The Brooklyn Citizen from Brooklyn, New York on September 3, 1898 · 3
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The Brooklyn Citizen from Brooklyn, New York · 3

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Saturday, September 3, 1898
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GERMAN EMPEROR CAUSED EXPOSURE. THE BROOKLYN, , C1TIZEM, , SATURDA SEPTEMBER 3, 1 893. French Attacks Must Cease on Col, Schwarzkoppen, WHO NEVER KNEW DREYFUS M. CTIgne Began a New Investi- gatlon, and with the Aid of Ber- Un and Rome Discovered the Forgery Belief that Colonel Henry Had an Aeoomplice. PARIS, Sept. 3.-At lat it may be affirmed with a reasonable degree of certainty that the prisoner of the Tie du Diable will soon be brought to France and retried for -the crime for which he was illegnlly sentenced. A revision of Dreyfus' sen tence ha not yet been voted by the Cabi net, but seven of the Ministers are known to; favor it. Two of them, MM. Cavaignac and Maruejouls, Minister of War and Min ister of Commerce, respectively, oppose it, or rather counsel delay, M. Cavaignac be cause he has not finished his investigation . and i still confident that Dreyfus is guilty and M. Maruejouls because business is bHd and -the country would suffer severely ' through the disturbance of trade which would certainly follow a great national scandal and excitement. But the French people, even army officers, recognize that revision s inevitable, and public sentiment is -wisely demanding that the crisis be brought to the quickest possible end. Popular exasperation, now that the peo ple see ho'-easily they were fooled while the rest of the world outside of France was not deceived, grows greater instead of subsiding. It Will not permit the -present impossible situation to continue long. The decision of the Government may be delayed for a few days to permit M. Cavaignac to finish his inquiries and in the hope that the public excitement will subside. There will not be n speciai session of the Chamber of Deputies, as was reported. Every effort Will be made to avoid the summoning of Parliament, even if the Cabinet splits. The correspondent has received from a confidential source the true history of these latest developments. About a month ago the continued gibes of the. French anti-Dreyfus press led . Colonel Schwarzkoppen, formerly German military attache in Paris, to make a personal appeal to the German Epipergr. to, check the persistent attacks upon, him. Colonel Schwarzkoppen again asuredt,the, Emperor jn his honor as a swaier. .wat he never Jtnew Dreyfus und never bad any dealings with him while he was in Paris. The letter which it. is al leged Colonel Panizzardl, the Italian niili tary attacne in Paris, bad written to him mentioning Dreyfus by uame was, Colonel Schwarzkoppen assured his sovereign, a forgery. ....... In. response to this appeal Emperor Will iam instructed Chancellor von Hoheulobe again to inform the French Government of these facts, and to insist that the continued repetition of. the calumny inrr-France must cease. Count von Muenster, the German Ambassador to France, returned specially to Paris on Aug. 10 and delivered the above message to M. Delcasse, Minister of Foreign Affairs. The latter informed President Faure. M. Brisson, the Prime Minister, and M. Cavaignac of the message. It was this second warning from Germany that led M. Cavaignac once more to search all the documents, relating to "the Dreyfus case. He intrusted the inquiry to his friend and aide-de-camp, Captain Cug-niet'i- The latter -found, as cabled on i Wednesday, convincing evidence of fm-gery , in the document supposed to have Wenin 1 the handwriting of Colonel Schwarzkoppen. j He to reported to his chief on Aug. 12. ' M. Cavaignac was appalled and enraaed. He determined to fix the crime upon its author. Confidential communications nassed ; with Berlin and Rome, with the result that Emperor William permitted Colonel Schwarzkoppen to -make a statement as ( soldier toesoldier-to Count de Foucauld. the frencn Military Attache in Berlin, and the Italian Government allowed Colonel Painz- ' ardt to say to Colonel Girard-Pinsonniere; ; the trench Military Attache in Rome, on his honor as