Page 1 article text (OCR)
Served by the United Press BLYTHEVUJLE COURIER NEWS TH* DOMI ^"^' DOMINANT NKWBPAHK OP NOHIBUn ARKANSAS AND BOUTHKAOT MISSOURI. VOL: XXV!—No. 250 BlytheTlUe Courier. BlytheviUe D»Ujr News, BI-YTUKV1LMO, AUKANSASJ MONDAY. JANUAHY 20, 1990 SWGLECOPIES FIVE CENTSii 16 PERISH IN COAST PLANE DISASTER National Red Cross Exoect- ed to Take Over Relief Work in Flood Area. Many families in the region stretching from the Elk Chute gap wl'..;re the waters of Big Lake forced their way. across the embankments last Thursday to Marked Tree were preparing to move Ircm their homes as the waters were slowly Inundating the section while other sturdier ones were entrenching for a spell of "wet weather," by moving their stock and supplies above the anticipated reach of the icy waters. With the menace of rain clouds iicvering over the district the state line ditch leading into Big Lake and Buffalo Creek on the western •side were reported to be falling today. Big Lake was more than Ihrcc feet below the flood crest. A number of breaks along the St. Francis with the most serious one at Holcomb, Mo., a town temporarily marooned by the flood waters, served tday as n safety valve for the St. Francis and no additional breaks were anticipated. R»d Cross Man Htre Walter Over, representative of Uie mid-western branch of the Alneri- csn Red Cross witli offices at Sc. Louis dispatched telegrams to his (,tfice last night alter a urvey ot the area to be affected by the Big Lake flood, recommending thai tlie National Red Cross take charge fit relief 'work in the area. Although a reply is not expected until early Tuesday it is generally believed that the national organization will assume the burden of the relief work. « r ~Mr. Over, accompanied by A. G. Little, local banker and chairman of the disaster . committee of the Bed Cross here, is on a tour of the flood region today. Yesterday, directed by Johnny Meyers, drainage district 17 engineer, Mr. Over surveyed a' large section of the affected territory. Missouri Waters Spread The most serious situation today Misted in Southeast Missouri where wa;er from the Brown Perry breach had surrounded Holcomb and was flowing through the streets. Water was standing over three feet in some of the streets but early relief with the water-' draining to the south is anticipated for the Missouri town. Another Missouri town south of Holcomb. White Oak, was being flooded today with the waters rap. idly submerging the low points in the settlement. Mrs. Marion G. Keith, field representative at the Red Cross, Vho is making a survey ot the Missouri region Informed the Courier News this afternoon that the situation in that section was much better than was Indicated by first reports. • "Only a few refugees have been brought Into Kennett," Mrs. Keith sti'.ed, "and they are being cared for by local agencies. Many of the families from the afflicted areas have friends and relatives who are helping them." Mrs. Keith has not yet made a report to the St. Louis Red Cross office on conditions in "Missouri. Conditions as "revealed so far have not shown the need of Immediate relief In that section, it was Intimated although 'Mrs. Keith refused to comment on her final action until the affected territory had been more completely surveyed and the St. Francis has again reached normal proportions. A fair estimate of the -land being flooded in Dunklin county would be close' to 30.000 acres, Mrs. Keith declared. 1,000 Families Need Help Rtd Cross officials have estimated after a preliminary survey of 'the Big Lake area that approximately 1,000 families will be af- lected by the flood. Of this number not more than -250 families will have to leave their homes, it Is believed, but a large portion of the numbers remaining in the district will be dependent to some extent on relief agencies. A big part of the. section, officials say, may 'be flooded for from two to three months, If the usual spring rains 'keep waters spreading over the area. Johnny Meyers, drainage district 17 engineer, slated Sunday alter Drainage Project Is Dismissed A petition for the formation of a nrooosed drainage district in Mississippi, Craighcad and Poinsett counties «'ns drsm.'SKed uiwn motion of attorney for the petitioners by Judge W. W. Bandy in circuit court here today. The first movement for the pro-; posed dinrlct was in November. 