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THEifrofESPHIL'ADEBPHI SATUKDAY MORNING,1 "OCTOBER 1 5, lllllli Tie Present Great Prosperity of West - . ' ' era Pennsylyania. A CENTURY OF PROGRESS History of the Distilling Interest and Its Development. THE WORKING OF THE EXCISE SYSTEM A Visit to Gibsonton and an Inspection of Its Industries The Use ' of Natural Gas. HE month of September which has just passed was an important one in the annals of Pennsy 1 - ' vania. It recorded the one hundredth anniversary of the foundation of Pittsburg as a city, and completed a chapter in the history of American progress that has never been excelled. The past century has shown such a marvelous growth in the power and prosperity of our country that it was only fitting that a due record of these things should be preserved. The inhabitants of Pittsburg wished in the celebration of their centennial,wbich occurred on the 24th, . 25th and 26th of September, to show to the world . a modern miracle. The . streets of Pittsburg were crowded. A procession miles iu length displayed the myriad industries that had grown up with the progress ot tbe city. The present was contrasted with the past, and the triumphs of today made the works of yesterday seem primitive and crude. That the display was successful in its object no one who was present in Pittsburg during the davs of its celebration can for a moment doubt. The history of the past hundred years in Western Pennsylvania is truly a succession of wonders. That great cities and prosperous townships should spring up as if by magic, and colossal manufactories, employing wholo armies of workmen, supply the world with their products, are sufficient evidences of material prosperity. But the people of this district of our State have gone still further. Thoy were not bounded by what was upon the surface of their land, but went beneath and wrested from mother earth her hidden treasures. The mountain side has been stripped of its woody covering, and the hardy miners of Pennsylvania, plying pick and shovel, have forced their way, step by step, through rock and vein, and have brought forth the precious coal to drive the engine and the steamboat THE DISCOVERY OP STATURAL GAS. ' Another wonder, and a greater one, has been accomplished by the workers of Western Pennsylvania. Perseverance, guided by the hand of Science, has conquered a later servant, more powerful and much more submissive than all the others. In the discovery of natural gas the greatest triumph of this century was complete. The factories of Pittsburg to - day are run with it, and it men, and the works cover fully twenty acres. At night, whon the furnaces are going and the workmen, half clad, rushing hore and there In and about the melted, metal, it presents a scene worthy of Dante's Inferno itself. It is ruu, as are most other factories in tbe vicinity, with natural gas. From Homestead the next important centre is the town of McKeesport. Here are the large iron works of W. D. Wood & Co. and the National Tube Works Company, the latter a mammoth concern, having no eoual in its class of business in the world In this factory one can get tubiug from one - eighth of an inch ud to twenty inches in diameter. It is this tubing that supplies most of tbe natural gas companies in the State. Leaving McKeesport there comes a change in the industries of the valley. The next town, that of Elizabeth, is wholly devoted to mining interests. It extends on both sides of the river and far away into the hills oeyona. i THE MINTNQ DISVBICT. ' The miners of Elizabeth and the vicinity are a curious body of people to study. Al though for the most part citizens thoy are generally of foreign birth. The Welsh and English races predominate. In the coke regions, east and south, more Italians are to be found, but here they are seldom seen. The miner is pretty largely a tenant upon the land of the coal operator. He pays his rent by the month, and for. a dwelling of three or four rooms it generally averages from four to six dollars. Tbe accommoda tions provided for the miners are generally poor in character, but it is not altogether the operator's fault, for the miner lias little sense of personal cleanliness and is not very provident. Ha usually keeps a pig or two aud he has no objection to allowing it the freedom of his domicile. In pay his income varies. A good - worker can mine about seventy bushels of coal a day, and for that he will receive 2i cents a bushel. But out of this sum be has to provide his kit of tools, keep them in good ropair, buy his oil, powder for blasting and the various hundred and one things he may need in his business. In order that the miner may be pro - ff . I ... A RIVER BOAT. has been found the most docile helper that Providence has ever given to mankind. Its supply is amply sufficient ; its working simplicity itself. Whether for a mighty factory or a humble family fireside, it can be made to serve equally well. Pittsburg, once the city of smoke, has lost its former character. Tbe atmosphere is clear and tbe inconvenience of coal dust is a thing of the past, and as a result the development of tbe manufacturing interests of the city has increased to an enormous extent. To get an idea of the importance and magnitude of this development, one must not be content to limit his observations to the city of. Pittsburg alone, nor to base his opinion on an inspection that is confined to a single district; no matter how interesting or convincing such an investigation may appear. The miner must be seen at his shalt, the farmer at his plow all must be questioned, so that tbe testimony of one may agree with the statements of the other, before one can rcnlly learn of tbe exact state of the peoplo ho is attempting