Times Colonist from Victoria, British Columbia, Canada on April 6, 1940 · 23
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Times Colonist from Victoria, British Columbia, Canada · 23

Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
Issue Date:
Saturday, April 6, 1940
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Victoria Daily Times, Saturday, April 6, 1940 Page 3 Magazine Section Biological Acc: CVERY MOTHER w h o Is expecting a baby probably wonders whether it may possibly turn out to be twins. Unless there Is some unusual record of twin births in the family, the chances are just one out of 94 that her hopes are justified and she will have to double the layette. Fathers, who sometimes take a different attitude toward double blessed events, may, if they wish, protect themselves with twin insurance. Yes! Lloyd's of London, who insure against so many of the possibilities in man's precarious future, will offer you insurance against twins. The charge depends on whether there have been twins in the family. If you have had none for three generations, the charge is 3 per cent. They issue such insurance quite often. Never yet, however, has Lloyd's been called upon to pay off. XO INSURANCE FOR TRIPLETS No applications have yet been received for triplet, quadruplet or quintuplet insurance, although bargain rates prevail due to tha infrequency of such multiple births. The rate is reduced in proportion as the recorded birth rates diminish. You are really not very likely to have quadruplets in your nursery or even the much more commonplace triplets. The chances are less than one in a million that any expectant mother will be blessed with four of a kind. Twin births occur in the ratio of 1 to 93 of all births. For triplet births the ratio is only 1 to 8,649, or 93 times 93. For quadruplet births the ratio is 1 to 1,339,975. j It is no use figuring ratios for quintuplets. Only 35 cases are officially recorded in the births of all the world. "BIOLOGICAL ACCIDENT" Twins and other multiple births have been called by scien-t i s t s a "biological accident." What is meant is that nature ordinarily provides for humans to come into the world, as they leave it, alone. When brothers or sisters arrive together it is one of the surprising mistakes of nature that gives life Its variety. Ordinarily nature provides for the release from her vital storehouse the ovary of but one human egg cell at a time, and it is in this single cell that the human baby has its origin. Under unusual conditions, however, and these are not completely understood, the release of two or three of these egg cells at a single time may take place. This trick of nature Is not particularly rare. According to Dr. A. F. Guttmacher, Johns Hopkins University physician, who is himself an identical twin, it happens about once in every five monthly cycles, but it Is relatively rare that both eggs develop into living creatures. When they do, twins (or triplets) are born.' These babies are not any more closely related to one another than ordinary brothers and sisters, but they enjoy the pleasure of being the same age. IDENTICAL TWINS The twins that are mistaken for one another, that are as alike as two peas in a pod, are formed by an entirely different sort of "biological accident." Actually these truly Identical twins start life as a single lnrti vldunl. They trace their begin nlngs to the same single egg cell that began to develop in ordinary f.v-hlon. All living creatures, from hum hirst jellyfish to most arrogant dictator, had the same beginning as a tiny single cell. But the sin. ret cell very soon divides Into two and then these lo split Into four and this process con tinues until, long before the birth of an Infant, there have been dc vrl.iiwfl nil the myriad cells ot the human body. Way bnrk In earliest life, when that'orlgln.il ovum had divided Into n emun of several cells, half the resulting cells were destined lo become the rlRlit hand parts of your body; the other half became the twin parts on the left hand sl.le of your body. Biologists, therefore, say that every normal Individual Is a perfectly balanced and combined pair of twins. Once In a preat while, because nf something which disturbs tlr? normal course of development, the cell may wparale Into two entirely dUtmct pails, each of biti then develops on it own r - , i -r I WJr L If- - - &S'tortoiSriSvSli& MiAuiiiSitAl 'WiJkj. ,aiL&r3biK. A " s ' " i Three possible combinations dren may come from the same are identical triplets. (2) Two is an "extra" baby, born of type, ine youngster at the lelt tion. (3) All the children in the into a complete human individual.