1929, when notice ot the filing of a iJCtilion was given and a preli- A woman. Mrs. Mary T. Norton, m in ary survey of the district made j Democrat, fJcw Jersey, opened the New Jersey Woman Democrat Presents Referendum Resolution. WASHINGTON, Jan. 20. (UP)— by the Morgan iSiigineering company. The petitioners Included the campaign of ihe house wet bloc tcday by introducing n resolution 'The West Is in the Saddle Chicago Mill nnd Lumber Corpor- calling for a national referendum ation and the Cliapman-Dewey | on prohibition. Land con.paity. nnd others. Nelson | Under r.erms of Mr/ WjrVnVi and Crawford and Chas. D. Frier-i resolution the lath amendment son were attorneys for the peti-j would be repealed enigmatically if tioners. The movement, encountered much opposition in the Loachvllle and Lake City sections. Much of the opening day of the two weeks court session today was taken up in the setting of dates for cases during the session. The case of Charles Simpson, ct al, vs. Jonesooro Compress compnay, a consolidation of a large nuniper of suits, was set for Monday, Jan. 27. Gladys May Parks Given Sentence of 25 Years CAMDEN, N, J., Jnn. 20. (UP) — Gladys May Parks, who \vas found guilty Saturday night on two charges, one of manslaughter and tha other of second degree murder, for the deatiis of Tlmoth yand Dorothy Rogers, her wards, was sentenced to 25 years concurrently by Criminal Court Judge Prank- Lloyd, loday. She -was given ten years on the manslaughter charge and 25 years' on the second degree murder charge. i the referendum showed a majority of the country's voters arc opposed to prohibition. Mrs. Norton's move followed advocacy of u referendum by the senate Republican floor leader James E. Wats-n, Indiana dry, who urged thai it be conducted by the slates,. The resolution came simultaneously with consideration by the senate judiciary committee of President Hoover's prohibition reform program. Mrs. Norton's resolution provides that each stale would conduct a referendum within its bcrders at tho next general election after adoption of the resolution by ccn- Bress. ' The fate of the 18th amendment. however, would depend on the total popular vcte of nil states rather than on Ihe number of slates lor Window Smashed, Watches Taken at Herrick Shop A display window of Herrick's Watch Shop in the 100 East Main block was smashed early Sunday morning and several watches taken. Paul Grimes. Fox-Pellelier patrolman, reported the window intact when -he passed the shop at 4:50 o'clock. An employee of an East Main street restaurant who passed ^he store at 5 o'clock is said to' have been ihe first who noticed the break. Officers are investigating the case. Failure to Collect Tobacco Stamp Tax Alleged in Action by Commissioner. OSCEOLA. Ark.— Suit for 'the recovery of $3J50 liquidated damages. repitsenting penalties imposed by law for the sale of tobacco products «1thout revenue stamps, was , filed in the civil division of circuit Cold Weather Causes Many Blazes From Over Heated Stoves ;and Flues. The Blytheville fire department did a rushing 'business over the week end ns the frigid weather of the past few days caused residents of the city to keep hot fires blazing for protection ngalnst the icy blasts. The residence )lffeiiii(r Needs of Britain and America May Be Source of Difficulty. KIHTOIfK NOTK: This U Ulo strand <if » strrlRi uf fuur ^urirs by Mlltiiu llromirr, European maiutrr tor NKA Service, on the tmiwrlunl problem* coufrnt- 1115 llti' u.u-iil dl-mrituinrllt ron- fcrrihr ui j.onil,m. in substtju-nt arltdcs, llruimir will dUrun (Ki> Jupunr.-ii- mid llic Frtiwli and llalhin | Senator J^eph Grundy nf Pennsylvania recently branded-Hie west \\s a colleclloir of-'"backward states,'" but that was before 'Senator brandy saw this picture. It- proves conclusively that western statesmen In Washington hold "their hare, or mure, of the really Important senatorla committee chairmanships. "Young Bob" La Follette of Wisconsin leader of the insurgents. Is chairman of the committee on manufacture's U); Dorah of Idaho, foreign relations (2); Norris of Nebraska, Judiciary committee (3); Hiram Johnson of California, commerce U); Smoot of Idaho, finance (5); Thomas ol Idaho, irrigation and reclamation iG>; Me Navy of Oregon, agriculture (7); "Wesley L. Jones of Washington, n;i_ ! probations (81; Gtrald P. Nye ol North Dakota,- public lands (0); Moore, 700 West Walnut, was dam- Krazier 0[ North Dakota, ;ndian affairs (10). Not a bad record for aged to the extent, of over S300 j statesmen from "backyard states," is it? when woodwork between the first I nnd second floors of tlie house was |. _ ignited by an over-heated flue. A 'Independent Retailers '. number ot articles of furniture were i ur-u u , T J W !