to describe. THE VALLEY OP TUB MONONGAHELA. To get a correct estimate of the great works that are now going on around the city of Pittsburg there is no better way than to follow the course of the Monongahela river, for the district through which it winds is the most important, historically, commercially and agriculturally, of any in Western Pennsylvania. On its banks are situated the greatest of the foundcries and mills; in the hills above the river coal is found in large quantities. And beyond the bills, in the interior, are tho fertile farms, that speak to well for the prosperity of our State. Leaving Pittsburg by the Pittsburg, Virginia and Charleston Railroad, which skirts the bank of the river, one is at first struck by the number of small yet prosperous sot - THE BEER VAT AND STILL tected in his work they combine together and employ what is called a weighmaster, whose duty it is to look after the workman's interest and seo bow much each basket weighs when taken from the mine. Each miner has a number, and by this number he regulates his payment. By these credits, as thoy are called, he is able to purchase what ho wishes from the stores of the operator. The miner is paid for his previous montn s service on or about the 15th of the month following, but in the meantime he has credit at tbe store, and then on pay day he is paid in cash, less the amount 10 nis uooit tor the month. The amusement of the miner is as varied as Ms character. Some prefer entertainments of a more or less litcrarv character. country balls and the pleasures of visiting eacn omers nouses, un the whole the min ing classes are not a bad lot. They are ex ceptionally peacetul ana civil. The village constable finds no trouble in preserving order among them, and the town iail. where one exists, is almost always in a state of dilapidation, wbicb ar gues well for its useless. 'fflffZi&tMFW. ness. The miner has a ' hard life, but be meets its hardships manfully. Iu the year 1887, in tho :?", tirst bituminous coal dis trict of Pennsylvania, there were mined 1.549. - gSK?u. Oil tons. This gives 'flfjJUSiTff'SJ 8ome idea of the extent qi iue muustry. Another mining centre situated a little further up the river is Monon - gabcla City. It has a ppulation of over three thousand, inhabitants, and boasts of publishing four local newspapers. The town is filled with pretty homes, it is prosperous in its enterprises and socially it ranks equal to any place in the entire valley. NAVIGATION ON THE MONONOAHELA. Navigation on the Monongahela river is regulated by a series of locks which extend from Pittsburg to tho West Virginia line. Thcro are nine locks in all, but of those the first four, as one leaves Pittsburg, are the most important. The Monongahela Navigation Company, or Slackwatcr, as it is generally termed, does an enormous business in river traffic. They charge a moderate toll for passing boatsthrough each lock, and the receipts from each Slack water has amounted to as high as $500 per diem. In transporting coal they have a regular charge of $1.35 per 1,300 bushels to pass through four locks, and their receipts from this sorvico alone are vory considerable. Six men attend each lock, taking turns of two watches, each beiug six hours in length. During tbe spring floods on the river tho locks were entirely submerged. The wator roso nearly 13 feet over tho top of them, and a stone monument on lock No. 4 shows the strength of the seemingly quiet river when in anger. The fertile region of the Monongahela river has still another great industry which has spread the fame of tbe locality much further than any of the other occupations that have been previously mentioned. This is the manufacture of whisky. The history of whisky distilling in this region is one of great interest, and its development has been extraordinary. When the first settlors of the valloy cleared away their land rye became thoir principal cereal crop. It furnished tbcm with wholesome food and an article for barter. But it was bulky and cheap, and, therefore, not con venient or profitable for the uses of foreign commerce. A horse could ufacture, a good still of one hundred gallons might purchase two hundred acres of land, and that even within ten miles of Pittsburg. At .one time there were no fewer than 552 stills running in the western counties aloue. These were, it is true, generally small affairs. Sometimes the primitive distillery consisted of only one little still, but oftener two were used, one for ainglings and the other for doublings. The stills were setup position and to insult and maltreat those whom the government appointed to execute it. Distillers who complied with the law wore injured in person and property, and armed men patrolled the country, spreading terror and alarm In all directions among loyal citizens. The mails were seized and robbed ; houses f. the loyalists in all directions were burned,' and the militia of the four rebel - trick Lee made his headquarters at Parkinson's Fdrry and there issued a proclamation offering conditional pardon and peace. The inhabitants were all required to take the oath of allegiance to the United. States. A few days after this proclamation was issued General Lee made a seizure of all persons supposed to have been criminally concerned in tbe late violent proceedings. TbS most guilty had fled from the country. 