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The Victoria Daily Times from Victoria, British Columbia, Canada • 16

Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
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16 VICTORIA DAILY TIMES, SATURDAY, JULY 22, 192 The Latest News Gleanings From the Old Land Twin Suns Many Times Bigger Than Our Sun Disco vered by Plaskett at Observatory Here SOCIETY BEAUTIES ACT London Women Rush To Join Luxury Club In space, two suns, or a sun and planet, or a planet and satellite, we can easily calculate the mass of the two With Temperatures of 30,000 Degrees Fahrenheit, They Are 20,000 Times Brighter Than the Sun; Find Is Heralded By Scientists As Greatest Astronomical Achievement In Recent Times. Twin suns, fifty-two quadrillions of miles from the earth, have been discovered by Dr. J. S. Plaskett, director of the Do-; minion Astrophysical Observatory here, through the observatory's big 72-inch reflector telescope.

Scientists herald the discovery as the outstanding' astronomical achievement of recent times. The suns have been named Plaskett after their discoverer. The light, which, traveling at the rate of 186,000 miles a second, started from these suns 5,000 years before there was any credible human history on this earth, is reaching here only to-day. PLASKETT AND OTHER BODIES Daughters of Lord Chancellor and Marquis Curzon Going in for Film Work London, July 22, Several well-known English society beauties have been reported as (intending to become movie stars. One of these is the lion.

Kleanor Smith, daughter of the Lord Chancellor, who, it is said, may have a part in the British film melodrama "Flowers of Passion." It is said Lord Chancellor and his wife, Lady Birkenhead, do not look sympathetically upon their daughter's screen ambitions. Miss Smith is twenty and a very pretty girl. She is a friend of the Hon. Lois Sturt, daughter of Lady Alington, who appeared with Lady Duff Cooper (Lady I Diana Manners) in "A Glorious Adventure." Miss Sturt is now in Brussels acting for a Belgian film company. Only recently it was announced that Lady Cynthia Mosley, a married daughter of Marquis Curzon, would appear In a film drama to be used as propaganda for the equal suffrage movement.

TAKE OWN CAR ACROSS With Her Three Daughters California Woman Sets jOut to See England by Motor London, July 22. Three pretty young women were observed one morning recently superintending the loading up of a large brown touring car, with a Massachusettts license plate, which stood outside the Hotel on the Strand. With them was a charming, grayhaired, elderly woman in a smart blue costume. A reporter who had watched the spectacle with interest asked the elderly woman how far the party was going. "We're going all over England and right up to Scotland," she answered.

"We're taking a three months' trip myself and my three daughters. We're being our own chauffeurs two of my daughters drive. We're going to Brighton, Oxford, Stratford-on-Avon, Inverness everywhere. We are going to look out for a home on the way which we can take for a month or so." This gray-haired woman, who had the youthfulness of the elderly American, was Mrs. Charles Floete, a widow, of San Francisco.

and she explained that she and her daughters had come over alone to have the motor trip in this country and had brought their own car. AN EXAMPLE TO THE BALFOUR KNEW BEFORE Runs True to Form of What He Told Morley About Elevated Commoners Forgetting Old Ways and Temper London, July 22. When the Earl Balfour took hla seal in the House Lords did he remember an idea once expressed to Viscount (then Mr. John) Morley, and set down by the latter, in his "Recollections?" "The curious thing," said Mr. Balfour, "is that men who have been In the House of Commons, when they go into the House of Lords, seem quite forget the temper and ways of the House of Commons." Lord Morley himself has confessed a change of mentality on translation to the Upper House.