_•. also seriously damaged by fire and j Will Meet I UCSday Wight chemicals. • Two houses in negro sections of Approximately 125 independent the city were totally destroyed by I merchants of Dlythcville and vicln- iires from over-heated, stoves Sat- I ity are expected M a meeting to- urday night. The residence of John morrow night at the First Metho- Laveile, negro, on Elm street across from Federal Compress No. 1, was razed. A frozen water plug proved a serious handicap to'firemen. Tho value of the house was estimated at $700 by the fire department. A house owned by Abe Bradford in another negro section, the Robinson addition, off 17th street, was dist church for a general discussion II EFFECT TOBIff uisi cnurcn ior a general aisciissiun n M - i l C I T on the "Trade With Independent lUpUS m Local OchoOIS Have This Week lo Pay Merchants" campaign being launched by a number of local independent merchants and radio station KLCN, according to O. C. Barnes, announcer. Representative;; of the lndc|)en- dcnt organization in a number of The first day under the fuitlon system at the junior and senior high schools here brought no-evidence that the monthly charges of A residence at 910 Heart street j ^en -invited lo attend' according * 2 M nnc t «. respectively, would falling in when a 'city flre truck the nearby towns. Including several reached the scene. : from southeast Missouri, have also First Month's Fees. court here last week by David A. j ucts without revenue stamps, in violation of Act 152 of the general assembly of 1929, section nine of which act provides a penalty of $25 for 'each package of tobacco products offered for sale without stamps, In addition to other fines and forfeits provided bylaw. Bilbo Asks Death For Auto License and School ! James Williams Named Unit Cases Resubmitted LITTLE ROCK. Jan. 20. (UP)— The case of Dwlght H. Blackwood to Annapolis Academy James Williams, son of Mrs. Nell Wliiiams and an employe ot the tf. W. P. Sibeck involving the con- Kirby-Bcll Drug company, lias teen stlUUIonality of the legislative act I appointed as a candidate to An- t requiring cities and counties to pay , napolis, the United States Naval j license fees on publicly owned mo- i academy at Annapolis, Md. Con| tor vehicles was resubmltted to the '; gressman W. J. Driver, of Osce- c l_ i vees e ; . . rvr, o sc- kmbeZZler$ j £ta ' e supreme court today. jola, is responsible for the appoint- In a decision upholding the con- ! ment. sssembly today by Gov. Theo. Bilbo' The governor called both 'houses Into 8 joint session to make his dramatic demand for more stric' banking 'laws. It was his second address since the legislators con, _ vened January 2. of the 'St. Francis flood i "Unfaithful bankers are just as 1 Missouri that Big Lake guilty of crime as a robber who , get approximately one third as lakes your money at the point of \L *£» r .v,V hat "SO"™ 0 ns iH pistol." Governor Bilbo said in poured into the lake In 1921 from suggesting hanging as a JACKSON, Miss , Jan 20 (UP) i sti 'utlonahty of the law and de- 1 After graduating from the city —A lav providing the death nen clarln £ It '" forc<! the hl sh court 'high school in '27, lie attended ally for 'bank embe7zlcrs was sue" , VRS dlv| d«i four and three last Joncsboro college for a year Df- gested to the Mississippi general Monda y- ! forc tnk'ng up his present work. He the St. Francis breaks. This will not result In the flood from the Big Lake gap inundating any more acreage than tlie present overflow will cover but will 'prolong the period the land will be covered, It is estimated. Sub-zero weather that prevailed over much of the area over the iveric end 'moderated somewhat lo- (Contlnued On Page Three) for embezzlement. penalty Test for Any Nature BEUFLEET, Essex, England (OP) —The Vicar of Benfleet estimates that during the average marriage a man sees his wife's face at breakfast 10.000 limes, "a pretty severe lest of human nature," The optional county school unit has lived here practically all his law, also enacted by the last legis- ' Hie. lature and recently