-About 33 per cent of all twin births are of this type; two persons walking about separately and yet primarily only one individual. HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT Physicians, psychologists and others interested in human heredity, are always glad to have a chance to study truly identical twins. It is always most difficult to separate the influences of heredity from those of environment. But in identical twins, nature has provided two different persons, subjected to possibly very different environments, yet with exactly the same hereditary bag of tricks. When, as sometimes happens, identical twins are brought up from early infancy separated and one turns out brighter in school than the other, educators feci justified in believing home sur roundings have cither stimulr..ca or retarded the mental growth of each child. The Identical twin is the scien tific "control" that makes it ps sible to measure effects of both social and physiological environment In the same way that con trols are used in the physics, chemistry or biology laboratory Once in a great while nature blesses the heredity student with an "extra" baby born at exactly the same time as the twins. Shar ing the same nursery with the twins, he grows up with them, eating the same sort ot splnacn and being spanked or Indulged to practically the same extent. Triplets may be such a combination of twins and a brother or sister. Or they may be all ordinary brothers and sisters that happen to have the frame birthday. Or they may be all Identical. 1 1 R K. A T 1 It E A T-C It A N ! MOTHER But recently such an "extra" came about In a most unusual way. It was reported that two Identical twin brothers married Identical twin sisters. One coupV had twins, the other a single rhlld. Now, since the two fathers were exactly alike In heredity, nnd since both mothers were similarly iilentical, the boy born to one family was jut t as closely t4;it..d lo the twin trlrl as though be bad been born to Ihe same father and mother. Legall) the twins are cousins of the boy. but from the viewpoint of bered ity sll three children are brother .mi sisters. - When the Dionne quintuplets! were born, sdentists wondered, hat sort of combination had, vome Into the woild. They might exist among triplets, says scientist. (1) All three of the ehil original ovum as did the three ot the triplets may be identical twins, while the third child different gene material. The is an "extra," his brothers triplet group may be different, tom group. have been all nonidentical. There might have been one or two pairs of identical twins and cither one or three "odd" ones. Scientists who have studied them are convinced that the Di-onne quintuplets are all identical a five-way splitting of a single tiny packet of cells, each part later developing into a complete and winsome little girl. Did you know that Mrs. Di-onne is the great-great-grandmother of one of these remarkable little girls? It comes about because the quintuplets were Ordeal by Fire .' . . , -.. . V . - ' fsA v ! If i'j. "',, 1 V..- j .v; JJ f i - ' ' n-5 iv ' :.',"" j The U.S. Civil Aeronautics Authority recently conducted extensive fire control tests for airplane motors. Tests were made under flying conditions; motors runninK in hich wind (supplied by wind tunnel). Photo ntovc shows oil fire In motor nt it.s hoiglit. Inrjcnious light device notifies pilot of fire. Ho manipulates extinguisher liquid pas under pressure supplied to affected area through tubes. Below, smoke pours from engine after gas has doused fire successfully. r . ' , ,r'-,v, I ' -lv S l, , . v; 4f w J , . -, J... i, S. iJass. dents' Aid Heredity little girls at the ton. These three triplet boys are of this are the twins in this combina as with the girls in the bot formed by the separation of groups of egg cells, as you may think of Eve as being made from the rib of Adam. The first original single group of egg cells divided to produce identical twins. Each twin then divided to produce identical twins. Of each of these "third generation" twins, Mrs. Dionne would be the great-grandmother, Then one of the four divided still again to produce the fifth, mak ing Mrs. Dionne a great-great-grandmother of this "youngest" quintuplet for Safety's Sake 3W :J) 0; ..'nRri ! . . ' ?i Vf " vAV , t Benefited? RINGING birds and other small 10 wi or tne woous may nave been helped rather than harmed by the destruction of this continents primeval forests, suggests an authority. There may actually be more email birds now than there were when our pioneers trod the almost pathless wilderness from the St. Lawrence to the Rockies. In explanation of this seeming paradox, it is pointed out that most small birds are not creatures of the deep forest, but of clearings and forest edges. Food, shelter and nesting conditions are best for them where the tree canopy is broken. So by chopping the once solid forest into little bits, and providing more pieces of scattered coppice and brush-land, the white man may have made life better for songbirds. 