"I found," he recounts, "when the dinner hour arrived that I had already, In less than a twelvemonth, acquired one inexorable propensity of every self-respecting peer; I adjourned and after a modest meal at the club, instead of returning to hear more speeches, I went home to bed." SIR OLIVER LODGE BUSY Now 71, He Experiments With Wireless; Believes It Possible to Produce Rain at Will London, July 22. Sir Oliver Lodge, England's veteran scientist, knows how to play on the imagination of his countrymen. On his seventy-first birthday he casually announced that much of his time is devoted to wireless research work, but for the time being he shall keep the results of his experiments dark. He believes that there is a great future for broadcasting. TSolnn- ooVo what thinks is the cause of England's protracted drought last year was tne aryesi ui recorded English Summers and there has been some duplication of it this year Sir Oliver answered: "The atmosphere wapts electrifying.

Some day, I have no doubt, a method will be found of electrifying the atmosphere to produce rain at will. It is onf of my dreams of the TANTALL0N CASTLE UP London, July 22. Tantallon Castle, immortalized by Sir Walter Scott, for. fpntiiries the stronerhold of the Douglas clan, is included in the sale of the North BerwiCK estate oi 2,600 acres. The castle is rich in historical associations, many battles having been fought around its walls.

Jt was once ie-prf hv James who starved out the occupants. Later it was the scene of an onslaught oy uromwen WORLD have cut them in the bottom-lands like the Columbia, the branches of the Missouri, the Red River of the North, the Richelieu, tapping our New York canal system, straight across man marks upon the map. If there were free trade across that boundary and it is not the fault of our Nation that reciprocity failed nor of any lack of advocacy in these columns the example would be more striking, with products passing across the line according to neighborhood. State or Province need. Especially vexations is our "emergency" tariff in repelling trade that would benefit both parties.

But while we wait for that more perfect neighborliness, we r.ay with honest satisfaction in a great achievement congratulate ourselves upon the political truce of a century. Here no forts threaten, no bombs are planted, no poison-gas projectors ore concealed, no navy yards clang vith the making of war machines, no cannon lie in wait. No airplanes search out hidden strongholds, no submarines explore the clear waters of these lakes. There is no army and r.o navy; best of all, there is the hundred-year habit that prevents the people from feeling the need of either or even wondering why they do not exist. The material world has been so changed by invention within 105 -ars that the Rush-Bagot agreement r.ay need additions covering activities which a century ago were never dreamed of Telegraphy, the wireless, even the railroad, have come s-nce then.

But as the matter stands, the Canadian boundary-line is the world's finest example of common sense applied to exercising the nightmare menace of war. Taxes Force Duke To Sell Estate To His 400 Tenants London, July 22. The Duke of Richmond and Gordon has resolved to sell the Huntly, Aberdeenshire, portion of his estates. It embraces fully 60,000 acres, is valued at approximately 500,000 and yields a yearly rental of more than 25,000 (at the present rate of exchange $111,250.) The estates extend throughout six parishes and Include much valuable arable land and many farms noted for the breeding of high-class pedigree shorthorn and Aberdeen Angus cattle, Clydesdale horses and commercial stock. The Duke, through his Aberdeen agent, has stated that it is a very severe wrench for him to be compelled to put the Huntly estate on the market.

Rut so great is the burden of local taxation that virtually noth ing remains over from the income derived from the rents of agricultural holdings. Several of the holdings have been occupied by successive generations of tenants for upward of 300 years. "In view of the long association, extending over many generations, between my family and the estate," said the Duke, in intimating to some 400 tenants his decision to Bell immedi ately, "it will readily be believed that only grave necessity compels me to do so." Before exposing the various holdings at auction the Duke is affording all his tenants an opportunity to acquire their holdings by private bargain. He has arranged with an Aberdeen Assurance Company that, in the event of any tenant desiring assistance to enable him to purchase his holding, the company will lend, in approved cases, up to 60 per cent of the value of the holding. Already there, are many applications for the purchase of holdings.

