72 REBF THE CHAT,' SATURDAY. NOVEMBER 28, 1325 JAMAICA BAYDEBTItJED TO BE HEVJ YOfflPS VGREATEST. 8H5B-P0RT-. 1 ft. 4 T f ... ' , . r . , nr r VA ' tsV , - THE HENRT A. METER NAMED AFtER THE FATHER OF THE JAMAICA BAY DEVELOPMENT . . (BX,X F. KELLER, Chief Engl-' , neer, Department, of Docki of '; ;; " m City ot New York) Fifteen yean ago the City of New York pledged Itself to make ot -Jamaica Bay, which Is separated from the 'Atlantic Ocean by the narrow strip of land known a Rockaway Beach, and Ilea at the extreme west- : erl, ends of Kings and Queens counties, Into ft great sub-port, with ample rail connections to New England on the one side and the mainland ot New Jersey on the other the latter fay the way ot a tunnel, now. under construction under the Narrows to, Staten Island, thence iuta .New Jersey. So far the City of New York has acquire all of the property between Barrett Island and the Long Island railroad crossing in Queens, with the exception ot a small piece of property at Bergen Beach. ' ' .. .. ' ' , The City of New' York lias completed a channel' 18 feet deep and 600 feet wide, from Mill Basin to Faerdeg&t Basin, , and the city is pow dredging a channel 18 feet deep, and BOO feet wide, from Ber gen Beach to ft point 550 feet east ot Bockaway parkway at Canarsie. ;The city Is ftlso otiildlng an em bankment 150 feet wide and about ' two miles long, as tht beginning of the future West Island, and in the building ot this embankment it Is dredging one channel 80 feet deep and BOO feet wide, from the Beach Channel on the south side ot Ja maica Bay to the main channel on the north side of tha bay. . .! , New', York City appropriated $1,005,900, for dredging a channel 30 feet deep and 1,000 feet wide, f ron Barren Island to Mill Basin, the. dredged material being used In reclaiming about ,1,000 . acres of swamp lands between the main channel ot the bay and Flatbusb. avenue. Tht city also made an ap propriation ot $500,000 for the con struction bl ft pier 400 feet wide 8nd",600 feet long, at the! foot Ot Rockaway xarkway. Canarsie. The city has also buflt Flatbush avenue, froni AwnueTT to Rockawa Inlet at Barren Island, and made appropriations for establishing a ferry service from the foot of Flatbusb avenue and Barren Island to the Jacob Rils Park in Rookaway. MAQNITTJDH OP THE PROJECT FoT the partial deevlopment only of famalca Bay the City of New Yorl adopted a plan that will, eventually cost at least, $250,0,00,000; and 1 for the construction - of; the necessary channels the Federal Government has indicated as Its cost'about $11,000,000; and, in addition; the State of New York, has ceded to the City ot New York 16,000 acres of land under fater , Jamaica Bay, from its first study aud Investigation, bas always been looked upon as an ideal location where industries could be served by both" rail and water transportation, arid,fjwlth, the, growtH,ot the rapl transit system in the past decade s.nd every promise ot its more won- detfttl growth. In the future, the bhor'Mine of the bay and the borders' of the commodious tributary basios iill be In, close proximity with the vast labor supply of Brook-.yn and Queens. " ' " ' In 1919, Interest in the develop' tncnl of Jamaica Bay, which had re mained dormant tor nearly ten years, was revived by an offer of a western capitalist , to build bulk' heads, wharves,' piers, warehouses, etc., at his; ow? expense under nn Rgrnement whereby the city would loasa, to him ,800 acres' of land be' tw&cn Barren Island and Mill Basin for a terra of fifty yeara, a'ter which llie fcity would obtain possession of the , 'ottre loinrovemont. Certain conditions, however, were Imposed, among them access by land through the extension of Flatbush avenue into the mainland of Brooklyn and the creation' of a 30-foot ' channel from the open sea to Mill Basin. The clty.'througn the active lead ership ot Murray Hulbert, then Commissioner of Docks, directed its energies to the fulfillment of these two conditions, realising whether done by private or public funds that the Improvement could not be carried oa without these two ob stacles removed. Federal help was necessary, , To show the awakened interest ot the city, the Sinking Fund Commission in November, 1919. set aside S7.500.000 for thel construction of six piers' betweal Barren Island and Mill Basin; Thpf appropriation 'was made contingent on the action of Congress at its session beginning the first Monday In December, 1919, In authorising the construction and maintenance of ft 30-foot entrance channel 1,500 feet. wide through Rockaway Inlet to Ja maica Bay, and a 80-foOt interior channel 1,000 