a soldier that he never wrote the letter ascribed to him naming Dreyfus ag;tbe person who had sold, the plans of a certain trench fortress. Count de Fon eauld and Colonel Girard-Pinsonniere were then summoned in Paris. They were in l tbe anteroom-of the War Office when M Cavaignac sent , for., -Lieutenant Colonel ' Henry. After a few questions at that dramatic interview M. Cavaignac declared that Col. i Henry had been imposed upon bv a foreerv. Colonel Henry declared that the document was genuine, whereupon the two attaches confronted him with the respective state meats of Colonels Schwarzkoppen and Pan Jzzardi.v Captain Cugniet pointed out the intrinsic evidence. of Jhe falsity of the docu went. Then the Minister of War turned suddenly on Colonel. Henry, and, shaking the letter in his face, thundered: "This letter is a forgery and you are the forger.: The guilty man did not attempt, to deny the charge. The details of his confession have pot been allowed to become public. It ;is well established, however, that one at least of bis superior officers is implicated. In fact, it. is impossible to deny that the French army administration is now so seriously compromised that public confidence has been destroyed and the gravest crisis threatens. It is now universally believed that Col. iienry committed suicide by order, and.it rannot be denied that he was encouraged if not jrged,.to make away with himself, As for the others who are guilty, enough is known already to indicate that in this, as in other scandals in France, it js necessary to "cbercher la femme." , It is known that General Boisdcffre, lately Chief of the General Staff, who was most active in shielding Major Esterhazy, and therefore In proving Dreyfus guilty, in the friend of a -woman who, throughout the case, devoted herself to exculpating Major Esterbazy. It is impossible .to' give the details of this feature of the story or to dwell tipon the sensational reports attributing atrocious crimes to high officers of the army .whom the people landed as gods and heroes tdurlng the Zola trial last winter, but the "scales are falling from , the eyos of France at last. Jt remains to be seen what she. will do when she realizes the (nil measure of the, deceit, humbug and humiliation of which she has been made the victiiu. GERMANY COULD CLEAR DREY FUS. But It May Not Be to that Country'! Interests to Do So. LONDON, Sept. 3.-M. De Blowitz, the tans correspondent of the "Times." tele graphs that he has obtained the views of a "distinguished German" on the Dreyfus situation. I his man admitted that "Ger many, by speaking out, could, perhaps, clear up the Dreyfus affair," but he added that "the interests of the nation are su perior to those of any man. and if Germany were listened to. General De Boisdeffre could not remain an hour at the head of the staff, whereas Germans ought to wish to have him stay there as long as possible." M. De Blowitz says: "General De Boisdeffre' shortcomings are just as fully understood here in France. There has been an idea of sending him as French Ambassador to St. Petersburg, a post he desired; but the incident of the Zola trial made his retention as Chief of Staff Imperative. Now, however, the Germans no longer have a motive to keep silence." Proceeding to relate, from inside knowl edge, the history of the forgeries of Colonel hohwartzkoppen's (late German military attache in Paris) handwriting, the "Times' " correspondent says the work was so cleverly done as to deceive Colonel Schwartzkoppen himself. "It is absolutely impossible." says M. De Blowitz, "that Lieutenant Colonel Hmry should have attained the necessary professional dexterity. The actual foreer. therefore, must be sought elsewhere, though it is likely enough that Henry, concocted the phrases. Discovery would not be diffi cult, and would elicit, the whole truth." SINGLE TAXERS. They Want the Tariff Abolished in the Philippine Islands. The Brooklyn Single Tax League had intended to open its season of weekly meetings last night, and had arranged for a discussion of the effect of Henry George's work on society. However, yesterday was the anniversary of the birth Of the great economist, and the Manhattan Single Tax League