ROYAL ASCOT GRAND But It Was Still More Imposing in Days of Queen's Buckhounds London, July 6. (By The royal procession for which Ascot is famous, but which was prevented this year by bad weather, was initiated by George who as Prince of Wales won the memorable Oakland Stakes in June, 1791. After this event his father, George made a point of appearing at these races and driving around the course which is Crown property in regal state, and tnus Ascot acquired its social reputation and prestige. Imposing as the royal progress still undoubtedly is, none who remember it in the golden days of Her Malestv's Buckhounds can cease to regret the necessity that has abolished them. Before these days it was customary for the Master of the Buckhounds who was generally some sporting peer of the type of Lord Ribblesdale and who was to a large extent responsible for the course to head the procession on horseback.

He was followed by the servants of the hunt scarlet and green liveries, after whom came the carriages, and to each of these were four horses ridden by postillions in scarlet. British and foreign royalties occupied the first four carriages, and the last two or three contained the suite, while between the carriages were outriders in scarlet. The whole made a brave show as it went up the course from the "golden gates" near gunninghill that never failed to arouse" enthusiasm. Shorn of Own Jewels, Nobility Hire Tiaras to Go to King's Court London, July 22. It has been remarked as a singular thing that the jewelers' shops on Bond Street were kept open very late on the night the first court waa held in Buckingham Palace.

Inquiries into the matter disclose an interesting development of these times. The main reason the shops were kept open was to take back the tiaras and other jewelry that had been hired to be worn at the court. Those who hired the gems were not Jackdaws dressed in peacock's feathers, nor the "new people," but mainly members of the old families who have gone to court time out of mind. The extent to which these territorial families have been hit by the war taxation and the slump is only partly indicated by the pages of advertisements of castles and mansions for sale that one sees in the fashionable magazines. Some grand ladies, by letting their grounds to market gardeners and living in a portion of their house and chaperoning the daughters of the newly rich, are Just able to keep up appearances and still to go to court.

But nearly all their jewelry has gone even the paste jewelry. The result is that roany had to hire their tiaras for the court. It was even said that it was a sign of the "best people" that they did so and that the most exclusive part of the court assembly could be met that night in these jewelers' shops. DROPS HER SHACKLES England Now Has Woman Surveyor, Allowed in by Sex Disqualification Act London, July 22. The world moves even in Great Britain and England boasts at last a woman surveyor.

She is Miss Irene W. Martin, who for the past four years has been engaged in housing work but who, until the passing of the Sex Disqualification Act, could not study with the idea of becoming a surveyor. She expects to become a Fellow of the Surveyors Institute. plained by the relativity shift of the lines. "Although stars like Antares and Betelgeuse Sre much larger in diameter they are extremely tenuous, and we have no information about their This star, which is No.

1309 of the six degree zone of Argelander's catalogue, is especially remarkable for its enormous mass, about four as great as any previously determined, and the discovery and investigation is important chiefly on that account and on its bearing on the theories of the constitution and development of the stars." King, Queen, Premier Attend Harvey Dinner to Chief Justice Taft London, July 6 (By Mail) On of the most notable events of this London season was the dinner given Saturday by Ambassador and Mrs. Harvey to Chief Justice Taft, which waa attended by King George and Queen Mary. Mrs. Harvey has been busy lately making arrangements to introduce) American women at court. If she had had to present all those who applied for this coveted honor it would have been a herculean task.

But, although the American Ambassador received far more than the usual number of Invitations to disburse, it was comnarativclv small compared with the number of those who wanted to make their curtseys to the British Sovereign and his consort. Among the guests of the Harvey at the dinner in Mr. Taft's honor were the Prime Minister and Mrs. Lloyd George, who take little part in social gayeties. Indeed, the Premier spends most of his spafe time on golf links, and this open air exercise probably is keeping him fit despite all his heavy burdens of the last five years.

Lord High Chancellor and Lady Birkenhead also were there. The Lord Chancellor is another outdoor enthusiast and is especially fond of yachting. Marchioness Curzon was present, but the Marquis, who is the British Foreign Minister, was unable to be there because he is still convalescing after a long period of serious illness. Whenever there is a big dinner sponsored by Americans it is certain that the Earl of Balfour will be bidden. He was one of Mr.