1865, be was succeeded by his son, Mr. Henry C. Gibson, who, together with Mr. Andrew M. Moore and Mr. Joseph F. Sinnott, formed the firm of John Gibson's Son & Co. In 1884 Mr. Henry C. Gibson retired from business, and the firm name was again changed to that of Moore & Sinnott, the present proprietors of tbe Gibsonton Distillery. Gibsonton is a model manufacturing town. The settlement consists of thirty - two com - it SS iiiifff aiu Ibbiiibi aliT JB 1 jji p SIS IS ill i 11 a I fj VIEW OF THE WORKS AT OIBSONTON. In the cellar, in the upper part of the spring uouse or in a near out - house. As a consequence the use of whisky was universal. The quality was good, tho taste pleasant ana cue etiect agreeable. Temperance lec - turers were not then dreamed of, and the use of whisky was not discountenanced by society. The women nscd it as well as the men. farmers kept barrels of it in their eel lars. It was good for fevers, it was good for a decline, it was good for aguo, it was good for snake bitos. There was nothing named in the materia medica but old whisky pos sessed some of its curative properties. It made one warm in winter and cool in sum mer. It was used at all gatherings, Bottles ot it wore set out on tho table at christen' ings and at wakes. At funerals in the win ter season huge coffee boilers and buckets of warm whisky punch were passed around, and the people invited to drink, and tin cups were filled and passed from time to time to the mourners. The government gave regular rations of it to their soldiers. At a time much later than the era of the Revolution, when money was scarce and labor plenty, it is said that many farmers could have the services of laboring men during tho whole of the winter season for their bread and board. They went to work with a dram of whisky and tansey and a piece of bread and butter. On this they worked till breakfast. At every meal the bottle was taken by the neck, for whisky was all that whisky is now and coffee, tea and beer besides. No one thought of condemning the indiscrimi nate use ot whisky at the time. Did one so attempt to argue against it, more than one divine studied in Bible lore was at hand to quote the verse in Proverbs : " Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish, and wine nnto tboso that be of heavy hearts. Let him drink, and forgot his poverty, and remember his misery no more." Thus whisky became the most important item of remittance to Philadelphia and Balti more to pay for salt, sugar and Iron consumed by the dwellers beyond the mountains, and as early as the close of the Revolution many a horse might have been seen making his weary way over the Alleghenies with twenty - four bushels of rye on his back in the shape of " old Monongahela." THE WHISKY REBELLION. Having come from a country where the most detestable of all public functionaries was tho exciseman, it may readily be imagined with what feelings the peoplo of the Monongahela region received the intelligence of an excise law passed by the first Congress early in 1791, which imposed a tax of from ten to twenty - five cents a gallon upon all domestic spirits distilled from grain. In Western Pennsylvania the measure was ex ceedingly hateful. The appearance of the excise collector excited disgust and alarm and engendered disloyalty. Ambitious poll ticians took advantage of the popular discon tent to promote their own special interests. These men played the demagogue effectually and used the odious excise law adroitly as an instrument for wielding the popular will in favor of their political interests; the most or them, doubtless, never dreaming that their course would lead to an open armed rebellion agaiust tbe laws of the land. Secretly and openly they condemned the excise law, and encouraged the people to regard as enemies the appointed collectors. At their instance a public meeting was held near the close of July, 1791, at Bed Stone Old Fort (now Brownsville), when arrangements were made for committees to assemble at the respective Court Houses of Alle gheny, rayette, Washington and Westmoreland counties. One of these committees, at the county scat of Washington, passed very intemperate lious counties were summoned to rendezvous at Braddock's Field, ou the Monongahela, armed and equipped and supplied with three days' provisions. Meanwhile the inspector and marshal had fled down the Ohio in an open boat to Marietta, aud then made their way to Philadelphia through tbe wilderness. The summons for the meeting of the militia on Braddock's Field, circulated for only three days over a sparsely settled couutry, drew together over soven 'thousand men. Some, as they afterward allegod, went there to gratify their curiosity, and a few hastened to the field to restrain the people and prevent mischief. The prompt response of the masses dolighted the leaders. They regarded it as a token of confidence in them and tho earnestness of the people in the cause. Emboldened by the formidable demonstration on Braddock's Field tbe insurgent leaders expelled all the excise officers who remained. Some' were brutally treated and their honses burned, even in districts where the opposition had been less violent. The insurgent spirit spread into the neighboring countios of Virginia, and the rebellion began Many were dismissed for want of evidence against them, and a considerable number were bound over for trial at Philadelphia. Only two were found guilty of capital of fenses, and sentenced to be hung one for arson, the other for robbing the mail. There were palliating circumstances in their cases, and the President finally pardoned tbem. Most of the troops were soon withdrawn trom the country ot the late rebels. 