was fittingly celebrating -the dav with a dinner iud speeches. This drew away a large part of the expected au dience, and the heat kept away nearly all the rest. As a consequence, only the president add secretary E. .1. Wright and Henry G. lea ver, and a corporal guard of members appeared at the League's rooms at No. 1101 Bedford avenue last night. The idea of holding a meeting was abandoned, and the party sat out the evening on the stens of the building watching the bicyclists, and discussing the single tax question in all its phases. it-uer receiver during the day from Montague R. Leverson. M. P. adrisini the introduction of a Hill iu the Legislature mr mi- auuiisamenp.ni taxes. on farm im provements, received considerable com uji-ui, out tne lo.pic of greatest interest seemed to he the Philippine question. The single taxers:'l.iefi'ee'tbat the Spanish tariff snould be dtone,,.a,v;8y with, in the islands now under our" rare, and the' single tax system substituted ,ajnd they have written to Judge Day. on. the subiect. It was abbu'o'cioflk when the informal gathering broke up. Next Friday if tie ncai n.is nnatert sufficiently, an open discussion-win be held on the question 'Will f,.:: i v . ' ..... iiiuniinii mxnprsuip ot trancnises benefit the people?" The public are in- viiea to attend. ANNE BOLEYN'S GHOST. Unfortunate Spouse of Henry Haunts Tower of London. THE FOOT GUARDS MORE ACTIVE SERVICE. Lieut. Hampton Expects Trouble in Cuba. WASHINGTON. Sept. ' 3.-Capt. Fred. M. Page and Lieut. Hampton, of Gen. Butler's staff, were in Washington yesterday. Said Lieut. Hampton, just before he started away to join Gen. Butler to go to Cuba- Ihe regiments that go down there nil! find plenty of work besides the much dis dained 'police duty.' Why, there are Spaniards, and there are Cubans. There will be hodies of armed men in insubordina'tion or lurking in the woods, so that the regi ments sent to t;nha will surely see the active service they so much desire." Both men called for a final visit at Camp Alger yesterday. They are provided with pistols in addition to their swords. Capt. Page had bought some pistol of extra quality, for, as he said, "we will need the; there. cominqTeVents. Picnic and games of the John Enni. Don, ocratic Club at Mnnteverde's Grand Street i inn mis aiiernnon ann evening. Annual regatta of the Varuna Boat Clu mis atternoon. United Colored Democracy will hold a mass meeting on Tuesday evenine. Sent . at Goeta's Hall, Throop avenue, corner viHiiaoom street, unicf (. H. Williams win presine. Ullting of the Rnsn-ciler riM.,.i!. league ar. unite Mouse Hotel, Canarsie, Monday next. Lea cue will star fmm v 139 Evergreen avenue, at 8;30 a. m. sharp! Music at Manhattan Beach. Victor Herbert and his celebrated Twe-n ty-eeond Regiment Band will render the following fine programmes this afternoon and evening: . AFTERNOON, MISCELLANEOUS COMPOST. TIONS. pvartura, "Dm- Frelachutz" VObfr Serenade, "Lollta" '.. Liny Fantaale from "1 Pasllacol" i.. n, nwaw niarni r-virnnes nir v - 7Uku. Solo for Piccolo. "Linurane". ,.,.,,juy,.ur Ovsrture, "Morn, Noon nd Nlh't in Vlfnna v, nrsi time this demon (bv rtauratk ai. ouhb, - riw uym '. , flrl. lb) "The Death of Aw." ' '. . (c) "Anltra's Dance." ,,,m in inr nana or thf Moun tain jviiib. , EVENING, COMMENCING AT 7 O'CIir-ir ' uvenure. -rnnce Euscne -..,, -, Schmidt ft.) "Marche t Auvera-ne a,n. -taw- iiuiii me virr uie rierterfniu. . . '...T " ... . " .' "' Herbert wirn weint .vtvn . ,., .Vlirml Fanclulli (a) (b) "Patrol of the O. A. R." A Colored Youth's !riie. . LYNCHBURG. Va.. Sept. 3,-John Han cock, colored, aged IS years, was arrested here yesterday on two warrants, ebnriins him with having criminally assaulted two little white girls, aed 0 and 11fi He has confessed his guilt. The condition of the children is deplorable. The negro was em ployed lis a nurse to care for the sick and aged grandfather of the girls. ""; , At the Elerenth Honr. ; Jlnka-YVhat'a a, sost-grartimte-nnunV anyhow? Fllkln-Oh! It'a where a fellow takee a tnmhM to hlmaelf before It's eTertaailngly too tte, and nea and seta .posted, aven If ha twa ( raduated,- Doing Sentry Duty Bald to Have Seen the Ohoat Every Night A Warning of Death. In