declared Inval- 'Entrance examinations will bs id by the supreme 'flirt, was re- token In June. submitted. It is styled J. H. Webb i --vs. Lloyd Adams, Pike county! ., . ... ;Sidney Craig Will Seek City Clerk ' ^ ' will' b;"ii LONDON <UP)-Members of Par- 'nounced today Hament are individualistic In the ' candidate to succeed himself at tho manner of not taking. Lloyd George municipal election to be held In lias an odd way of Jotting down April. notes. He does not write on hlsi Mr. Craig has served as clerk knee. He holds the sheets up ac- ! for the past four- years &nd Is well tually above the level of his eyes : known to Blytheville clttans. He and painstakingly Jots down his , bases his claims for ro-electton o memoranda. The method seems ex- 1 the office on the manner In which tremely uncomfortable and we&rl- he has served during the past. some, but the Liberal leader has I Mr. Craig Is one of the pioneer followed this method for years— I residents of the city, having moved to be exact. here In 1900. are. Mr. Greene said, that Ihey are by pupils whose parents cannot ke?p them In school If they must pay the fees. Sufficient money is available now. through pledges of various local Individuals and organizations, to pay the fees of about iO pupils. The real test-of the situation. In Mr. Greene's opinion, will come at the end of tne neck. Pupils have until Friday to pay their fees for the first month, and It Is thought possible that' a number who will require assistance have delayed making application. Douglas Named Receiver for H. Saphian Store Prank C. Douglas, local attorney, has been named receiver for he H. Saphian dry goods store here following an Involuntary bankruptcy petition filed Friday by Holland and Barham, holders of Judgments against the firm lot.illns $543.70. Ed Blelden of Jonesboro, representing P. c. Mullinlx. referee In bankruptcy, was here Saturday and took Inventory of the stock, which it ii understood will bring the listed assets lo on approximate total of *7.500, although official figures on assets and liabilities were not available today. Mr 6nphlan came to this city- several years ago from OsceoH where he was engaged In a similar business. l>y Ml I,TON BKONNKIl NK,\ Srrvke Writer LONDON—Prime Minister Itam- iy M!icix>i>uld probably will huve harder task to make the British Parliament follow him in whatever (lie London Naval Conference mny imree upon than President Ilooror will hnve wllli the American Congress. There are plenty ut American naval dle-lmrds. but tlicy lire not as numerous nor as well cnlcinchcd us those In Orcal Britain. ' The (liltcrcnco Is accentuated also by tlie matter of geography. American posscislons are mnilily continental and hard to attack. Britain has a far-flung empire, with selt-uovevnliig dominions and colonial possession!! on every continent and In every sen. For Bcncnitious It was an axiom of British naval polllcy that her men-of-war should be cmial to those of the oilier two strongest nnval powers. Britain now has recognized the principle of parlty'wllli the United States, oust wlml form this parity Is to take Is yet lo be determined. ' Here, as in Amelca, It Is r«cog- nhted lhat.,the crux of the situation as between the two countries Is In the matter ot-cruisers. Tentatively the figures agreed upon are 339,000 tons for Great Britain and 315,000 tons for the United States. Tlie generosity of. this gesture on the part of President Hoover is fully recognized. The one question that remains Is how this tonnage shall be divided. Great Britain would bo content with 10 cruisers of 10,000 tons each, tarrying eight-Inch guns, and the other 35 being about 6500 tons and- carrvlng six-Inch guns. The Unitwi States wants il cruisers of 10.000 tons each. carry- Ing eight-Inch guns and 15 'cruisers of 1000 tons, carrying six-inch guns. Britain hope sto persuade America'to'accept IB cruisers of 100,000 tons each, taking In com- l iicnsfillon four smaller cruisers carrying six-Inch guns. An alternate proposal 1s that if we Insist upon 21 of these big cruisers, three of them should carry six Instead 1 ol eight-Inch guns. One tiling remains to be said: the hope has been e.tpres.