The Salina Journal from Salina, Kansas on March 31, 1985 · Page 26
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The Salina Journal from Salina, Kansas · Page 26

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Sunday, March 31, 1985
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The Salina Journal Sunday, March 31,1985 Page 27 Sweet tooth aches in Americans Milestones By JANE E. BRODY N.Y. Times News Service NEW YORK — Americans are seeking more of the sweet taste than ever before — though not in the familiar form of white processed sugar. Per-capita consumption of caloric sweeteners increased in 1983 to a high of 123 pounds a year (that is an average of 600 sweet calories a day), compared with 109 pounds in 1960 and 65 pounds in 1900. A close look at this figure, however, reveals Americans' fondness for sweets, while undiminished, has changed. Consumption of refined sugars — the crystallized forms such as table sugar, brown sugar, confectioners' sugar and the like — has declined. However, a less expensive substitute, high- fructose corn syrup, is increasingly being used in processed foods, which supply about 70 percent of the sugar Americans eat each year. At the same time, the new artificial sweetener, aspartame (marketed under the brand names NutraSweet and Equal), is appearing in more and more commercially sweetened foods. Millions of Americans are schizophrenic when it comes to sugar in their diets. They are convinced it is bad for them, yet they cannot resist eating it. Currently, the average American gets about 20 percent of his or her calories from sugars that have been added to foods. Experts recommend this be cut at least in half. Because calculating one's sugar consumption is difficult, the best advice is simply to reduce the amount of sugar-sweetened foods consumed. The task will not be easy, in part because people are born with a sweet tooth of sorts. In the course of evolution, the ability to taste sweets is likely to have helped humans select ripe, nourishing fruits and berries and avoid those that were unripe or poisonous. However, fruits, that have a high concentration of a slowly metabolized sugar called fructose and are rich in vitamins, minerals and fiber, are a far nutritional cry from doughnuts and candy bars, sweetened with sucrose, corn syrup or honey and laden with fat but not much else. Unlike sucrose and honey, fructose does not require a large release of insulin to be processed by the body, which is why diabetics can eat fruit but not candy. This does not make fructose a desirable part of the diet, however, because, like sucrose, fructose provides empty calories. New studies by Dr. Judith J. Wurtman and colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 'suggest that for some people, cravings for sweets or other carbohydrate-rich foods such as bread are stimulated by an unconscious biochemical need to alleviate depression by altering brain chemistry. In hospital-based studies, in which everything eaten by the obese volunteers was carefully monitored, Dr. Wurtman found carbohydrate cravings typically occur at the same time each day; the time is different for different people but most commonly occur in the evening. According to Dr. Wurtman, those who try to ignore their cravings may find themselves continuing to eat after meals despite being full, leading to an overconsumption of calories and a weight problem. After a meal containing a significant amount of protein, carbohydrates have little effect on brain chemistry. Thus, the carbohydrate craving persists despite the continued eating. It is far better, she suggests, to stave off the craving by having a carbohydrate snack about an hour before the meal, which would usually be before the craving begins. Her studies indicate by following this routine, it should be easier to stop eating at the end of the normal meal. Sweet cravings commonly afflict women one to three days before the start of the menstrual peri- Children consume little sugar through candy By The New York Times , Although much attention has been paid to presweetened cereals and candy as undesirable sources of sugar for children, these are among the foods that contribute the least sugar to children's diets, according to an excellent study of children's daily food intake conducted by nutrition researchers at Michigan State University, After milk (natural mi|k sugar accounts for 20 percent of the sugar consumed by children aged 5 through 12), sweetened drinks are the leading sugar sources, supplying nearly 14 percent of children's sugar calories, nearly all of them devoid of essential nutrients., Cakes, cookies and pies account for 11 percent of youngsters' sweet calories, By contrast, cereals account for only 3,3 percent and candy only 2.6 percent of the sugar children consume.. , • • '• /-.' ; ' Fruit, that is far more nourishing and less likely to damage teeth and health, accounts for only 1,6 percent of the sugar in children's lives. od, probably