1 'A . BACK HHKKK UK CAM1 njOI Photos above and I Irtl. -...1 Mr f ttl plaque of Lenin, father of Russian Communism, from Soviet Pavilion at New York World's Fair. Russia will not participate in Fair this year so building Is to be shlppei' home for reassembly Moscow. in Projectiles tird by tUitai range from maehinegun bullet weighing nn ounce and a quat te up to a.ooopound shells for 1" Inch naval, cutis. t K, , Put Indian Sin on Swastika . 'Ltdct&fb . t oiwiww tw 14WJ oWX , J9, , SWfcw.w.ut ft, fit. 4 J:v3! y,W I W.f a W. ftS, I TllllUllftflt i-y? ! J,t?h f VJ ftiii- , 0 jsrv. if 1 ' " A H s Jt Hopi leader Fred Kaboti signs his name to resolution foreswearing the swastika, adopted by tribes at recent ceremony in Tucson, HE SWASTIKA, age-old sym bol of friendship among Ari zona Indians, and later trademark of the Nazi party, will never again decorate the handicrafts of the Apache, Topi, Navajo and Papago tribes because it has been "dese crated" by "acts' of oppression." Banning of the swastika on In dian blankets and other goods made for Indian use or for sale to the public, proclaimed by a group of Indians at Tucson, Ari zona, was not based on official action by any tribal council, how ever, it has been learned by U.S. Commissoner of Indian Affairs John Collier. "So long as no single Indian tribe has expressed itself officially in the matter of using the swastika, the Office of Indian Af fairs will take no stand," Mr. Collier stated in an interview. "If it should become necessary to take a stand, we would certainly advise the Indians not to abandon an age-old symbol for any such reason as its use by some European country." IXDO EUROPEAN SYMBOL The Nazi party in power in Ger many has had the swastika symbol for only a few years, and it has been on the German flag since 1935. Finland, w hich employs the swastika on its airplanes and else STOP, LOOK S3S AUOWlNTt ROAD APPROACH AT GROUND LEYEL-SQUARE CROSSING Here is a death trap at which hundreds of accidents In tho past can be explained only by the criminal carelessness of tha car drivers concerned, or by an insane desire on the part of some motorists to take a chance. The crossing In the diagram above is one of six typical railway level crossings illustrated here in the last few weeks to show how a brief stop ii essential to perfect safety and than sorry. It is the crossing so often seen on the prairies, flat as a billiard table, with no grade to Impede the approaching car or to cause it to stall, and with visibility of many miles in each direction, unimpaired by natural or unnatural screen. Inability to jvide the speed of an approaching train, lack of full understanding of the speed capabilities of the automobile and olher factors may have had something to do with it, but nolhing can explain the curious fact that In scores of cases automobiles have actually been driven Into the side of a passing train on such a crossing, In spite of whistles, Ih'II, wigwag and every known safety device. Hun dreds more have liern caught just as they thought they had l)catcn the trrin to the crossing. Here Is the place to stop, . look and listen. Study Arizona. where as a Finnish symbol, has used it longer since 1918. Modern Navajo Indians have been putting swastikas on their attractive silverware since around 1880. If ancient reasons for not letting Nazis monopolize this old design are wanted, there is strong archaeological evidence that the swastika was not originally an Aryan invention, as Nazis have claimed. The symbol is found on nottery made earlier than 3000 B.C., unearthed at Susa in ancient Mesopotamia. Use of the symbol by Indo-Europeans began a thousand years later, so far as evidence goes. The swastika has been rated as one of the earliest designs that man attempted when he turned to drawing circles, squares, crosses, and other decorations and symbols. Swastikas are found on ancient relics in Japan, China, Turkey, Greece, Crete and America. Long before Columbus came to America, mound-building Indians of the Mississippi Valley were putting the hooked cross on ornaments, and Indians of the southwest were painting it on their pottery bowls. Nazi Germany is using the swastika, but It Is a design too famous and too old to become any nation's monopoly. AND LISTEN! ;j:!sr?rrrrefi3 1 -I MAO , IN r r ALLOWANCE S3 T how easy it is 'to be safe rather

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