Harvey's guests at the embassy dinner, as were Lord and Lady Lee of Fareham. What has surprised the Londoners who have met Chief Justice Taft since his arrix-al in the British capital is his Most of them had come to believe that he really was huge, but after seeing the Chief Justice they say Mr. Taft's countrymen, particularly the American cartoonists, have been guilty of great exaggeration. WThen it was first intimated that "Big Bill" Taft waa coming over to England it was generally believed that he weighed about 400 pounds. But being 100 pound3 lighter than he used to be, he is regarded as only a normal big man.

If he doesn't add to his weight while in London it will not be the fault of his British guests. One day this week Mr. Taft attended three dinners. Sunday Sports Again Issue as Dean Tells Boys They May Play London, July 22. The question whether open public sports should be permitted on Sunday, which has provoked so much discussion in America, is now being debated hers with some heat.

The truly liberal Dean of Exeter recently told his choir boys they can play outdoor games oa Sunday after the morning church hours. This decision is far from being a new one: it was discussed in England 300 years ago. The Reformation cost the church much of its authority on the Continent, with the result, in several European countries, of marked slackness in Sabbath observance. In England, where the change was less violent, a severer restraint continued to be practised. Matters were, however, brought to a head when the Puritans, in their desire for a yet stricter way of life, tried to identify Sunday with the Jewish Sabbath.

This feeling was voiced by a Suffolk clergyman, Nicholas Bownd, in his "Sabbatum Veteris et Novi Testa-menti," or "The True Doctrine of the Sahbath." The first reply to this was from the pen of that versatile monarch James who, in 1618, brought out the "Book of Sports." Here ths King declared that his people might take part in all sports on Sundays except bull and bear baiting. The book was republished by Charles I. with a special admonition: "Lcfok to it that all disorders there may be prevented and punished, and that all neighborhood and freedom, with manlike and lawful exercises, be used." It is recorded that 120 books on the subject were published during the next century. But whatever views were current, those for a brighter Sunday made little headway, for in 1643 Parliament ordered the "Book of Sports." to be burned by the hangman, and until the Restoration th Puritan Sabbath was enforced throughout the land. Still, James I.

might be beautified as the patron saint of Sunday sports whether in England or the United States. MORNING POST BITTER Tory Newspaper Is Conducted by Lady Bathurst Who Has Queer Hobby of Keeping Goats London, July 22. Lady Bathurst, daughter of the late Lord Glenesk and owner of the Morning Post, a Conservative journal of influence, has several fads, the principal one of which, perhaps, is the raising of goats with pedigrees. She is a very forceful person, and her newspaper consistently inveigh) against modern tendencies. Political circles hre have bc! greatly amused this week by th prominence given to the row between Lord and Lady Bathurst on one sids and Lord Midleton and some other Southern Unionists on the other, growing out of allegations in the Morning Post which Lord Midleton said placed him in the same class as Rory O'Connor, the Irregular Irish leader who has occupied' the Four Courts for some time.

Lord Midleton said that had it been a hundred years ago there would have been a duel between him and Lord JJathurst. ni.y recently ijora iNortnoufte. a pamphlet describing British newspaper owners, described Lady Bathurst as directing the affairs cf Great Britain's chief Tory newspaper. When no apology was forthcoming from the Bathurst family Lnrd Midleton took up the matter in the House of Lords, where Lord Chancellor Birkenhead said the Morning Post's at tack, was particularly vile. i I II.

io De just Line men London, July 22. Fashionable women of the West End are rushing to the Park Lane Club, a new luxury club for women which is being organized. A beautiful mansion in Park Lane has been taken for this purpose, and here every comfort and convenience of men's clubs will be found, in addition to many added features which only the feminine mind can conceive. Social and financial references of the highest order are necessary for eery prospective member and hundreds of inquiries already have been made. The club probably will cpen In September.

