinal Mun- deleln, who has been vacationing In Florida, will arrive by train at about 1:30 p. m. (12:30 p. m. CST) tomorrow. There also was a possibility that William Cardinal O'Connell of Boston, woh has been vacationing at Nassau, Bahamas, would arrive by piano In time to sail on the Rex, which reaches Naples Feb. Rodrlgo Cardinal Vllleneuve ol Quebec, the fourth cardinal in North America, is in Rome. Hull Cables Vatican. WASHINGTON, Feb. 10.—W— Secretary Hull, expressing the "profound condolences" of President Roosevelt, cabled the Vatican today that Pope Phis' death was "received with deep sorrow throughout tho United States." Hull's message to Cardinal Pa- celll, said: papal secretary of state, "The President desires me to express to your eminence profound condolences on the death of His Holiness Pope Plus Eleventh. HI* great spiritual qualities and his zeal for peace and to the church In the United i tolerance won him a place In the atniaa i __ ... _* •• r . States. He doubled the number of Am- HO-acre domain of Vatican City i erlcan cardinals by bestowing the aroie as a sovereign territory and red hat on the late Archbishop hearts of all races and creeds. Word of hl» passing has been received with deep sorrow throughout the United States." aioana in the near, future. AMERICAN PRELATES WILL HAVE PART IN ELECTlflNNEW POPE POPE PIUS DECREED TIME ENOUGH FOR FOREIGN CARDINALS REACH ROME VATICAN CITY, Feb. 10.— (IP)— American cardinals aa a group will take part In the 'election of the next pope for the first time in the history of the Catholic church. This Is a consequence of the action of Pope Plus XI, who de creed the time elapsing after the death of the pope must bo a minimum of IS days, with three days of grace, or a maximum of 18 days, before the conclave to choose his successor begins. The late James Cardinal Olb bons of Baltimore took .part in the election of Plus X, successor to Leo XIII, solely because he let Baltimore for Rome during Leo's Illness. The prolongation of the Interva between the pontiff's death am the conclave la the result of a protest made by tho dean of the American cardtnala, William Car dlnal O'Connell of Boston, follow Ing the death of Pope Benedlc XV. Pope Benedict died January 2! 1922, and Cardinal O'Connell took the first boat possible, the Wilson As he was on the train between Naples and Rome tha vote fel upon Cardinal Aohllle Rattl, arch bishop of Mll&n, who became pope XI. The American prelate expressed his disappointment directly t< the new pope. American Cardinals also will be able to take part In the govern ment of the ohureh during tho Interregnum. As soon as they arrive In Rome they will have on opportunity to serve on the com mltteea of cardinals which rill the vast ecclesiastical body untl the new oppe la elected. Every day there Is a new executlv committee for this purpose, With A. T. Smith. C. A. Looney, formerly of Bli Spring, la now In charge of th market department of A, T, Smith Grocery. Mr. Looney has had more than 15 yeara experience In the butcher business. He will move hi* family to Cor NINE CARDINALS IN LIST MENTIONED AS SUCCESSOR TO PIUS ADEODATA CARDINAL PIAZZA, PATRIARCH OF VENICE, HEADING LIST ed "vexations" action. toward Catholic On the point of modernization, 'lus XI's Imprint may last for centuries. He brought to the vat- can an up-to-the-minute telephone system, a radio station, a modern Ire department, movies, a railroad, new administrative bulld- ngs, a loud-speaker' system for 3t. Peter's. Antl-Cnthollo Move* Combatted. Pope Plus boldly combatted an- il-Catholic movement! in Spain, iovlet Russia, Nazi Germany and tfexlco, and the royalist movement in France. He denounced re-armament, war talk and reek- ess political leadera. Hia voice, appealing for peace, waa heard whenever Europe amoked with Its periodical war scares. Hla encyclicals were equally plain apoken In upholding the church's right to education, In condemning co-education, In reaffirming the sanctity of marriage and the family, in censuring birth-control and sterilization, In exalting the -workman and attack- ng the induatrlal and financial magnate and In arranging un scrupulous political chieftains. Hla regn waa noteworthy for an appreciable apread of the church's missions and the building up of a considerable native clergy, includ- ng a number of bishops; partlcu- arly In China. During his tenure, many new concordats with foreign govern menta were concluded, chief among them being that with Germany. Relations with the French republic, disturbed for generation! were smoothed out. A number of countries, such as Italy "and Ireland (Erie) opened diplomatic relations with the Vatican and sent ministers there. It is aatimated that under Plua XI the Roman Cathollo church membership Increased by more than 65,000,000. VATICAN CITY, Feb. 11. —(/P)—Names of nine cardinals came to the forefront today in speculation as to who would be the next pope. Heading the list of possibilities in the opinion oil many familiar with church affair* was Adeodata Cardinal Piazza, 84, beloved patriarch of Venice, a vigorous administrator and accomplished student, He Is the youngest of nny of tho list of prominent prospects. Politically, he Is regarded as In tho center. Others listed In the order In which many persons placed their chances of becoming popo were: Alfred Ildofonao Cardinal