1 wonty - five hundred of them encamped in the district, under General Morgan, nntil spring, when every vestige of disloyalty has disappeared Thus terminated a rebellion which at one time threatened the stability, if not the very existence, of theRemiblic. It was put down without the shedding of a drop of blood. This result was owing chiefly to tbe wisdom, prudence, vigilance, energy ana personal popularity of the President. He did not wait until the rebellion had assumed proportions too great to be managed with ease. He comprebonded tho magnitude of tbe threatenened evil and bis duty respecting it, and was fearless and energetic in the perlormance ot that duty. - nir 'i 1 1 , i i ii mii un 1 1 , . ., - nii THE COOPERING ESTABLISHMENT. m MM A MINER'S HUT. VIEW OF THE MASH BINS. Moments that appear to spring up at short distances on every side or tho road. The village of Homestead is the first important top of tbe train. Here is a great glassworks, - and Andrew Carnegie's Bessemer steel works, with its two thousand employes, make np a large part of the town. It is a place composed, tor the greater part, of frame nouses, ror most or tne employes own their bomes and small city lots. Tbe entire life in Homestead is confined to the two great factories. While it is true that some few people doing business in Pittsburg have their residences at Home - toad, they are the exception and not the rule, and they form a very small part of the town's real population. On tbe east side of the river, right across from Homestead, is situated tho great Edgar Thomson Steol Works probably the largest of it kind in the world. . The Edgar Thomson manufactory is one of tbe show placet of Pittsburg. The Ann employs about three thousand carry but four bushels over the mountains. There was small demand for the grain at home or abroad. It was the custom to grind the best quality and feed it to the cattle, and as for corn and barley, It would bring no price for man or beast What was to be done with the surplus f Only one way for a E rentable disposition of It seemed feasible. A orsa could carry twenty - four bushelsof rye when converted Into whisky, and why should not this metamorphosis of Ceres Into Bacchus be employed for the benefit of commerce? oeioin or sisriuiira lit Pennsylvania. To convert this grain Into money was tbe origin ef tbe whisky manufacture In Pennsylvania, which has obtained such extensive proportions, and tbe taxing of which, as Is well known, once led almost to domestic war. - As early as 1787 the whisky still became in article of some value.' In 1783, which was about the beginning ot tbe man - ... .i JJ.v.. ' .. resolutions on tho 23d of August, which were puniishea in a I'lttsburg paper, and greatly inflamed tbe public mind. It was resolved that any person who had accepted or might accept an office under Congress, in order to carry out the excise law. should be considered inimical to tho interests of the country; and the citizens wore recommended to treat such men with contempt, aud to refuse all inter, course with them. Soon afterward collector ot the revenue in Allcghony county was waylaid by a party of disguised men, who cut off his hair, tarred and feath ered him, took nis horse from bim aud com' peled him to walk a long distance. A sort of reign or terror epsued. Processes issued from tbe court for the arrest of the perpetrators ot tbe outrage could not be seryed, for tbo Marshal was threatened with similar treatment at the hands of the people. In fact, a messenger sent with the processes to a Deputy Marshal was whipped, tarred and feathered, deprived of his horse, blind. folded and tied, and loft in tho woods, whore he was discovered by a friendly eye some hours afterward. Washington, who was then President, was porpiexeo oy toese lawless proceedings, lie had no precedent to guide him. Ho know that the excise law was everywhere unnonn lar and he feared that similar open opposition might show Itself in other parts of the country. Uealdcs this, Congress bad not then provided the means by which tbe Executive could interpose the strong arm of military power io am tne judiciary in tne enforcement of the laws. He also felt it desirable, In a government like ours, to refrain; from the use of coercive measures as long as possible, and he forbore to act. Congress, In May following, greatly modified the excise law by a new enactment, and it was hoped mat turtuer dimcuitios would be avoided. These expectations were not realized. It suited the purposes of the leaders to keep u the excitement and measures were adontei for intimidating the well - disposed citizons who desired to comply with the law as modified. The newspaper at Pittsburg was compelled to publish whatever the demagogues chose to print. A convention, held at that pluco on August 21, 1792, adopted a series of resolutions denouncing tbe excise law as "unjust, dangerous to liberty, op pressive to the poor and particularly oppressive to the Western country, where grain conld only be disposed of by dirtllling It," It was resolved to treat all excl" officers with contempt, to withdraw from them every com fort and assistance and to persist in "legal" opposition to the law. A committoe of correspondence was appointed, the people at large were called npon to co - operate and rebellion was fairly organized. Washington issued a proclamation a few weeks afterward, exhorting all persons to desist from "unlawful combinations" and directed Randolph, the Attorney General of the United States, to prosecute the ehief acton In the Pittsburg convention. During the yar 1793 and nntil the sum mer and autumn of 1794, tbe people of Western Pennsylvania continued to defy the excise law, to grow bolder in their op to assume huge proportions. All regarded the moment as acritical one tortbe Hcpublic. If the insurrection in Pennsylvania should not be immediately checked, like or similar causes might produco like effects in other parts of the country. The example might become infectious, and the very foundations of the State be shaken. It was agreed that forbearance must end and the effective power of the Executive must be put forth to suppress the rising rebellion. The Prcsidcut called a Cabinet council