Carrol Daily Times Herald from Carroll, Iowa on October 31, 1967 · Page 8
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Carrol Daily Times Herald from Carroll, Iowa · Page 8

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Carroll, Iowa
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Tuesday, October 31, 1967
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Page 8
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New Clamor by Industries for Quotas By JAMES MARLOW (AP News Analyst) WASHINGTON (AP) - People with a special ax to grind—in this case, foreign trade-have been busy lately which is not unusual. They have been busy all through American history. In this capitalistic society, where businessmen laud the free enterprise system and plenty of people still denounce any form of government interference, free enterprise has never really operated freely. When the American government began in 1789 the very first piece of legislation passed by the first Congress was a tariff act putting a tax or restrictions on certain imported goods that might compete here with American products. Down through the years since then Congress has passed a steady stream of tariff acts, lowering or raising as the mood of the country or the needs of special interests changed. In the midst of the depression Congress pulled its biggest boner with the 1930 Smoot-Hawley Act which raised tariffs to their highest point in American history. It was a bad time to do it. Other countries retaliated by raising their tariffs on imports from America just when American industries and producers, hamstrung by the depression, needed to sell their stuff abroad. This, of course, caused a reaction. And under President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1934 the United States did an about-face, giving up its high tariff policy to keep out imports and adopting the Trade Agreement Act which called for both sides to make cuts. This empowered the president to work out agreements with individual countries by which they would reduce their tariffs on American exports and this country could reduce its tariffs on imports by as much as 50 percent. Congress repeatedly renewed this Trade Agreement Act up to the end of World War II when American thinking turned to a much broder arrangement of tariff , agreements among a number of nations. Congress kept on passing the Trade Agreement Act which, for the protection of American business, had a number of escape clauses letting the United States eliminate or modify an agreement if some American producing group was suffering from foreign competition. Meanwhile, as had happened before, the mood of the country became more and more protec- tionst, thus making the Trade Agreement Act look a little dubious as a means for reducing tariffs. Finally, in 1962 President John F. Kennedy got Congress to put through the Trade Expansion Act whose basic idea- reflecting the desire of American producers at the time—was to expand foreign trade. While this gave the president more elbow room in making agreements, at the same time it provided many protections for American business, which meant the act in some ways was more liberal, in some more protectionist. But the idea of multiple agreements grew. And last June the United States and 52 other countries signed an agreement to reduce tariffs on one another, starting next Jan. 1. By then the American policy of reducing tariffs had reached Times Herald, Carroll, la. Tuesday, Oct. 31, 1967 While Law Looks the Other Way— Cigarettes Get a Death Grip on Teen -Agers Diann's 'Dog' . . . wouldn't win any prizes at the local dog show, but she'd sure raise a ruckus among the canine entries. Orphaned last spring, the raccoon was raised by Diann Rusch, 16, of Okauchee, Wis., with the permission of the state Conservation Dept. , and is now easily handled and will walk on a leash. a point where cuts had averaged 35 percent on 6,000 items. But the fun began after this latest agreement, which needs no congressional approval, was signed. A number of U.S. industries and producers complained they were hurting from foreign competition. They turned their lobbyists loose on Congress. And one industry after another— textiles, steel, meat, glass, oil, shoes, lead and zinc among others—went before Congress. They wanted the quotas — the amount of any certain product permitted to be imported here from their foreign competitors—cut down. President Johnson's administration got all worked up. It warned Congress that foreign nations would retaliate. The United States now exports almost $4 billion more worth of products each year than is imported. The administration predicted foreign 'retaliation against the kind of protection now sought here could cost this country $3.5 billion in exports. Johnson would almost certainly veto any bill requiring quota cuts in a broad, perhaps even in a few, number of imports. But he would be reluctant to veto a Social Security bill. So some advocates of the cuts thought it would be a good idea to tack them on the Social Security measure rather than handling them separately. Some opponents of the