In discussing the club the secretary said: "So many ladies are no longer able to afford the luxury of a lady's maid, as they did before the war, that we believe the club will meet a great demand. The presence of a court dressmaker will be an important attraction. Gone will be the days of frantic anxiety over an ill-fitting ballroom frock. It will only be necessary for a member to hasten to the club to have the gown altered at once. And she can also smoke while the gown is being fixed.

The club will be residential; there will be a restaurant, showrooms, a ballroom, hair-dressing, millinery and shoe fitting accommodations. "The idea is to fulfill what is called a great need in the modern woman's circle to provide all the comforts of men's clubs and we are also going farther by catering to woman's whims." WANTEDN0 HEARSE J. C. Christie, F.R.C.C., Proposed That His Ashes Be Used for Fertilizer. London, July 22 A funeral without a hearse, at the smallest possible expense, with no friends or vlatives "wasting time" to attend, was ordered in the will by James Campbell Christie, Fellow, of the Royal Geographic Society and- science teacher.

He wrote: "It will do no good to any one to attend, and the absence of the usual formalities will give poor Mr. and Mrs. Grundy something to talk about. I desire that my ashes after cremation be disposed of at a crematorium or used by my trustees for fertilizing their potatoes." THE BOUNDARY WITHOUT A FORT (From The New York World.) aeain and again to threaten the peace cf the border, and have been solved methods of adjudication such as the League of Nations was former to install. The everlasting fisheries question; the Maine boundary; "Kifty-four-Forty or the Fenian raids; the "underground railroad" for slaves escaping to Canada; the Alaska boundary history is full-ftf provacatives to conflict which were happily left unused.

Practice improved upon the letter of the agreement. It limited only naval forces, but its spirit prevailed also on land. Save some antiquated blockhouses, toothless now, the boundary is without a fort. It is not only immensely long. It is "unsci-tntific:" The experts in Paris beat their brains to discover border-lines that should run along natural obstacles to communication, dividing Furope into pockets and valleys.

This boundary of ours does not repel but invites communication. a c'stance greater than that between Paris and Constantinople it runs along unmarked prairie, where anyone may step across. Then it fol-Ijws the matchless series of inland seas, strangely balanced upon a di- vide so that all the great watersheds run away from them, an ideal medium" for cheap water transportation. Finally it cuts across country again and winds its sinuous course to the sta. Few are the miles of all that distance where nature is hostile to communication.

Nor is that all. There is the natural urge to seek the near market; to exchange the products of South itnd North. And as if to lure trade, the very glaciers of prehistoric time grooved with their mighty snouts channels of easy transit, or the rains of of he to to ty a comparatively simple, relation derived from the law of gravitation caned the Harmonic Law. This law states that the combined mass of the revolving system is proportional' to the cube of the separation divided by the square of the period. In all these calculations we use the earth-sun tystem as the standard, and as the earth has only one three hundred and thirty thousandths the mass of the sun, it can be neglected and we get the mass of the required system in terms of the sun's mass.

"Hence in this case we have the double star revolving in a period of H.4 divided by 365.25, about one-twenty-hfth of the earth's period, the yar, at a distance of 65,000,000 divided by 93,000,000, or about the sun's distance. From the Harmonic Law then the mass of this double star will be three-fifths cubed, divided by one-twenty-fifth squared, the mass of the sun, which comes out 135 times the sun's mass. If we use the exact fractions we find that this system has 138.9 times the mass of (he sun, that the brighter star 1b 75.6 and the fainter 63.3 times the sun's rrass, or about four times greater than for any previously discovered system. Leads to Theory Revision "A further calculation from the spectroscopic observations shows that the two bodies we revolving in an ellipse around one another of nearly the same shape as the orbits of the planets. But the spectroscopic results cannot tell us anything of the inclination of the planet of this ellipse to the line of sight.