feet -wide up to- Mill Basin. The District Engineer, Col onel Edward, Burr, a man ot vision and a firm believer In the logical and necessary growth of the .city's waterfront by the development of Jamaica Bay, made a favorable rec ommendation. ; Nothing, however, was accomplished except that the Jamaica Bay enthusiasts .were delighted to see that the city acted as If It really Intended to do some-f thing. ; . i mlssloner and approved by the com missioners ot the Sinking Fund." -Acting on this specific promise of performance, the Secretary of War, on December 22, 1921, re-established the lines from Mill BtCson to Fresh Creek Basin along the 1911 original lines. On January &' 1923, the Sinking Fund . Commissioners approved the plan for the improve ment of the waterfront as submitted by the Dock Commissioner. After passing through the, inlet, deepened and , widened at Government expense to 30. ft, by 1,500 ft, we come within the limits of the bay. The project . as adopted calls for a channel 30 ft. deep and 1,000 ft. wide. The plan ."of .the City, however, contemplates the development and consolidation ot the interior Islands of the bay, and the channel of the future -will be 2,500 ft Hide around the entire swee of the. shore front with 30 It, ol water, widening out in front ot Rockaway Park, Belle Harbor and Neponsit to a magnificent roadstead tor ships, with a length of about tYi miles and a width of about V miles at Its maximum. The roadstead will accommodate safe an chorage for at least 150 ships. - Two years ago the Shipping Board anchored at this very , location 112 ships. i ,:' , ,.( ' The bed of Jamaica Bay is com posed of fine sand, tonped with about 3 to J ft- of marsh mud. An ideal bottom is presented for dredg ing hydraulically at ft low cost, with the desirable benefit of converting the dredged material Into useful land. In addition, there is no danger of. Injury to vessels by fouling on hidden rocks. For connection with the rest ot the waterways arouigl the port, the ultimate development contemplates the construction of an inland water vfays, or ship canal, to provide safer, passage for barges, lighters and other small craft between Gravesend . Bay and Jamaica, Bay, and between Flushing Bay and Jamaica Bayv. These two projects will place into close and sate communication the rest ot the p'ort with Jamaica Bay, t It must thus be seen that, front he standpoint Ot water facilities, with a tidal range ot only ma;ca pay, iron) . Barren 7 sjana to I the Long Island Railroad crossing,' contemplates .he construction of st-v piers between Barren Island and Mill Basin, 2,000 ft long and 737, ft, wide; six piers, between Mill Basin and Paerdegat Basin, 1,000 to 1,500 ft. long and 300 to 400 ft, in width; eleven piers between Paerdegat Basin and Fresh Creek Basin, 650 ft. to 1,000 ft. long and 300 to 400 ft. wide; eight piers be tween Freeh Creek Basin and Spring Creek BaBln, 1,000 ft long and 400 ft wide, and five piers be tween Spring Creek ' Basin and Shellbank Basin,' 1,000 ft long and 400 ft wide. All slips would be from 300 to 450 ft. in width. 'The widest slip today is that at West 46th street, where the width 18360 ft. tor the accommodation of steamers with 100-ft beam. The piers as laid out would have side wharfage ot 14 miles, and with -ends and heads ot slips, a wharfage ot about 20 miles, all with 80 ft of water. The area for development under consideration from Barren Island to the Long Island Railroad crossing of Jamaica Bay would thus afford wharfage' ior ocean steamers equal to 50 per cent of the present facilities for this purpose In the entire City of New York. .The progressive' development fr6m the Long Island 'Railroad easterly ;vwould easily provide another' 60 pet cent It Is 'thus apparent that in a virr gin territory, where the' City can plan along modern lines,' learning from the mistakes nnd shortcomings of the 'past; facilities can be provided In the future that will for all time assure to the City the port supremacy of the world.' The potential increase of 100 perf cent in steamship facilities is based entirely on a numerical" comparison. J - 1 ' ; - i r - t . ' f -' ' v, t , FLATBUSH AJENUB EXTENSION TO BARKEN ISLAND IN 1IU of the Qovernment, and within the bulkhead line solid fill la permissible. Moreover, this type will reduce' to a minimum tht expense of maintaining the open-pile structure, which in the case of wooden piles amounts to about 6 per (?ent per annum. On the outer sides ot the pier will be placed a double line of railroad tracks; directly alongside the tracks will be the transit shed, one APPROVED AN? PROPOSED PLANS FOR