aud on the 7th of August issued a proclamation warning the insurgents to disperse and declaring that if tranquility should not be restored in the disturbed countios before the 1st of ScpteiU' ber, or in about twenty days, an armed force would be employed to compel submis sion to the laws. At the same time the President made a requisition on the Governors of New Jersoy, Pennsylvania, Mary land and Virginia for militia sufficient to compose an army of thirteen thousand men. It was estimated that tbe insurgent counties could raise sixteen thonsaud fighting men. The Presidcut resolved, however, to offer the insurgents the olive branch before sending the sword. He appointed three commis - sioncrs to proceed to the insurgent district and arrange, if possible, any time before the 14th of September, an effectual submission to the laws. Governor Mifflin appointed two commissioners to represent the State and at the same time issued two proclamations, one for conveniug the Legislature and the other calling upon the rebel troops with proffers of loyalty and commanding them, if possible, to stay thoir progress. The President and Secretary of the Treas ury wore at Carlisle when envoys from the Insurgents arrived there. Wasliinzton treated their representatives kindly, but they did not bring sutllcieutevideuces of the loyalty of their constituents to cnuse him to countermand the onler for the forward march of the troops. Tbe alarmed ambassa dors immediately turned back, crossed the mountains in great haste and called another meeting at Parkinson's Ferry. With fuller assurances of absolute submission they recrosscd the Alleghenies to stay the march of the national troops. Tho President Had returned to Philadelphia. leaving Hamilton to act as bis deputy. The To subdue tbe whisky rebellion it cost the Government of tho United States $669,992.31. In tho year 1885, and nearly every year since, the same government received in taxes alone from the great Gibson Distillery at Gibsonton, tbe sum. of $675,000, or more than the cost of the entire rebellion ! THE SURVIVAL OP THE FITTEST. The introduction of the excise law was the death - blow of tho small distiller. It was a case of the survival of the fittest, and from that time forth instead of small establishments run in connection with other interests, large mills succeeded them, which supply thousands of barrels annually to all parts of - tho world. The most widely known and greatest of these manufactories is situated at Gibsonton, on the east bank of the Monongahela, about forty - two miles from Pittsburg. As the Gibsonton Distillery is entirely a Philadelphia enterprise it is worthy of more than a passing notice. It is tho finest institution of its kind in this country, if not in the world, aud as a model of perfectod machinery it is unexcelled. In 1854 tho late John Gibson, of Phila delphia, who bad been in the habit of making large purchasesof Monongahela whiskies in the valley, found himself unable to secure tbe quantities that his growing business demanded. The local distillers objected to selling in largo quantities. They were content with a certain annual production and would not listen to any suggestion as to iu increase. Mr. Gibson, with a view to the future, thereupon determined to erect a distillery of his own and on a grander scale than had yet been seen in Western Pennsylvania. In 1856 tho corner - stone of the pres ent works was laid, and in April, 1857, the first whisky was mndo at the distillery. When Mr. (iibon boenii building his neighbors strongly advised him against committing what they termed an act of tho greatest folly. Tbe idea was termed extravagant, and a speedy failure was predicted by those who were considered among tbe fiir - seoing ones In the neighbor hood. Mr. Gibson, however, still persevered in his building. Ho saw the ad vantages of the situation and its undoubted future. When completed the capacity of the works was 250 fortaWe dwelling houses for tbe employes of the works ; twelve great warehouses, which contain at times as high as fifty thousand barrels of whisky ; three principal mills, stave and barrel shops scattered here and there and the numerous lesser offices which are necessary in a large manufacturing centre. In addition to this there are six live stock barns on the premises which cover from ten to fifteen acres of land. In thoso twelve thousand hogs are annually fed with tho refuse from the distillery, occupying tho pens iu four relays of three thousand each every year. The employes of the firm live in comfortable cottages, which are leased to tbem at a nominal rent. They are a prosperous, thriving set of artisans and are seldom known to change their employment. Each cottage has its little garden alougside and nearly every tenant possesses a cow or two and is interested in the improvement of his individual holding as well as in the larger work in the mills. They are usually men of family aud children of all ages may be seen at all times crowding the streets or coming to and from tbo little school which has been built upon the estate. Counting the manufactories, woodland and farm land the settlement at Gibsonton covers about four hundred acres. The land is fertile and full of promise. From two - thirds or three - fourths of it is underlaid with a fine vein of bitumin ous coal, and tho Gibsonton quarries, situ ated ou the property, produce sufficient limestono for all the building purposes that can ever oe needed. HOW WHISKY IS MADE. The process of distillation isan interesting one, both from a scientific and a practical point of view. The plan adopted here Is what is known as the sweet mash system of rye distilling. The rye is brought to tho works by the car - load or boat - load, as the case may