If this plane passes through the earth, the distance and masses are as given above, but if not, tl ey must be greater than calculated. From considerations of the probable size of the two stars and their distances apart, it is practically certain that this plane is inclined more toan fifteen degrees, else the two bodies would mutually eclipse each revolution and there would be a decrease in the line which has not been observed. This condition makes it probable the combined mass is 160 times the sun, while if we consider all inclinations equally likely the probable average value would be 220 times the sun's mass. "The very great mass of these two bodies shows that they must be exceptional in many respects, and this discovery may require some revision of the theories of the formation and constitution of the stars. However that may be, we can easily deduce further interesting data about these two tremendous stars.

I have already said that they are about forty times as bright as the sun for each unit of area and us they are so much more massive they must be much bigger. 15,000 Times More Liyht "Two methods are available for determining how much brighter they are than the sun. The first is wholly theoretical, developed by Prof. Ed-dington, of Cambridge, from which we find that the brighter star is about 20 000 and the fainter 15,000 times as bright as the sun. "However, there is some tincertain-tv about these values and we can use another method depending upon the surface brightness and the area of the stars.

It is probable from various considerations that such excessively hot stars are very much less dense than the sun, probably only one-hundredth as dense. As the brighter star has at least seventy-five times the mass and one-hundredth the density, it must have 7,500 times the volume, or 19.5 times the diameter of the sun. Its area will then be 19.5 squared times or 380 times the sun and if as already stated this relativity is forty times as bright, it will be more than 15,000 times as bright as the sun. 10,003 Light Years Away "It is admitted by Eddington that his computed values are somewhat too high for the very hot stars, so that we may take as a moderate estimate of the brightness that the b-ighter star is 15,000 and the fainter 12,000 times as bright as the sun, much brighter than any known star in the sky. The second brightest Known star is Kigei, which is, however, only half the brightness of this pair.

Knowing the actual brightness 27 000 times the sun. the apparent brightness, b.l magnitudes, and the fact that the sun would appear of the same brightness as this star if it were removed to a distance of sixty light years, makes the actual distance of this star sixty times the square root or Zi.uuu, or about 10,000 light years "This double star system is moving away irom tne sun at tne rate of fif teen miles a second, but there also a cloud of calcium vapor either sur rcunding or else between us and the patr. The spectroscope shows this vapor to be moving away from us at a constant speed of ten miles per sec end. If this cloud surrounds the sys tern, it should move with the same speed, and a possible explanation of the discrepancy is the relativity shift or the spectrum lines. Calls in Einstein "Einstein's theory calls for three astronomical consequences: The advance of the perihelion of Mercury, which is fully confirmed, the bending cf light passing near the sun, which has been observed at the 1919 eclipse, er.d is to re again observed In Aus tralia on September 21, and a displacement of the lines of the spectrum of a heavy body to the red.

This last effect for the sun is equivalent to a speed of slightly less than half a mile per second away from us, but it has not yet been definitely found in the tun. "We may summarize then the prin cipal facts that we have been able to deduce about this extraordinary dou ble star merely from the quality of the light: coming irom it when analyzed by the spectroscope. "'The system, which is 10,000 light years away, consists of two enormous suns each at a temperature of about ro.OOO degrees Fahrenheit, revolving around one another at a distance of about 55.000.000 miles at speeds of 128 and 154 miles per second respectively, in about 14.4 days. The brighter, heavier and slower of the two stars Is nearly twenty times the diameter of the sun. over seventy-five times as massive and 15.C09 times as bright as the fainter.

lighter and faster moving star, and about eighteen times the diameter, over sixty-three timeg as heavy and 12.C00 times as bright as the sun. The velocity of the system is fifteen miles per second away from the sun, as compared with ten miles per second of a surrounding or intervening cloud of calcium vapor. Although in the right direction, the difference ia greater than can be ex- ill -Hi WWII cr rC--- -'k aeroplane traveling irom. mis earth at the rate of 200 miles an hour would require 30,000 million cars to reach these twin suns. They burn at a temperature of degrees Fahrenheit as they whirl around one another.