«d In some quarters'that If a five power agreement cannot be reached in London, a three-power agreement shll be dratted raid signed between the United Stales, Great Britain and Japan. As things look now, this would be Impossible for Great Britain. If llic French and the Italians, or lh» Frecnh alone, buck an ag'rcemenl to limit crulstrs' and submarines, the whole aspect of things will h: changed. Tlie United States am! Japan, far away from Europe, conic look with a certain equanimity upon the building of a big French or Italian fleet of cruisers and submarines. England could not. One of her main lines of marine communication Is through the Medllerra- nesn eti route to Egypt. Palestine India, Malaysia and Australia -IK New Zealand. 'Any unrestricted growth of French or Italian fleets of cruisers and submarines might some day be a serious menace lo British shipping. For every big lot of submarines France or Italy might build, England would fee: she needed at least three British cruisers or destroyers per alien submarine. Nor could-she view cnlmly the possibility of big submarine fleets hieing forth from English Channel ports. It she 'ever had difference with France. The attitude of England and tho British Empire 'may, therefore, to summed up with a big "If": In tho main, her policy on nnval disarmament promises to inarch with our own—if the other powers can be brought to agree. reeze to Death After Icy Plunge CANTON. Miss..'Jan. 20. (UP)_ uncoil services were to be held ere loclay for (wo Mudlsoii county uniclsls vvlio were frozen to dnilli u Black river swamps, norlli uf >ei'c, . Sunday. A seeching jiarly found Chan- :ory Ckrk W. 1J. Jonps. &. la ti dy. »lt condition shortly before noon !<! gasped out n brier Mory of n mglf limiting lily with Slici-m John W. Owen. «, The two men hud none hunilng Saturday. In shooting ul ducks Slieilll Owen capslMd tlielr boat In he rlvi'r. They swum for several uiKlml yurds lo Miore. Tlti! nenr- •to (rmiwrntitrc encased their bodes In blocks •<>( Ice. Unubla to slnrl lire tliii men wandered through he twiiinji nil nMil. Jones died a few minutes nfiev •wcucrs reached hlm.'nnd the body >f Sheriff Owen mis found a few Kindred yards further Inlo the Culd Takrx -15 l.lrfs MEMPHIS, Tom., Jnn. 20. 1UP) —ModrtnlhiB temntralilres In the illd-Simlli today brought sonic re- lef from (lie blltcr'cold Unit look i heavy (all of life nnd caused 11 lumber of serious accidents over lie week end. 1 Incomplete reijorts todny showed at IcoM J5 persons lost theli- lives n this section na u direct, result of the sub-hero temperature. Eight leaths were In Memphis nnd seven n surrounding territory. DEPTH Conference on Limitation Arms Will Open Tomorrow Morning:' ••«-•< LONDON, Jan. 20. (UP)—Tile principal delegates lo the five-power naval conference were received by King George V. at Buckingham palace loduy. preparatory to the formal oiwning of the conference In the royal gallery of the liouse of lords tomorrow. A. crowd of about 500 watched ns the Americans, French, Italians adn Japanese .drove to the palacr* for the royal audience. The principal delegates were accompanied by their chief colleagues. The empire and British delegates, followed the foreign representatives lino the audience chamber. Tlie audU-nce nas brief. The visitors reached Ihe palace at 3:30 p. in. The Americans were the first In line, In accord with the alphabetic peccdcnce which marks l the conference arrangements. Tonight's formal dinner to the delegates remain* as the only preliminary function before the first session at 11 a. m. tomorrow. Home Bound Pleasure Seqkers Victims of Crash in California. SAN CLEMENTii, Ca].,-Jan. ad, (UP)—Flames which cmyloped n. Irl-inoior tr.msport piano' when It' crushed IUMV here 'late yesterday brought d-.-li to Its 10 occupants. Tho 1. ; consl'.i second Rreut arrlnl eft ,trophe In three weeks and Ihe nitlon's worst air tragedy occurred «!wn u T. A. T-Mnddux passenger piano, loaded with week end pleasure dcekeK returning from . Agiia Ciillente, lore Into tlie enrth, Itodtrs Badly Charrf d '. The plane had left Ihe Mexican . pleasure resort ut 6:30 p. ni, • yes- lerdny with Its capacity load. Lew thnu mi hour later, '«t 6:23 p. in-, • It wns a blazing funeral pyro. A •urnp watch on the wrist nf one f the women passengers had stop- lied at that time, giving 'the prob- ublu exnct moment of the cxplo- Uon. Most of the bodies were so badl/ burned Identification will be "•-difficult. All were Inken from llic smoldering wreckage early today. Three bodies were'hurled from the binzlng ship as If slithered 'over the muddy field. -J. Pilot 'Russell and his assistant were found with their clmrrc'd. hands clutching at the controls In mute evidence that they' had'Ver- Islted ntlcmptliig to bring the plane safely to earth. . ' • . Sought to AtoU Storm While official Investigations were underway by three 1 other aeronautical bodies—among Uiem officials of T. A. T.