be, and landed at the company's siding on the opposite bank of the river. It is purchased in large lots and generally is grown throughout the State of Pennsylvania. Before being received into the works each car - load is subjected to a rigid inspection by experts of known ability. Should it fail to satisfy tho conditions imposed it is immedi ately sent back ; but should it prove equal to me required, standard in quality and con dition it is received into tho works, cleaned twico by means of improved machinery, which renders it entirely free from any foreign substance and then passed into tbe kilns to dry. These kilns are immense stone vaults, heated to a high temperature, ibe gram is turned over every little while so that it may all become equally heated and that all the moisture may be absorbed. After the kiln drying is completed the rye is now ready for me roller muis. mis process is very similar to that employed iu an ordinary flour mill, but with this distinction: Under tho improved method of milling the grain is crushed by a series of crashers and ground by gradual - reduction. With tbe grinding of the rye the actual work of the tax, ninety cents a gallon, is paid, and the whisky removed into free warehouses either for sale or for a further period ot preservation for age. When whisky is first madetit is pertectiy white In color and possess a rawness in tusto that is anything but agreeable. As it ages this color changes to a rich brown. it becomes mellow to the tongue and it is entirely unlike its tormer condition. By the provisions of the United States revenue laws, the officers of the government take entire charge of the whisky from the time the grain is received into the distillery until tho tax is paid npon it three years later. This supervision is in the bands of tne government gaugers who are stationed at tbe distillery. At Gibsonton the government has eight men always on duty. These meu have entire charge of the storehouses and gauge every barrel that is mado. They are changed every two months to keep them from becoming identified with any 'single location. They have keys which lock up the material in every stage of its manufacture. No one can draw a drop of whisky from any part of the works without the government ganger being present. Thetfistillor may spend large sums of money and erect spacious warehouses, as is the case at Gib sonton, but he cannot enter his own warehouse except the government official first turns the lock. By the law. the warehouse is in. the joint custody of the government and the distiller, but they must go hand - in - hand. The distiller has the right to demand access to his storehouse at any time throughout the day, and tho gangor is obliged to admit him at any time before sunset, but however much he may desire it, he cannot remove one barrel from his warehouse without the governmental permission. It would perhaps be imagined that these two separate authorities, each so powerful, would some times do liKely to come iuto collision. Nothing is farther from tho fact The revenue officers on the one band are an intelli gent and eminently respectable body of men. Their pay averages about five dollars per day, and tbe most of them have been so long in the service that the fact of their moving from one distillery io anotner is to tbem only a continued, series of visits to places in which they are well acquainted. On the other hand, the distiller is highly in favor of having his work progress under the security of government protection. It simplifies his form, and by thus combining, tho whole fores is enabled to work in a quickor as well as in a more systematic mannor. One man shapes the staves, another, with his compass aud adze, traces out the headings, another puts) the barrel in shape, and still another tightens the rivets which hold the part together. No barrel is used twice. They are all new, and when they leave the store houses at Gibsonton thoy never return. Fifty thousand, however, filled with whisky of different ages, are resting in the warehouses at present which will be removed a batch at a time as future consumption may demand, them. , . ' - Another department of the Gibsonton works and ono scarcely less interesting than , the cooper shop is tho malt house. Tho ' works malt all their barley required in the procoss of whisky manufacture, The amount of malt used averages from thirty to fifty thousand bushels a year. It is obtained mostly from Canada and shipped directly to the mills. Here it is cleaned, steeped and ' spread on stone floors until used. All thej barley malt is kiln dried like tho rye. EXTENT OF THE INDUSTRY. The magnitude of the business transacted by tho firm of Moore & Sinnott is exceed ingly great. Although their distillery is situated at Gibsonton, their principal office) is at 332 and 234 South Front street, in this city. Thoy have branch offices in New York, Boston, New Orleans, San Francisco, Charleston, Savannah and Augusta, Georgia. Each year their tax to the government exceeds half a million of dollars, and their freight carried by the railroads roaches as high as five thousand carloads. Tha whisky from Gibsonton supplies the major ity of the wholesale dealers throughout tha United States, but the reputation of their whiskies is not confined to this country alone. At the present time Gibson whiskies are being shipped to Mexico, the West Indies, France, England, and even to China in largo quantities. NATURAL OAS. Mention has been made before of the fact that both the town of Gibsonton and tho distillery proper are furnished with natural gas. Along the Monongahela valley the discovery of 'natural gas has entirely revolutionized the businoss of the district, FACTORY FURNACE, SHOWING THI WORKING OF NATURAL