the result of hormonal shifts. The majority of Americans assume that, when added to foods, sugar is primarily a flavoring agent. In reality, it is much more than that: In breads, sugar enhances yeast action, inhibits staleness, tenderizes the crumb and improves crust color; in jellies, jams and canned fruits, it helps to prevent microbial deterioration and preserves flavor and texture; in tomato products, it subdues acidity; in iodized salt, it stabilizes the added iodide; in frozen desserts, it lowers the freezing point while enhancing creaminess, and in processed meats, it aids in the curing, producing a juicier product. The amount of sugar commonly consumed at one time is astonishing. A "Sugar Scoreboard," a poster just published by the Center for Science in the Public Interest, lists the number of teaspoons of sugar, both added and naturally occurring, in typical servings of dozens of foods. According to the Washington-based consumer group, the amount of added, as opposed to naturally occurring, sugar in 12 ounces of Pepsi-Cola is 10 teaspoons; 12 ounces of Shasta orange soda, 11.8 teaspoons; 1 ounce of Honey Smacks cereal, 4 teaspoons; 10 jellybeans, 6.6 teaspoons; 1 Nature Valley Granola Cluster, 4 teaspoons (more than a Milky Way); an 11-ounce thick milkshake, 9.6 teaspoons; a 4.6-ounce piece of pecan pie, 12 teaspoons; a half cup of sherbet, 6.7 teaspoons, and 1 cup of Dannon yogurt with fruit, 7.8 teaspoons. Some foods are rich in naturally occurring sugars, such as the 6.3 teaspoons of sugar in a quarter cup of raisins and the 17 teaspoons of sugar in 5 dried figs. Food labeling laws do little to help consumers discern just how much sugar may be in processed foods. Sugars come in many forms, some of them with more than one name. Thus, an ingredient's label might list any of the following sugars — sucrose, dextrose (the same as glucose and corn sugar), corn syrup, honey, brown sugar, raw sugar, molasses, fructose and high-fructose corn syrup. Because a food might be prepared with more than one sugar and because ingredients are listed in order of their prominence (the most prominent listed first), three or more sweeteners might be scattered throughout the ingredients list, and the consumer might not realize total sugar is very high. Ready-to-eat cereals are the only products that usually list amounts of sugar as "sucrose and other sugars" in grams per serving. Even then, the consumer may not know there are 4.2 grams in a teaspoon of sugar. As for nutritional value, there is little distinction between the various types of sugar. Sugars provide "empty calories" — that is, they contain few if any essential nutrients (vitamins, minerals, protein or fiber). Raw sugar is no more nourishing than ordinary refined sugar. Honey has two-thirds less calcium and potassium than brown sugar, which is hardly a significant source of these, or any other, nutrients. In animal studies, honey has been found to rot teeth faster than white sugar and, spoon for spoon, is more fattening. A tablespoon of honey supplies 64 calories, as against 46 in a tablespoon of white sugar. Only molasses has enough nutrients to be worth mentioning, with blackstrap containing the most (for example, 137 milligrams of calcium and 600 milligrams of potassium per tablespoon). Many people have proved it is possible to curb a sweet tooth. Following are some helpful tips: • Stop buying commercial baked goods, and start baking your own cookies, muffins, sweet breads and cakes, using a third to a half less sugar than a standard recipe suggests. Few baked goods suffer from such a reduction, although some cakes may be less light; sugar is most important in high-volume pies and cakes like angel food and chiffon. • Try using natural fruit juices or unsweetened juice concentrates in place of some or all the liquid in recipes for sweet baked goods, thus reducing and sometimes eliminating the sugar. • Do not buy sweetened soft drinks, even if they are made with artificial sweeteners; these only serve to perpetuate the desire for foods that are very sweet. For a refreshing but wholesome soft drink, try mixing orange juice or apple juice with club soda, seltzer or mineral water. You also might try the new calorie-free and sweetener-free flavored mineral waters. • Keep fresh fruits handy for snacks and serve them often for dessert, if your family eats dessert. • Purchase pancake syrup in plastic containers that have a drip spout, or transfer your favorite brand into such a container. This will help control the amount used. • Try unsweetened fruit butters in place of sweetened jellies and jams. If you can afford them, unsweetened conserves, jellies and jams are marketed by Sorrell Ridge and are available in specialty shops. • Check the carbohydrate information on the label before buying breakfast cereals. Look for brands that have two grams or less sucrose and other sugars per serving, unless fruit is the main sugar source. To sweeten cereal, add sliced fresh