One, the more massive, is seventy-five times the built of our sun; the lesser is sixty-three times heavier. One is 15,000 times as bright as the Bun, the other 12,000 times as bright comparisons that entirely numb the imagination. Plaskett is more than times as large as lnrge as any other known heavenly body. ''We cannot always convey intelligently to the lay mind, the grasp we sometimes get on things infinite," raid Professor Harold Jacoby of Columbia University, noted astronomical (Authority, when he learned of the! Plaskett discovery. "Ten thousand light years is some distance away ana the lieht from this great double star has taken time to reach this planet.

It ttartod long -before man was able to conceive the thought so ably expressed by the psalmist over 3,000 years ago when he sang 'A thousand years in Thy sight is but as yester-; but its spectrum recorded on photographic plates tells us more about its existence than we ever expected to have revealed to us in our Cey. "The measurements recorded by Dr. Plaskett must be accepted as most ie.liable. His consistent and constant work photographing its spectra has Civen us the speed of both the DR. PLASKETT brighter and fainter stars, as well as the exact time taken by both to re- around each other.

"Most remarkable investigation and discovery, it is outstanding among recent astronomical investigations snd all the more' remarkable fo emanating from such a reliable investigator and sky explorer as Dr. Plaskett, of Victoria." Public announcement of the discovery is made to the world through The New York Herald. "The discovery, if such it may be called, is not of the star itself, for has been catalogued and its position known for at least seventy years, but of its exceptional properties," Dr. Plaskett said. "The star is situated in the constellation Monoceros, which i.j adjacent to the cast to the constellation Orion, the most beautiful and conspicuous group stars in the sky.

Orion is, however, a Winter constellation, and is now in the same longitude as the tun and lost in his brightness. This Is about ten degrees from the bright red star Betelgeuse, Alpha Orionis. the one whose diameter has recently been measured at Mount Wilson, and is on a line drawn between Betelgeuse and Procyon. nearly midway between the two, actually about two-fifths of the distance from Betelgeuse. Just Beyond the Naked Eye.

"Unlike Betelgeuse, which is a conspicuous object above Orion's belt, this star is just beyond naked eye visibility except to the keenest eyesight on the clearest night. Even if it ould be seen there is nothing to distinguish it from the two thousand other stars about the same brightness in the sky that are visible here. Nevertheless it is a most extraordinary object when its properties are "IX the star is observed visually or photographed it exhibits no particular properties to distinguish it from thousands of other stars in the sky. It is only when its light is analyzed by the spectroscope that we begin to realize wherein it differs from its neighbors. Vhen the light of a star is analyzed by the spectroscope and the spectrum Tccojrded on a photographic plate we i-ossess a wonderful fund of information about the star.

The star spectrum is crossed by a greater or less number of spectrum lines, generally dark lines, rather rarely bright lines. ''The positions of these lines tell us what elements are present in the atmosphere of the star, for the stars are gaseous and at high temperatures, and also the speed with which the star is approaching or receding these bodies are. while the re lative strength of different parts of the epectrums tells us how hot the Har is. "Further information in regard to pressure and electrical condition can sometimes be obtained. It was when the light from this ordinary looking star was analyzed by the spectroscope that the unique properties about be discussed were discovered.

Spectrum Revealed Element. The first spectrum waa photo- ST- iM I I i til us. The revive inteiiMty of these spectral lines enables us to determine in many stars how farU(. 1 Plaskett Star Miles Venus Mercury Diagram shows distance between I lanets from the earth in comparison with distance between earth and Plaskett. traphed on December 16, 1921, and the lines in the spectrum showed that there were present in its outer luminous atmosphere the elements hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, silicon, calcium and possibly oxygen and magnesium.