OAS. Minister was not satisfied. He would not trust the professions of loyalty made by men so lately In rebellion. The troops moved steadily onward. They crossed the Alleghenies In a heavy rain - storm, encountering mud knee 'deep in many places. Tha two wings or tbe army met at Unlontown and proceeded together to tbe disaffected die - bushels of rye per day. At various times down to the year 1883 It rose to 780 bushels. In December, 1882, the works were destroyed by fire, and In their rebuilding the capacity was further Increased to 1,000' bushels a day, which amount they have retained to the present time. Upon the death of Mr. John Gibson, in A FREE WAREHOUSE. distiller begins. It is now ready for tbe mash bin. The operation of mashing con sists of blending water with the grain, applying steam aud stirring the mixture regu larly tor the purpose ot extracting tbe starch. Tho mush bins in which this work is done are situated on the ground floor of the building. They are huge tubs, each furnished with a stirring apparatus inside, tho speed of which is regulated by steam. These tubs are kept scrupulously clean. The instant tho mash passes out they are washed and thoroughly scrubbed with brushes. Around the Insido of the tubs Is a coil of copper Pine, wbicb, being filled with cold water, aids in reducing the temperature' of tho mass to the required degree. In the condition known as mushing the rye resembles, both in appearance and taste, common oat meal brotb. Thcro is a sweet flavor to it that is not at all unpleasant. Tho mashiug procoss is kept up for some hours, the temperature is gradually reduced, and about twenty per cent, of barley malt is now added. Chemical action intervenes, which converts the starch into grape sugar. This agitation being started and artificial cooling having been applied, the mass is reduced to a degree of temperature where vinous fermentation takes place. Yeast is added to excite tbe fermentation, aud the grape sugar is converted into alcohol. The wholo process occupies about forty - eight honrs. From tho fermenting vats the liquid is now passed to what is known as the "beer still." This is a close wooden vessel, thirty - two feet iu height by nine feet in diameter. It is divided into four chambers or compartments. In this still the fcrraeuted liquor is boiled by means of steam, the vapor is led off through pipes immersed in watr, which condouse aud cool it. These pipes lino the insido of the worm tank, which is eighteen feet in diameter and twenty - five feet in height. There are one thousand feet of copper piping, varying in size from ten inches at tbe top to two and a half inches at the lower end. Through these pipes the liquor passes and from tbe cooling effect of the water outside the temperature of the whisky is reduced to about seventy degrees of heat. This completes tbe first distillation. I he spirit having reached this stage In Its manufacture is now taken to tbe copper stills or "doublets" and distilled for a second time. This is railed tho refining process. It docs not differ materially from the first distillation, only tho progress of the opera tion goes on much more slowly, These doublers are of heavy copper. They aro two In number and their capacity is very great. A good Idea of thoir appearance can be got from the accompanying illustration. Alter this second aud comploto distillation of the spirit it is run out into receiving casks, where sufficient ptiro spring water is blended with it to bring its strength to what Is known as proof that is. 100 degrees. The importance of the quality of the water used iu this stage of the manufacture of whisky cannot be - overestimated, as npon this depends to a great extent tbe excellence of the whisky. In the Gibsonton Distillery the water is obtained from three artesian wells, each affording s supply of one hundred gallons per minute. u rns, in a general way, is tne process or distilling. Notwithstanding its apparent simplicity, the distillers' art is one requiring a very high degree of Intelligence and long experience. From first to last the work most oe aone armor toe most lavoraDie ot conditions. A slight mistake, which in any other manufacturing process might pass on - noticed, would result seriously in the case of tho making of whisky. The slightest im - perfection lkt the grain, an error in a matter of temperatutre, or even a sudden atmospheric change, bave often been known to render s DaV'l WOrx oniroi,T uceio. THE ROLLER MILLS. business and gives it stability. Under the present rules there can be no collusion by which whisky can be abstracted in the manufactory. The workmen cannot have access to tbe spirits they are making and consequently a great source of temptation that of drinking is entirely removed. In Gibsonton to - day, although the greatest whisky centre of this country, there is not a single workman "on the premises who could procure without permission a pint of whisky for himself, no matter how mnch he might try to do so. The consequence of this is that there are none of those scenes which the ill - informed commonly associate with the localities in which alcoholic liquors are manufactured in great quantities. The general manager of the works, Mr. T. L. Daly, is a thorough disciplinarian in this respect He holds the beads of each department accountable for tbe actions of their subordinates. Iu his system of government he emphasizes the fact that a man who sees an infraction of his commands is equally guilty with him who has first disobeyed them. His idea is to convince tho men of the mutual advantage which will surely result from the interests of - the employer and the employe being identical; and from the fact that the majority of the workmen have been in their present