fruit or raisins. • Do not use sweet foods as rewards for children, and ask friends and relatives not to bring such foods as gifts for your children. • When you do eat sweets, try to limit yourself to small portions — two small cookies, a quarter cup of ice cream, frozen yogurt or frozen tofu dessert, a sk'ver of cake or pie or one small piece of candy, not a whole bar. After a while, you may find that many foods you once enjoyed taste much too sweet. Mr. and Mrs. Orville Briggs Mr. and Mrs. Elmer Cyr 60th event Golden day for Briggses set for Cyrs LAMAR — Friends and relatives of Mr. and Mrs. Orville Briggs are invited to a 3 to 5 p.m. diamond wedding anniversary open house April 7 at the Lamar Schoolhouse. Hosts are their daughter, Mrs. Bill (Phyllis) Walker, Miltonvale, and family. Their four grandchildren and four great-grandchildren will assist. Briggs and the former Dorothy Winsett were married April 7, 1925, in Concordia. They since have lived on farms near the Lamar community. The couple request no gifts. McElroys celebrate 40th anniversary BELLEVILLE - Mr. and Mrs. Bernard McElroy invite their friends and relatives to an 8 to 11 p.m. dance Saturday at the Eagles Lodge in celebration of their ruby wedding anniversary. Music will be provided by the Keiffer Pair. The honorees have two sons, Arvel and Norval, Belleville, and two grandchildren. McElroy married the former Berniece Baldwin March 17, 1945, in Jewell. They have lived in Belleville since 1959. He owns Barber's Ice Cream Plant, and his wife is retired from the Peoples National Bank. Milestones Women may be misled by calcium advice By JANE E. BRODY N.Y. Times News Service NEW YORK - Calcium has become the nutrient of the 80s, eclipsing even salt as a cause for dietary concern. -Though nearly every American grew up knowing calcium builds strong bones and most of us were repeatedly admonished to drink lots of milk, which is calcium-rich, few realized that this mineral remained crucial to maintaining a healthy skeleton after they stopped growing. The dairy industry's slogan that "you never outgrow your need for milk" was dismissed by most as a sales pitch rather than sound dietary advice. But now, with a national epidemic of osteoporosis — weak bones that result in debilitating fractures — afflicting older Americans, especially white women over 60, tremendous attention is being focused belatedly on that bone-building mineral, calcium, and the foods and pills that supply it. Unfortunately, much of the concern and the action taken to alleviate it seem misplaced. Many women are dosing themselves with costly, questionably effective or even dangerous calcium supplements. Even when the supplements taken are safe and effective in increasing the body's calcium supply, there is little, if any, evidence they actually will prevent the dreaded fractures and loss of height that result when bones deteriorate. Furthermore, dietary calcium is but one element — albeit an important one — involved in keeping bones strong. Other crucial factors that promote a loss of calcium from the body include excessive protein and salt intake, cigarette smoking and heavy caffeine and alcohol consumption. Many older Americans are deficient in vitamin D because they consume few foods that contain it and they are rarely, if ever, out in the sun, which triggers production of vitamin D in the skin. The vitamin D you consume in shown to reduce the risk of fractures, but the treatment may increase the risk of cancer in some women. Experts on osteoporosis believe a chronically low calcium intake is a major factor behind the current epidemic. National nutrition surveys have shown the typical adult woman in this country consumes about 450 to 500 milligrams of calcium a day. The current recommended daily Treatment with estrogen hormones after menopause has been shown to reduce the risk of fractures, but the treatment may increase the risk of cancer in some women. foods (such as fortified milk, liver, tuna and salmon) and that is made in your skin is an inactive form. To affect calcium absorption, it must first be changed into the active vitamin D hormone by the liver and kidneys. Dr. Hector DeLuca, a University of Wisconsin biochemist who first demonstrated this mechanism, showed that as people get older, their ability to activate vitamin D declines. Without enough of this hormone, lots of calcium in the diet is of limited value because the body will not be able to absorb it. And simply taking more vitamin D won't help unless the body is able to convert it into the active hormone. Treatment with estrogen hormones after menopause has been allowance is 800, and an increase to 1,000 is expected soon. For women at and past menopause, many specialists now recommend a daily intake of 1,500 milligrams of calcium, the amount in about five eight- ounce glasses of milk. These recommended amounts are based on current dietary and exercise patterns. Some experts believe if people ate more moderate amounts