spite of the official artemots to ridi cule and suppress it. the information has been circulated all through the United Kingdom that the ghost of unfortunate Anne Boleyn has been seen by the foot guards doing sentry service at the tower every night, says the Chicago "Times Herald." The news has created great ex .ucmiu, almost consternation among tne large number of superstitious people. particularly of the lower classes. Accord ing to an old tradition, the aDDearance of Aune Boleyn's ghost forebodes thedeathof a member of the royal family, and it h whispered that this is not the first appear ance ot the grewsome spook. Supeistiti oils gossips maintain that ever sioce her terrible death upon the scaffold the ghost of the unfortunate queen has regularly appeared to the guards at the toner on the eve of the death of some member of the royal house. Accounts of former ap pearances, embellished with all the blood curdling details, which the fertile imngin uon ot superstitious gossips can invent. go from mouth to mouth, and so firmly do many people believe in the story that they actually speculnte which member of the royal family is tn he called awav. The belief in ghosts, whose appearance is an evil omen, usually foreshadowing death or misfortune In the family in whose house or castle they appear, is a very old one and not by any means confined to England. During the dark middle ages, when feudal ism reigned supreme in all European conn- tries and the powerful nobility stood practically beyond the reach of the law. manv a bloody deed was perpetrated by the feudal lords and never avenged by the hm. It was the confidence of the masses in the belief that crime., even if not avenged by human law. would surely be found out and punished by the powers of heaven, which gave rise to the superstition that murderers and other criminals, as well as their victims, could find no rest in their graves as long as the murder remained unavenged. At that, time nearly every castle had its ghosf-. Some of the latter were believed to appear every midnight and ,u their tpec-tral form act over the crime which thev had committed in the flesh. Other ghosts visited their old haunts only at special occasions, usually on the eve of some death or misfortune thst was to occur in the family. In most cases the. ghost was identified by the superstitious domosties as that of a certain individual, either some ancestor of the family who had distinguished him self by his bloody misdeed or some inno cent victim of his brutal cruelty. In other cases, however, the family.. ghost was not ;riAni:.j .1... r . mm 01 some iiniortunate or criminal am-estor. It was simply a chost of a nondescript character, as much as part of the easllo which it haunted as tower or dungeon. II 1L ,, . ... in ii ii.i , me cranie oi romanticism, is full of haunted castles, and many tradition nave noen preserved in poetical form. Not only the castles of the numerous royal and ducal families have their ghosts, but there is scarcely an old noble family in the em pire that cannot boast of some well-authen tli.n .l i uLu"" si'"v& " inisf sriHiiuwy existence is nrmly believed in at least by the servants. ine prosaic and military spirit of the i russian kings of the house of Hohen7nl- lern did not tolerate any spooks, and. since the time of Frederick the Great n0 ghost ot any description has been seen in the castle of the royal family. Even before that, time apparitions of ghosts in the royal castles were few and far hefween i though the founders of the house were probably not much better than' those nf otner tendnl houses of the buccaneer type, Ihe Austrian house of Hapshurg. sitice Rudolph of Hapshurg. the rulinc one of tne Austrian monarchy, hag always been invoren ny ghosts. The famous White liifly, immortalized by many patriotic poets of that country, has for several cen. tunes maintained her exclusive position-as tne family ghost of the imperial house According to popular traditions the White L,ady is some guardian spirit, 'intimately connected witn tne fate of the imperial family. She appears whenever it is neces sary to warn the family, and never-failed to foreshadow the death of members of the imperial house. According to the