occupations here for twenty to twenty - five years, it will be judged whether his endeavor has been successful or not. It would not be lust to pass over the Gib sonton distilleries without making mention of some of the associate industries which cluster around the institution. Of these t he most important as well as the most interesting is the coopering department. All the barrels nsed for storing the whisky are made npon the premises. The staves of which they are made are of solid oak. They are secured from Kentucky and Indiana, and a stock of about one million is continually carried in order that they may be well seasoned. Each stave is kept ex - Previous to its introduction coal, of course was the great power provider as in other centres. On . the larger farms in the vicinity it was the custom for the proprietor to work a small mine of his own and obtain from it sufficient coal for his personal needs. It was usually the enstom for tho farm ownor to sink a shaft upon his property and employ labor for ita working. The miner was given his house and worked on shares with tbe land owner to the profit of each. With the introduction of natural gas, however, all this waschanged. Near the Gibsonton region no less than three gas wells have been sunk and all with very gratifying results. The town of Belle Vernon, as well as that of Gibsonton uses the gas for ail the purposes of heat, light and power, and tbe change has been an eminently successful ono. Tho gas can be adapted to the coal furnaces with but slight alteration and its force can be regulated to a degrea that would bo impossible in the case of any other kind of fuol, whereas tbe cost of operation gives a saving of about thirty - threa and a third per cent, over the old method. Gas wells are now being borod in many parts of tbe county by companies organized for the purpose. The plan these syndicates work on is worthy of description. A farm, in which gas is suspocted to underlie, is leased by a gas company for a torm of twenty years, or as long as gas is iound in paying quantities. The company agree to develop the same by putting down one or more wells within the first two years. For that privilege they pay ono hundred dollars for the first twenty - fivo pounds pressure that may bo found on any gas well and one dollar per pound for any additional pressure found. Tbe pressure is determined by putting a pressure gaugo upon tho casing of the well with tha casing closed and the pressure indicated during the first minute after closing tha flow of gas determines the pressure of the well. This fee to the owner of the land is paid annually in advance. In oil wells, on After tbe wthisky is finished It Is pot in K.,fi ran rodi by United States saucers and stored in bosded warehouses under the charge of the goWmeut. It remains in these warehouses fbr three years, when the THE COPPER REFINING STILL posed to the atmosphere for three years before it is considered sufficiently well seasoned to be nsed in the manufacture of barrels. And here it may be remarked that one of tho chief points in the distilling trade is the provisions for the future. The grain market must be closely studied, and favorable opportunities for buying can never be allowed to escape. Tbe probable consumption for years ahead must be considered with prophetic eye. The supply must be equal to a future demand and must not exceed it. The possible effect of legislation must be taken into account and a policy shaped suitably to its provisions. In every way tho distiller must be far - seeing, and must consider the future as of equal importance with the present. The case of the manufacture of barrels In the other hand, the owner gets one - eight of the oil produced. Sometimes, however great bonuses are paid in addition to this agreement. The gas company in making a lease stipulates for the right of egress at all times, of laying pipes and occupying sufficient space as is necessary for the erection of the machinery requisite for a successful working of the well. They generally concede to the owner of the land as much gas as he requires for all domestic purposes. In selling tbe gas to customers, for domestic purposes, the companies generally fix their charges according to the number of stoves employed in each houso. For ono fire they will chargo one dollar per month during; the seven cooler months of the year, for tho second fire sixty cents, for the third, forty, and for every additional fire thirty cents. The Monongahela Valloy, as briefly do. II f A BONPEO WAREHOUSE. one respect furnishes a problem that may be of Interest to American inventors. Up to the present time no machine has been invented that will make a perfect whisky barrel. Tbey are all made by band. No nails are nsed in tbelr construction. The workmen, wonderfully skilled In their trade, put them together with almost Incredible peed. An export can, without aid, pnt together and make three complete barrels a day a wonderful performance, considering the solidity and difficulty of their construction. In the barrel factory at Gibsonton, however, each man hat a oertain assigned task to per scribed, is remarkable not only for Its beauty but its great prosperity besides. The farm on for the most part own their land and do not ront it They have comfortable bank accounts and tho appearance of a very poor man In the region is exceedingly rare. Manufacture and agriculture go hand In hand in building np the prosperity of tha valley, which is increasing year by year. The towns are growing, the interests developing and when the achievements of another century aro celebrated in Western Pennsylvania they will doubtless show a progre till more wonderful than the last. .F"' A

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