JAMAICA BAY, DEVELOPMENT In 1921 some Very definite steps were taken,: which served to Indi cate to the Government that the city was really in earnest, In order to Impress the Government that its demand, for a 30-foot channel was actuated by a keen desire to develop Jamaica Bay, the Dock Department asked tor and obtained $750,000 for the construction ' of a relnforoed concrete pile bulkhead platform, from the end ot the wooden plat form, built, in' 1915, .distance southerly and along the easterly side of Flatbush avenue, of 2,200 feet, making the entire wharfage length now available with 18 feet of water alongside of 3,600 feet The con tract also provided for the straightening out ot the winding channel leading from the main channel of Jamaica Bay to Mill Basin. . The extension of Flatbush avenue has been held to be the gateway to Ja maica Bay.:. t In 1921 the- question of an under standing .between the city and the Federal . Government was still In abeyance. . The city had requested the restoration ot the pierhead and bulkhead lines to the lines as es tablished In 1911. On October 7, 1921, after a conference between the District Engineer, the Dock Commissioner and the Comptroller, the commissioners of the Sinking Fund passed a resolution to the effect that If the War Department will ap prove the restoration ot the pier head and bulkhead lines in Jamaica Bay to the lines jof 1911, the com-missloners of the Sinking Fund within 90 days thereafter, .will adopt' a plan tor the Improvement of the waterfront between Barren Island irf the Borough of Brooklyn and the. Long Island railroad crossing of Jamaica Bay in the Borough ot Queens; within the same period the commissioners of the Sinking Fan A will authorise the institution ot proceedings, to acquire all the privately owned land and land under water between Barren Island and the cross-bay boulevard, or the Long Island Railway bridge, neces sary tor the development ot this wa torfront in accordance with the plans submitted by the Hock Com JAMAICA BAT DESTINED TO BE NEW YORK'S GREATEST SUB-PORT. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 4.4 ft, Jamaica Bay Is worthy of When It Is considered that' piers OF. THE SITE Let us examine the project physically. Will it Btand up from every angle of requirement as a modern port? It. has water facilities, . At present there is a depth ot water of from 25 ft to 85 ft. between Rockaway Point and the Ambrose Channel. There exists some sand bars with about 8 to 10 ft ot water overlying.. These shoals are easily re-' movable. The Government, as part of Its share ot the co-operative agreement, will build a jetty that will make li possible to maintain tne entrance cnannei. There, Is a continuous movement of sand along the ocean .side ot Rockaway. The construction of the east Jetty, at a cost estimated by the Government consideration as a modern port, ' : . PIER PACIUTIB8. The next question to be answered is whether or. not Jamaica Bay can provide a place tor the. necessary pier facilities, The pier is the connecting, link between rail and water, and in. the generic term plor facilities,, must be .included the wharfage face for Vessels, the tran sit shed with Its co-ordinated ware houses and industrial buildings. : The City ot New York has a di rect length ot waterfront ot 57S miles, and there are available for purposes' ot commerce 406 piers with about 81 miles ot wharfage en the sides ot piers. , This length does not Include the ends ot piers will be built ot substantiaf widths, with rail alongside the ship, with such. " cargo-handling machinery demonstrated to be necessary and economical, the ratio of increase must be considered from the turn over of cargo possible. . It is safe to say that with scientific planning the development ot Jamaioa Bay along the mainland alone will pro- Tide 200 per oent ot the present! steamship facilities. The general thought of pier development Is the consideration ot filled-ln piers. This, is made possible by the "fact that in no case will the piers be less, than 300 ft. or more In width by the construc tion or side retaining walls andjlll- 1J - . ,, H,,n,: i t f (?"" wi 1 ;;(3l! hi 4 . ' 1 THE RIBGELMANN PtOWINO THROUGH WATERS OF JAMAICA BAT LIKE A THING OF UFl of about $2,000,000, will catch this westerly drift and cause tne kock-aways to build Up on the ocean side, and with the scouring action ot the waters 'of the bay, I believe the maintenance ot the entrance channel will be a comparatively easy matter. ; , ! . .' . .. and the bulkheads between piers. Overseas steamships and Coastwise steamers1 that would demand So It. ot water, tise 142 