popular neuer me M hito Lady made her last ap pearance wnen she walked through the corridors of the "Hofburg" on the eve of the death of Joseph II. During the last few years of Crown Prince Rudolph's life the guards doing sentry service in the Hof burg claimed to have seen the White Ladv several times in the wing of the castle in. Banned by the prince. Russia seems to be a fertile ground for ail kinds of superstitions. Even now the belief in warewolves,- vampires, witches and other uncanny things has not died out among the lower classes. The traditions of apparitions, of ghosts in the imperial painces or Moscow aurt St. Petersburg from the time of Ivan the Terrible to the present time, would fill volumes. ' The early history of the houses of.Ruric and Roman- ow was written with Wood, and the record of many a black deed of their tyrannical rulers wns preserved in the traditions nf the people through the long period of their serfdom oven to the present dav. I-nn after Peter the Great had made St. Peters burg, the city of his own creation, the can- ital'of the empire, the ghost of Ivan the terrible Haunted the imperial pnluce at Moscow. It is a characteristic. fact that all the folk ore about .the apparition. of ghosts, cllnen to im- ivrriuuilx aioscow Tenerah e; and roiniilH palace. While the winter palace ... .... ,.,,-.vt.im. win, i, mir, -never figure,! to any extent in the ghost lore" 0f tne superstitious people.. n u n ,! tl,t - spectral figure fu while "was een B)ni1(t through the corridors of the winter palace in Ihe night , before the terrible death of the father , of. the -present Casr. h, h story was evidently put in eirrah'rlnn after the Nihilistic: crime which cost Nicholas his ic. ... , The tragical fate of Apne Boleyn was ell adapted to arouoe the atmnathies nf the English people, and in later years the figure of the beautiful and unfortunate queen became surrounded wKh an anreole of poetical fiction. The ieople never he- ieved In her guilt, and -onsldered her death upon the scaffold as martyrdom. No won- The Sunday Citizen. A Newspaper and Magazine. If You Wish to Secure a Literary Treat Order it in Advance. E3f' Next Sunday's Citizen Will Contain an Ihe rollowinf Are Array of Seasonable and Interesting a Few of the Features: Articl es. Ira D. Sankey at Eastport- j Making a Chart of the Heavens. " ? Miss Hsmm in Porto v, t t Ill Bim.J I I I .( I -A. i lie astronomers of the world are engaged in a task ' ) that may be well called Herculean. In eighteen ob- j servatories, scattered throughout the world, photographs X I are being taken of the firmament and the myriad of j t I stars forty millions of them, it is said. How it is j being done is one of the most interesting stories of the t ; day, and is told in The Sunday Citizen. j j Saving the Sunken Sish ShibS t The Three British Cyders. j t j The Sunday Citizen will relate how "Hero" Hobson From their note books, these Englishmen who have ! : 1S going about his work of raising the ships of circumwheeled the globe, write about their impressions ! erveras neet, and incidentally tells how other of Chicago, and the natives of the Windy City will ; ' ships have been raised hardly like the picture. If they could but see them- I J . selves as others see them, the Chicagoans would im- i t Ramping "RoUnd the World. prove. .New Yorkers, especially Brooklynites, will , icau uic biory wun a reiisn, ana thank goodness that I 1 .. . i-i -, T mey re not like nicagoans. An afternoon with the famons singing evangelist at his country home. A resident of Brooklyn for 20 years. Our woman correspondent has returned to New York and has graphically rehearsed what she saw in the little island in the West Indies. Miss Hamm grows eloquent over the place and its people, and every American who reads the story will want to go there. war- American Cars in London. it Monsieur Gilbert, a French journalist, for a wager of $50,000, has undertaken the feat of trotting around the globe. He must reach Paris by June i, 1900, when the great Universal Exposition will be opened. He nas travelled 23.631, already and believes he can do : the other, although he has to travel across Siberia. It may seem strange to the average American that j the English stick to their "railway carriages," when if our car6 are so much more comfortable. But so it is A t I Rkmarrk th "Dhl ln,w .' 