cuts argue they are a cry for help from industries .that failed in their own efficiency or in keeping up with technological developments. And they warn that the less competition there is from foreign imports, the more Americans will have to pay for the American products. "No one under 21 shall purchase or possess tobacco in any form." —A city ordinance EVERETT, Wash. (NBA) — Not far from a local high school recently, a customer rushed into a store, summoned a clerk and pointed a finger at a shelf. "Gimme a pack of cigarettes." "Menthol or regular?" "Menthol." "Filter tip or plain?" "Come on, hurry, I'm late for class already." The incident is not an isolated one. It happens every day in perhaps every town in the nation. Although there are state and city statutes which forbid juvenile smoking, the regulations are almost always ignored. Such law violations are without number. Enforcement of tobacco laws is slim. In many, if not most, areas of the United States, both parents and police admit they have given up, as one authority sighs, "trying to fight the inevitable." It's a pity they have. Cigarettes have become a king-sized addition among kids. Once the whispered recreation of a few pinheaded delinquents, teen-age smoking has become the 100-millimeter mode among an astonishing percentage of the younger population. Big and small town corners are crammed with two-pack-a- day prepsters. Grade school janitors are finding more and more ashes in the lavatories. Rare is the mother who washes junior's shirts anymore and never finds nicotine stains. According to educators, some of the kids start as early as 10 years of age. It's hit and miss at first. Roll their own if they can't swipe them. Smoke. Get sick. Smoke again. Get sick again ... but not as much as the first time. From then on it's perhaps 10 to 40 smokes a day, 210 a week, 6,300 a month, and 75,000 a year, often before a lad reaches full puberty. Addiction, of course, increases with age. According to the American Cancer Society, high school boys are especially hooked to the habit. National surveys indicate that from 40 to 50 per cent of all males, 15 to 18 years old, indulge in cigarettes to one extent or another. The result of such indulgence clear. However, private opinion is that the police and judicial officials' consider tobacco laws too trifling to worry about. "We're full up with all kinds of juvenile violations," says veteran detective Howard Sweeney. "And I believe if we suddenly started to arrest kids for smoking, we'd just get laughed out of the courts." Thus, Sweeney admits, Everett tobacco laws assumed the preposterous aspects of a com- munity honor system. Merchants are pledged not to sell cigarettes to minors and minors in turn are pledged not to buy them. "We hope," says Sweeney lamely, "everyone complies." In fact, few comply. Kids can pick up packs or cartons almost anywhere, including, ironically, the concessions stand in the city's court house. Merchants here feel that if they don't sell smokes to the teen-agers somebody down the street will profit by the business. Many assert that "salesmen aren't policemen" and just don't have time to question customers about their age. "Anyway," says a drug store owner, "what if I don't sell cigarettes to the kids? They can go right outside and get them from any vending machine in town." So much then for the honor system. As of now, there is no evidence of any reversal in the national trend of teen-age smoking habits. Nor is there any evidence that judicial authorities are waking up to the fact that kids are making a mockery out of law enforcement. Feeling everywhere is liberal and permissive. Parents say they can't cort- trol today's generation. Edu<!&- tors who smoke in school hallways shrug their shoulders. Police believe the problem doesn't concern them. "It's a - - - - shame," grumbles one Everett physician.' "We all want to lock a kid up if he grows a beard or something. But we'll stand by and say nothing while he smokes himself into the grave." py STEAM ON THE M & NF FRANKFORT, Ky. (AP) — One of the nation's few remaining steam-powered railroads is in northern Kentucky. It is the Morehead & North Fork, only four miles long. is ugly to contemplate. ACS is convinced that youngsters who smoke regularly, especially if they inhale deeply, stand a good chance of falling victim to lung cancer within a period of 25 to 30 years or earlier. And if not cancer, then something else — emphysema and blood vessel woes. Other things — such as the radioactive tobacco element Plutonium 210 — may cause even mpre serious, but as yet unknown, bodily hazards. "The evidence is overwhelming," says pathologist Emanuel Bitar, who has lectured over 25,000 teen-agers on the subject. "And kids who smoke today are very apt to become part of the future evidence." Meanwhile, however, the law looks the other way. In Everett, as example, authorities can't remember the last time they arrested a juvenile for smoking violations. It just isn't done any more. Some officials even admit they have "forgotten all about the law." 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