of the present piers, with side wharfage' of abbut 40 miles, or about 60 per cent 6f the total wharfage available. The mainland development ot Js- ing the core, ' The wider the pier the cheaper will be the cost per square foot as in all cases the side walk, work wilt be the same.? This type ot construction Is authorized by, the Federal authorities because the line chosen by the City as the pierhead line Is the bulkhead line 6r two stories in height, with the space Intervening between the side of the shed and the side of the pier spanned, with semi-portal gantry cranes of about , 6-ton ' capacity, These cranel will be spaced on the sides of the pier, so that tour will serve ft 600-tt freighter,- Inside ot the transit shed and connected with it with mechanical appliances for the rapid transfer of 'freight, , will be built warehouses for the collec tion, storage and handling ot grain, floury sugar and all staple products. A duplication ot this layout m the other side of tne pier completes the layout ... - ,y i WATERFRONT VALUES Never in its history bas the City had the opportunity to plan in a big way as is now possible In- Jamaioa Bay. ,, Theorists have .laid down academic rules tor the width- piers, but It is not always pjsslbje to apply the theories to the City of New, York on account of thf fatt that, realty values are so hlga that the space occupied is an important element 'In the determination of rentals to be paid, Land Under wt ter on the North River la .wortn about $260,000' per acre, and about fiip.vw per acre on me &asi Jtuver A pier $0 ft wide and 1,000 ft long on the North River, ltli jaJOO-ft slip on 'both sides; would Oupy a water 1 area of 186,000 gq.,: ft,' about 6H 'acres'wlth 'a Value $1,626,000 for land ilone, ' The plor and - one-story shed would cost $400,000, or only 30 per cent of the total cost The land then is the determining factor. Lend is so vat uable that for an Increase of 15 per cent in the total cost of .the Ira provement, two-story shed can be built, giving twioe'the area for an Increase ot II per cent in the cost . In Jamaica Say, with, ft value of water area bt $7,600 per acre, pier ot the same type ot construction and ot the same dimensions would cost $48,750 for the Wator area and $400,000 lor construction. The con structlon in this case would be bout 90 per cent ot the cost for one-story shedded pier, and with (wo story shed the cost of the laud and construction would be Increased TO per; cent ' ' ' ; It is obvious, therefore, that the ory must be accompanied in its ap plication, with a full value of the property occupied. So in planning piers in Jamaica Bay, property costs are subordinated to the con struction costs, and the result is that piers can be laid out of sufficient width tor effect In the fullest measure the rapid and steady flow ot freight. . . TWENTY MILES OF NEW . .WHARFAGE I have said that the improve ment' between .Barren Island and the Long Island Railroad Crossing of Jamaica Bay will provide 20 miles of 30 ft wharfage; In addition to - this the tributary 'basins, Milt Basin', Paerdegat, Fresh Creek, Spring Creek, Shellbank, and Haw-tree, Will provide about 19 miles of wharfage .with . 18 ft' of water0. These basins' will bring into direct connection with the Bay, thousands ot acres of ' land , already built ,up ana saving population In Brook lyn and Queens ot about 500,000 to whom these basins will be nearer frontage ' oa navigable ' tide-water than any other in the-City. They will serve this rapidly-growing population With facilities for reaelv ing alt sorts ot cargo', and especl lly bulldlgg material , , : ;,. The "next, fundamental essential Is that of rail facilities. In most ports it has been necessary to bring the ocean to the railroad. . In Jv maica Bay we can pring the. rail road to the ocean. ; The wheels and tne keen can meet. The Long Island Railroad tracks tor freight between Bay Ridge and New England are located within very 'short distance from Jamaica Bay, , .From the very head of Mill Basin to the railroad: is a dis tance ot , 10,000 v teet; from -the head ot Paerdegat Basin to the railroad Is a distance ot 3,300 teet, and from the head ot Fresh Creek Basin tq the railroad is a distance ot 1,800 feet At Hawtree Creek, the Rockaway Division of tia Long isuna railroad crosses the bay and crosses .the line . of . the proposed development. I : , - It, will be relatively cheap to bring Into the entire water-front around the bay the necessary belt railroad, connecting -with the Long Island Railroads All- of the terri tory, between the railroad and the bay Is low level ground, ideally suited, with little