1 4- ' niv 1 UUIV I l 10 W I HIM iTV-lllC I i 1 and the innovation about to be made in the metropolis j t will likely be criticized. Still, something had to be ' done to render mysterious murders on railway trains ; t ; impossible Hence the new cars which will be operated on the second underground electric road. i The Woman's Pages. No woman can afford to be without The Citizen on 1 1 I Sunday. She can learn more than in any of the so- 1 ' called woman's.- papers. This week there are numer-1 X ous articles; new ideas and freaks of fashion, Autumn ; X season of out-of-door sports, skirts now hang limp, i X recipes for all sorts of dishes, household hints. - Some of the stories of the great Chancellor told in The Sunday Citizen are uew, and they present his character in a new and much better light We are told that his word was law and his slightest wish was obeyed at once. i t ! Mr. Van Stunts' Diamond Pin. The Citizen's court reporter, who has a multitude of true stories stored away in his garret, has brought this one forth for the amusement and edification of The Sunday Citizen readers. It is a wonderful story of a 1 r 1 . . wondertui occurrence, which also ci ontains a moral. For Sale by All Newsdealers. Price 3 Cents. For 5ale by All Newsdealers. MOMMMmM .. iiaaaAa..... IN ADDITION TO THESE FEATURES i THE CITIZEN OF NEXT SUNDAY Will Contain a Large Number of Articles on a Wide Range of Subjects, Local and General. THE HOME PAPER OF THE BOROUGH OF BROOKLYN. aaaatAAAjA........ w,ww99it t ttttm.........1tlttitA HOW. BIG GUNS. ARE MADE. J .1 r .t . .1 . . . . uir, mererorp. inai rnp report ot thf aiv pearance of the chnst of Kinp Henrv'n innocent victim found general credence among the superstition;. ... Pure'.j- for pou'tirnl reasons Hentr VIII. married, juat few months after his snc- cessioh tn the throne, Caiherine of Araaon, th Widow of h's brother Arthur and aunt of Charles V. He did not lore Catherine. who was devoid of nil charms of heanlv. and treated her eMl,v because she had disappointed him bj- bearing him a daughter instead of a son. When' tiis'rel.itlons to Charles V. became strained ' and he no longer considered hiin.sp.lf bound. b.v political considerations he made m effort- to rid himself of his spouse. The Pope refused Ihe divorce and Ihe King took matters in his own hand. In spirit of rerenge he took reprisals against the Iionuin rlergv in Kne- land,' and, becoming exasperated, married Xnne Bolevn. in pite of-the-Pope, Nov. Ut-4nS2. In -Mar, -1333, he .convoked a clerical .court of his own choice and com- pellwi.it to promulgate a decree of divorce. which dissolved nis union with his first 1 wife. ; ToJeg.ilizo his ac(lon and prevent future .complications he compelled Piiriia- ment, which was nothing hut willing tool In his hands, to pass a law declaring that only the children of Henry's second mar riage were entitled to succession to the throne. v ' . " rit('tlie; Case.' ;";;'' Nabor So (lasr, th ,old miafr, . ta, dud at last, la h, daclorf Docloi-Tfi, and' I nver knaw ot a man d)inr with a mora appropriate dlnaaa, Nabor-lnileadl What did ha dl of ?' ; ,"."' Pnfir-Aa' . stfectlon. oC tha. chttt.'-SDatoii Courier, s AaaembHng; fhe Hnge Forgingi at the. Washington Gnn Foundry. I tie gnns.are made of what is called forged steel. This steel is made b.v private nrms, principally at the famous Bethlehem works in Pennsylvania, and is sent to the gun foundry in the shape of large tubes and in other shapes called jackets and hoops. These steel pieces, after being 6nished. are put together and made into guns. The jacket of a' gun is about half the length of the tube,; and itself is really a large tube. The inner tube-,, when it arrives, is put into a lathe, and has the hole bored out to nearly the size it will be when finished: then it is turned down inside for about h.ilf its length from the rear or breech end to its proper sue. ' turned down means that the metal is cut-off with a steel entfer.