of protein, exercised more and stopped smoking, calcium needs would not be nearly so great. Food is the best source of calcium because the mineral is better absorbed from food than from supplements. Top food sources include milk (especially skim and low-fat milk), buttermilk and yogurt; hard cheeses (especially Parmesan and Swiss); sardines and canned MILTONVALE - All friends and relatives are invited to a 2:30 to 4:30 p.m. 50th wedding anniversary celebration for Mr. and Mrs. Elmer Cyr April 7 at the Miltonvale Wesleyan Church. Hosts are the honorees' children, Mrs. Don (Marilyn) Weaver, Sedro Woolley, Wash.; Mrs.. Paul (Audrey) Walker, Concordia; Mrs. Charles (Kathleen) Suffridge, Kansas City, Mo., and Larry, rural Miltonvale, and their spouses, and a daughter-in-law, Phyllis Cyr, Emmett, Idaho. There are 19 grandchildren and three great-grandchildren. The Cyrs moved from a farm home into the community of Miltonvale in 1959. Cyr is a retired soil conservation contractor. The couple request no gifts. Card shower slated for 90th birthday LUCAS — A surprise card shower is planned Wednesday for Stella Lee, a resident of the Lucas Rest Home, in honor of her 90th birthday. The honoree was born April 3, 1895, in Osborne County. She married Frank Lee on May 21, 1922. He is deceased. Mrs. Lee has two children, Mrs. Eugene Herrick, Luray, and Donald, Pawnee Rock, and five grandchildren and five great-grandchildren. Anniversaries are published in the Sunday edition. The deadline is noon Thursday. Forms are available at The Journal office, 333 S. Fourth, detailing all information the staff needs to write the announcement. Pictures (of couples married 50 years or more) should be 3- by 5-inch black and white glossy prints. Snapshots will not be accepted. Photographs can be returned in self-addressed, stamped envelopes or held at The Journal office for pickup. salmon eaten with the bones; oysters; collard greens, kale, turnip greens, mustard greens and, to a lesser extent, broccoli, bok choy and dandelion greens; dried beans like kidney and pinto beans, and bean curd. In seeking to maintain strong bones throughout life, don't neglect exercise. A recent study by the University of North Carolina showed athletic women aged 55 to 75 had the bone density of much younger women. Their bones were 15 to 20 percent denser than those of sedentary women their age. Especially valuable are exercises that involve work against gravity, such as walking, jogging, cycling and tennis. Swimming, though it has other values, is of little use in increasing bone density, the study showed. Although much remains to be learned about the benefits of calcium supplements, nonetheless choices abound, as do unsubstantiated claims for the effectiveness of some. When choosing a supplement, keep in mind only part of the tablet is actually calcium and calcium is somewhat better absorbed if taken in divided amounts several times a day. According to an analysis published in Nutrition Action, the newsletter of the Center for Science in the Public Interest, the highest calcium content per tablet (40 percent) is found in calcium carbonate products. Before starting a calcium supplement, it is wise .to consult your physician. Performers offer lighter side of religion MADISON LAKE, Minn. (AP) — To Tom Leech and Harold Armstrong, religion indeed can be a laughing matter. Leech and Armstrong, who make up a Christian-oriented comedy team called the New Life Players, see laughter and wit as a way to entertain young adults while spreading the word of Jesus Christ. The two 25-year-olds formed the New Life Players, based in Madison Lake, and began performing for junior and senior high school youth groups in December 1982. "Our priority is to show that religion can be fun," Leech said, "and to leave 'em with a message. The best way to do that is through entertaining." Their shows include scores of one-liners, mock musical acts, and a couple of standard underdog characters who overcome self-doubt through faith. One such character is a nerd-like high school student, played by Armstrong, who is encouraged by his macho-type friend, Leech, to get with the flow of everyone else — ditch his Bible and start wearing some decent shoes. "The act's funny," Leech said, "and yet it's about liking yourself enough to stand up for your religious beliefs." Through such characters, the New Life Players address the problem of peer pressure and how their audience can deal with it. "Years ago the family was the main influence on teen-agers," Armstrong said, "but now it's the peer group, and some groups go to drugs and alcohol. It's a positive peer group we'd like to encourage." SPRING STOCK REDUCTION Sportswear Dresses Swimwear Reduced 5% More Each Week April 1st to April 6th 30% off April 8th to April 13th 35% off April 15th to April 20th 40% off April 22nd to April 27th 45% off •No Exchanges •No Refunds •No Charge Cards IN THE ELMORE CENTER

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