cost; tor the con structlon of the connecting tracks, TUNNEL CONNECTION, WITH STATEN ISLAND AND , ' NEW '- JERSEY - ' By Chapter 700 of the laws. of 1921, the. City ot New York Was directed to begin the construction of a railroad tunnel imder New. York Bay between the Borough of Rich mono- and Brooklyn within two years after the passage' of the Act The Bill became law on May 28, 1921, and In accordance 'with' its previsions construction had to be commenced before May 23, 1923 When this tunnel is operated It will, with the connections as mentioned before, provide tor all-rail delivery from each of the trunk railroads directly into. Jamaica, Bay, with Its tremendous Industrial and commer clal waterfront, and will stimulate the building-up of vast; areas now undeveloped. It wil reduce .the causes of serious congestion' In Manhattan along Its ' yalueable water-front.! it will complete the list of essentials for . a modern seaport! and it T'tll enable the City Jo rAIIete" the "pressure on the 7 per cent of Its waterfront around Manhattan Island, by calling upon the rest of its undeveloped resources td. x take up the" burden, on" a watew front with,'direct rail' connectioI; with modern, (Bqulpment 'iijoinjf houses, on main channels almost di rectly 'on the ocean and removed from the. coqgested ,inesybt .wate , New York City js the great mag- net ot businlsav Sblps come wltli, full cargoes and ,a out with, full cargoes. It has done- as much, as 60 per cent of ,thd country's tusl- ; It now has a business equal In yblume of .import and export trade .to the . rest ot the country. . ; With the railroad Into -Jamaica Hay '. tying up the very' ocean with the great sources of supply of the coun-V trv. Jamaica Bav in National u. set, and its 'development one of Nai tional Interest-:.,'.--:,' ?,..-.; -1- The last essential mentioned .as- being fundamentally required by u . modern seapori Is that of highways, The material growth of the City will bring Jjundreds ot streetiinto the Jamaica' Bay flection, providing -access;, over ell-paved highways' ,;; and bridges 'Into. thi: Industrial a": centres ef he entire 'CM&yutt'ii .Speciflo. jreferenoes should v, b-. ? made ot two Important arteries ot traffic that are now' under way. and which will be of "substantial benefit to the 46veWpment .The' 'bull neaa at Mill Basin is. i. now completed. ' Flatbush "avenue almost a ? straight 'llnejfroia Barren Island to the -East River; where it is carried over the Man-v hattan' bridge Into Canal - street. Manhatan. Canal street In turn, leads directly; to the entrance to -the vehicular tunnels now under, construction, and .which will .pro; t vide a direct motor highway' from. New Jersey to the Jamaica Bay Improvement. At the easterly end,i the Cross , Say boulevard Is under construction, and this will Jbsj united by means of the Woodhaven bqjilev&rd .directly into tho, Queens . boulevard, to be widened to 200 teet. This will afford a motor highway,,-from Upper .Manhattan and Queens ; to Jamaica Bay. . . t . Jamaica Ray bas all of the esaen-1 : . tlals of a modern Seaport L. It .will take care of the business of the port tor all time. The work of de veloping will, of nepessltyi be car ried ever a long period ot time, on account ot its magnitude, but it be- . hooves ,us. at present , to think the future. "Wo" must- Jay down' a :. complete original plan and 'build i,: enough In advance of the demands of the times, as indicated by the past growth of the Clty, o that will be possible to capture the trade when it seeks the port ' '8' Jamaica Bay Is worthy ot development 'aa a modern seaport. The Government, the State and the City have recognized this. The commerce ef the future will select the' trade route that is cheapest, quickest and most profitable. The City must build wisely and, welWamaica Bay offers the opportunity.. ; ' l-( .. Jt-.'V .How Tubtt Operate Th ; efTeetlve op ration of . any vacuum tub In -not revalued by Mi brilliancy ot the filament, . A a main -ter oC fact, one should nevar use th ' brilliancy of tha nlatmnt i en- In- -Slca-tor ' (hat tha tnba la worMns; properly. Modern vacuum tube havt a 'coating placed vor tha fllamant,. which sreatljr Increases the aloctron amlaalon. - Tha filament meraly sarvet aa a heaUr t snerate 4he enilaalon of. alaetron.r One win find that will: tubes, usaintc the coated filament th Ufa of tha tubca la n6t (ovornad bv tha filament burning out, but by tht loaa or deterioration of tha coating on the filament. When this Mppona tha tithes will remain lit, but: no alirnala will ba hrard, Kanmia City Star.
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