- The jacket Iso is trored-out-sinoothly and the hole- rarenilly measured. ' The diameter of this hole, or We,' in the jacket is a little smaller (some hundredths of an inch) than the outside of the tube after being turned down. Overhead in the shop are big cranes, which travel bai k and forth on tracks, and which can easily lift , and carry heavy weights. . The. largest crane is called the 110-ton ciwne.-bnt it, will lift a weight even greater. Xear the center of the gun shop is a large pit in which there are furnaces. After the tuhe has been bored out and turned down outside, it is carried by a crane and" lowered intQjhe pit near the fur-nace. o that it stands on Jts mnisle end, the. hreeeh end- oeiBg np in the air. The jacket is also lifted and lowered into a furnace 'and Betetf.-'-' This 'furnace has a top. M cover, which lifts off, and which is put on after the jacket has been lowered into it. Hot air is forced into this furnace, which heats the jacket till it expands so that the size of its bwre becomes greater in diameter than the size of the tube it is to inclose. ' When all is ready, the cover is lift, ed from the furnace, the crane hooks On to tne jacket, lifts it out of the furnace .md swings it over the tube. The jacket is then qnickly measured and carefully lowered over the tube, which is standing on its end. A stream of cold water Is then admitted into the lower end. of the tube. This water rises nearly to the top of the tube, and helps to cool both tube snd jacket! now fitted together. As the jacket cools it shrinks to its proper slw. and so squeezes and holds the tube tight within. When both are cold the partly made run Is lifted out of the ph. put into another lathe and turned down outside so as to he ready to have the hoops put on. The hoops, which have been bojred out to the proper size, are heated and shrunk on over the . gun just as the jacket was shrunk on over the tube. The w hole; gnn is made, or built up, in this manner. After all the hoops are on the gun is bored out again to finul size, put into a rlBfng mflohine and rifled; that is, it has grooves cut inside of the bore throughout tts length. These grooves commence at the mustle and gradually curve 'till they roach the end of the bore. They are cut by what is called a rifling bar, which js a long shaft with cutters at one end. The gun remains steady while the bar enters into the gun at the muzzle and ttirnj at the same time, thus cntting what are called spiral grooves throughout the length of the bore of the gnn. This rifling is done so as, to- give the shot or shell, when he gun is fired, twirling or rotary motion, which prevents ht from -tumbling end over end and causes it to keep pointed in the right direction. The 1 shot or shell (projectile) is long, and has a copper band fitted on its rear end. When the gun is fired this copper band, being softer than the steel of the gun, enters into -the grooves, is turned by them, and gives : the. projectile a spinning motion during its flight. St. Nicholas. Tie CW. V The ancient Spanish and Portuguese war-lyrics are called redondillas and romanceros. The Chronicle of the Cid written in the Twelfth Century, has been . the military inspiration of the Spaniards . for seven centuries. It has been doubted, , whether the Cid ever existed, but the researches of a Leyden professor prove thst there was such a person, though the Cid of history and the Cid of poetry are very dissimilar in character. The real Cid was a rebel, a robber of freebooter, the ally 0f the enemies of his country; the Cid of poetry aim amir wss me type of Knightly virtne 'The Perfect, the Born In a Happy Hour.' the Invincible, the Magnanimous." He is Roland and Bayard in one. In the popular literature of Spain he holds a place without parallel in the history of any other hero: sung by wandering bards in the Twelfth Century, he is the inspiration of revolutionary songs and odes in the Nineteenth. More than two hundred ballads relating to hi deeds and prowess have been collected. Most of these are of the Sixteenth Century-some are tnnch earlier, and were transmitted' orally, from generation to generation. The dramas, poems and tales founded on h , "Poema del Cid" are innumnrable. Frances M. Butler, in "Lippincott's." 1 1 ,

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