Schuster, archbishop of Milan, 58. Giovanni Battlata Cardinal Na- Balll-Rocca Dl Cornellano, aroh- ilshop of Bologna, 66. Maurlllo Cardinal Fossati, arch- ilshop of Turin, 62. > Alesslo Cardinal Ascalcsl, archbishop of Naples, 60. Alia Cardinal Dallacosta, archbishop of Florence, 66 Lulgl Cardinal Lavltrano, arch- >lshop of Palermo, 64. Pletro Cardinal Boetto, arch- )lshop of Bonia, 67. Eugenlo Cardinal Pacelll, Vatican secretary of state, 62. Rumors ran through Rome that foreign cardinals had decided to unite behind Rodcrlquc Cardinal, Vllleneuvo of CJuobi-o and wore .rylng to win some Italians over. Jources familiar with the Vatican, however, placed little crcdenco In such reports. Unless precedents are broken by ho college of cardinals tho one chosen will be an Italian and an archbishop of one of the larger Italian dioceses who has had administrative experience. P»«elir» Chances Poor. Cardinal Pacelll, although probably the most prominent member of the college, Is considered to lavo leas chance that the others at the outset of the balloting, for tho Cardinal Camerlengo-Cham- Jerlaln of the Holy Roman church —la rarely chosen pope In those days 1 . In the event of a deadlock, however, U was believed the college might turn to htm Any Roman Catholic, layman, priest—oven a married man—can be elected pope so far as church law Is concerned. . Church discipline makes It almost as unlikely as It Is unheard of for a married man to ascend the pontifical throne. Custom of 500 years has channeled Catholic thought to selection of a popo from the cardlnalcy. The date on which the conclave to elect a successor to Popo Plug will start depends upon arrival of the cardinals from DIo De Janeiro and Buenos Aires. They were expected to be the last to arrive in time for tho conclave to start February 28.' Forty cardinals wore present in Roma for the first general congregation of cardinals of the interregnum which was to meet today In Consistory Hall. Embassy Staff In Mooring ROME, Feb. 11.—(/P>—The slatt of the United States embassy wa» In mourning for Pope Plus XT today as a mark of respect although diplomatic relations are lacking between the United States and the Vatican. Don Pevehouse of Corsicana Mascot of House Representatives Don Pevehouie, aged 6, son o Representative and Mrs. Doyle Pevehouse of this city, has been made mascot of the house of rep resentatlves of the Forty-sixth legislature, and his picture will In the near future, be placed In the official group of that body In the capltol at Auntln. Another little mascot from this vaclnlty la little Shirley Ann Taylor, six-year-old daughter of Representative and Mrs. James E. Taylor of Kerens. Two Negroes Were Bound Over Grand Jury on Friday Two negroes were bound over to the grand Jury following examining trials before Judge A. E. Foster early Friday afternoon. Leonard Coy, negro, was bound over on $7BO bond in burglary and theft casea. Lawrence Coleman, negro, was bound over on $750 bond on a burglary charge. Tho complaints were signed by Deputy Sheriff Jeff Spencer. Corsicanan Will Make Dallas Home R. T. Puryear, member of the staff of the J. M. Dyer Company for many yeara will leave for Dallas Sunday where he will be associated with C. C. Albrttton dealer In real estate and loana. Mr. Puryear'a family will follow him to Dallas In the near future, Finis Farr will replace Mr Puryear on UM 0y«c Company ataff. DALLAS MASONS PUT ON MASONIC WORK FAIRFIEID LODGE FAIRFIELD, Feb. 11.—(Spl.)-— i At the meeting of the Falrfleld "•<: Masonic lodge Friday night, approximately 200 Masons saw the" police degree team of Dallas con- ' for the third degree In a manner ' that was most Impressive. Twenty '' Dallas Masons were In the party, '; and those taking part In the work wore police uniforms. Dinner was served the visiting team at •• the Azteo Cafe, and after the meeting refreshments, consisting- i of oakes, coffee and chocolate waa P served to all. The meeting was the moat unusual and possibly the most Interesting ever held in this section at the state. Members from 30 different lodges registered. Expect-, Ing a largo crowd, the Grand Master was asked for a special dispensation to hold tho meeting In the basement of tho now building of the Methodist church and it proved an excellent place for it. i The kitchen In tho basement added much to serving refreshments to the large crowd. The expressive manner In which the degree team exemplified this beautiful work of tho third degree will long be remembered by those who attended. TWO MEN ARE GIVEN PENITENTIARY TERMS FRIDAYAFTERNQON i Two men were given penitentiary sentences In the district" court Friday afternoon on pleas of guilty . v J. T, Red, negro, was given two,' yeara In three burglary and theft Indictments and will four years as two of the tences are cumulative and the ath er two concurrent under the sentences pronounced by District Judge Wayne R. Howoll. Jessie Jackson wan Tlven five years on his plea of guilt/ to an Indictment for burglary of a private residence during the night tlmo and two years on burglary Indictment. Tho sentences run concurrently. Officers pointed out that five years Is the minimum punishment allowed for night time burglary of a private real* dence under the statutes. The jury for tha week waa eX- oua«d by Judge Ho well. Ua

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