Further, the general character of the spectrum as regards the intensity of the different parts and the arrangement and strength of the elements present show that the star was an example of a rather rare class of stars, believed to be not only the very hottest of the stars but also the most massive. We have good reason to believe that this star is at a tempera- ture of about 30,000 degrees Fahren-I leit, several times as hot as it is possible to obtain heat in ouf labora-j furies, and that it is also consequent-, ly very bright. Forty Times Brighter Than Sun "We have good evidence to show that if we consider two small areas of this star and our Sun say a square inch on each the amount of light given out for a square inch on the star would be about forty times as great as the amount of light from a square inch of the sun. That is to say, if the star and our sun were the same size the star would be forty tunes are bright as the sun. "But examination of this first spectrum showed in addition that many of the lines due to hydrogen and helium were not single, as is ordinarily the case, but were double, the two parts of each line being displayed one par' to the right and one part to the left of the normal position.

The double lines are a sure indication that the object "analyzed conists not of one but of two stars too close together to be separated by any telescope, but yet each showing its presence by forming its individual lines in the spectrum. Hight Speed Shown "The separation of these lines shows haw fast the two stars are pnoving ami the displacement on each side of the normal position shows that one is moving toward us and one( from us. In this particular case the strongest lines, those evidently belonging to the brighter star of tUe two, showed that this star was moving away from us at the rate of 101 miles a second, while the weaker lines belonging to the fainter star showed a motion toward us at the rate of 116 miles a second. "Stars showing such changing displacements of the spectrum lines are called spectroscopic binaries from tneir discovery by the spectroscope as distinguished from the ordinary visual binary, which appears double in the telescope. In the most spectroscopic binaries only one spectrum can be seen and the binary character is shown by the varying displacements of the lines corresponding to changing velocity.

There have been about 800 spectroscopic binaries discovered, of which this observatory is responsible for nearly one-quarter, but less than one-fifth of these show doubled lines and in only a very few is the velocity so great as above. Strong Gravitational Pull. "The very high speed of these two stars, and it seemed likely that the first plate would not show the maximum speed, was a certain indication that we had to do with an exceptional system, either that the pair were very massive, or very close to one another, or both. Consequently spectra were photographed as frequently as possible and the positions of the doubled lines were seen to be continually changing. Sometimes the stronger lines were displaced to the red and the 'weaker to the violet end of the spectrum, and sometimes the opposite was the case.

The former indicated that the brighter star was receding, the fainter approaching us, and vice versa. "Further spectra showed that the brighter star was revolving at a speed of 128 miles and the fainter at 1C4 miles a second and that it took nearly fourteen and a half days to make a complete revolution around Ciich other. A comparatively simple calculation then shows that the two bodies must be at a distance of about i 55.000.000 miles apart, three-fifths the as Venus and the sun they would revolve in about the same period, 225 days, but as a matter of fact, they volve in fourteen days, one-fifteenth of the time and at a speed over sevei times as preat as Venus. This evidently indicates a very much stronger gravitational pull between the two bodies and a very much greater mass. Greatest in Mars "If we know the period of revolution and the separation of two bodies Idisttanee from the earth to thp nn In suggesting to our State Department that the Rush-Bagot agreement between the United States and Canada may be in need of extension and modernization.

Premier King of the Dominion Government used words which appeal to the just pride of citizens on both sides of the long boundary that divides the two countries. Said he: At the recent Conference on Disarmament no single aspect of international relations attracted more attention than the unfortified frontier of from three to four thousand miles between the United States and Canada. Over and over again reference was made to the so-called Rush-Bagot agreement of 1817, under which armament on the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River was restricted to four vessels of 100 tons burden, each carrying not more than one eighteen-pound gun. This agreement, he further said, was dwelt upon by Old-World delegates not only as an economic fact tempting to a bankrupt world but as appealing to altruism; as maintain ing friendship and good-will; "as an object-iesson to trie continents or Lurope and Asia of New-World methods in the maintenance of international peace." In these days of forebodings that follow the material waste and wakened passions of the war it is good to know that such an example does exist: that it has been shining for more than a century; that it has prevailed over many discouraging occurrences; and that what has been possible here should be possible anywhere.

Political questions have arisen itghtly less than the distance cf Vfnus frpm tne sun. lf the two.

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