-Mnddux. assisted by Colonel Charles A, Lindbergh—the San Diego airport bowd'irinounced U»h » storm had ciused the Crash! Ac. cording to findings of ; the board Pi^' •>»!-• wwivflyinj -um«t, ; SisviJiM5 foot ceiling because of Ihc'foH.-afe;- templed to swing fits plane around to return to San Diego landing' field/He had seen the approaching squall and hoped to cvtde it. But tho. storm was too swift In Its fury. As the plane began Its lurn, the board decided, the wind took advantage of its low altitude to, bear it tp : earth. The big Ford ship struck, one wing ns It skidded'and toppled over. .The fuel tank carried in the wings broke, drenching the passengers and the hot motor witti WO gallons of Infiiimable fuel, The" explosion came Instantly. Florida i'lanc Crashes WEST PALM BEAOH/Fla., Jari. 20. (UP)—A pilot and two mediator Ics were killed and two passeii^ gcrs injured, probably fatally, whea a cabin monoplane crashed Into Lake Worth, near here, yesterday. All of the dead were from Daytona Beach, Fla. TOMORROW: Japan's l«rt In the conference. Chinese Girl Is Orator PEIPINO, Ch!n» (UP)—A girl student has conquered all male rivals In the annual oratorical contest »t Peking National University. Miss Chi Chlng-yl, speaking on "The Crisis in Manchuria," 'as unanimously selected by the judges as winner over nine male competitors selected in n scries el elimination contests. Georgia Officers Shoot Down Highwaymen Who Escaped in W. Virginia. MACON, Ga,, Jan. 20. (UP) — After a furious 30 minute gun battle In which more than 200 rounds of ammunition were fired by '5 Mocon and Jacksonville police, three bandits sought- In a swamp near here were 'shot etevn and captured today. Jacksonville authorities, here to aid the search In the belief the trio were the escaped Connecticut convicts who killed a Jacksonville detective Friday night, announce! after the capture that they were not the Jacksonville trio. The bandits 'gave the names of Adrian and Dana Bias, brothers, and Basil Chlldress, and said they escaped from the West Virglnl.i stale penitentiary, where they liaii been serving sentences ot 40 years for highway robbery. Adrian Bias lind his left 'arm shot off by an automatic machine gun in the hands of one of the officers; his brother, Dana, was peppered with blrdshot, but was not seriously wounded; Chlldress was shot In both 'arms and the chest Adrian Bias was reported dying In a hospital lo which he was taken. Auxiliary WiB Entertain American Legion Tuesday All members of Dud Cason post, American Legion, arc invited to bo the guests of the local Auxiliary unit at a Joint meeting nnd party; at the Woman's club house Tues- day ng'.ht. There will be dancing nnd cards, along with other games and amusements. The evening's program will open at 7:30. Mesdames W. J. Ppli ; lard, W. C. Wahl and.b. H. We'lcfi: arc the Auxiliary committee in"' charge. ",. Officers of Dud Cason-.post ail-" nounced this afternoon, that tho regular Ln^nn business meeting at- " the courthouse would be dispensed this «•'<•: ;ut that a short bus!-, ness m. < would be held at the woman a abhouse, juit before th's party. Scouts i.! Good Standing Will Be Theatre Guests Registered scouts of this city are to attend the show every month, following troop meetings, as tho guests of O. W. McCutcheon: Only; members In good standing and who go to their meetings may go. Tlie fcout masters will accompany the boys. . • WEATHER Cardwell Store Entered CARDWELL, Mo.—Ladd and Brewer's grocsry was entered thru the back door some time Thursday night. Nothing but some cigarettes and some pennies has been missed so fnr. [ ARKANSAS—Rain or snow In north, rain in south portion tonight and 'Tuesday, somewhat colder In northwest portion tonight, colder Tuesday. After registering eight degrees below zero Friday for the first time sin™ 1917 the government thermometer cllmWd to three »bove yesterday with a maximum ot 30 degrees' toiaklng fl-eezing weather all day. On the same day a yew ago the mnllmum temperature w»j 37 degrees and the maximum, 57 degreeso partly cloudy with southwest wnds.