The Brooklyn Daily Eagle from Brooklyn, New York on December 4, 1887 · Page 7
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The Brooklyn Daily Eagle from Brooklyn, New York · Page 7

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Sunday, December 4, 1887
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THE BROOKLYN DAILY EAGLE - SUNDAY, DECEMBER 4, 1887. FROM THE BOOKMAKERS. 1 Novel View of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages. Rawllnson's History of the World - Darwin's Life and Letters Cabot's Emerson A Luxury Edition of "'Monte Cristo." "A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages," Harper & Brothers, by Henry Charles Lea. Volumo 1 of this groat undertaking has boon finished by the author and will plquo the world's curiosity, speculation and sonso of Justice Indefinitely. It Is something now for the Protestant mind or for the froo thinking mind to bo told that the monstrous engine of physical as well as mental torture which worked so inexorably in repression of free thought la the .Middle Ages should have bean a natural and equally a necessary development of Christian civilization, as Mr. Lea does in effect tell us. In the present volume ho uotos the origin and describes tho organization of tho Institution which curiously roio out of an almost mortal corruption In the church, with the mission before It of saving the church's life, thus threatened by all the Tils of simony; favoritism; priestly and prelatical vlolonco and profligacy of life; the sale of everything sacred; tho lowest abusos of box relations; clerical immunity from responsibility for all those enormities; official Indulgonco of sin in tho laity; extortion o! nil kinds, from pope to priest, and a tendency to ovon tho barbarous Idolatry of fetish - lsm, as the last reproach possible upon the Christianity of the day. Tho author then describes tho effect of alienation toward the church which such scandals worked in tho better class of minds, and tho protest which the bolder and more conscientious of those In course of time carried on against tho corruption, though not against the constitution, of the church. These purltaus of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth centuries contemplated no special schism, but fought merely for reform within tho hurch. Even th3 Albigenses, the greatest purists of them all, who leaned to tho very severities of lifo which, like celibacy of tho clergy, had been so long bringing on tho other extreme of license, called themselros children of the Catholic Church still. But their ascetic strictness of Ufo was too liaitrant a criticism on the moral condition oftho clergy and tho manners of the day generally. Somothing must be done to rescue the Christian authority of tho age tho only authority whleh held out any hopo to humanity against ro - Uirning barbarism from tho mireof prolllgacy Into which it had fallen. Not only that but tho rnatorlal safety of Europe itself against the incursion of the infidel and comparatively barbarous hordes of Asia muBt bo preserved if civilization was ever to roTive and go forward in tho world. Honco the need of come kind of rehabilitation of the authority of what had always been Holy Church in tho mlndo and hearts of men, oven If It were through the flro and blood of persecution, directed against those who had conscientiously soundod the mortal dangora which threatened Holy Church and hor children together. Tho first thing to bo done was to onlist within the authority of the ohurch Itself an army of tho same kind of danger defying, hardship loving, poverty boasting devotees as tho church's puritan assailants had collected. Thoordors of mondicaut monks, such as tho Franciscans and the Dominicans, furnished theso now troops for the church's warfare against rebellion in its ranks. Thoy preached ovorywhoro against sin, high and low, and with authority from tho highest einnors. 1'nder cover of tho popularity which their preaching acquired, thoso proceedings against tho unlicensed preachers of purity and reform were instituted which did not stop with tho treatment of theso a3 heretics, but endod in a literal reign of terror for generations ovor entire society In Christendom, from which chanco alone seemed at timos to exempt the bodies, minds and estates of tho most innocont, unloss it was that bribery and blood mouey as often checked the course of inquiei - torlal lnterferonco with men's domestic, rollglous, social and business life an interference in which tho Church was at last fortlllod with all the Dower of the State. But many a struggle had first to be tought with secular authority before the rights of the Individual woro thus finally swamped in Southern Europe in tho deluge of ecclesiastical domination. Tho Counts of Toulonso long and bravely dsfonded such rights against tho crusades which were directed upon the hapless Albigenses of their dominions, and a blow for Justice and freedom camo even from tho Spanish peninsula, aftorward tho peculiar homo of inquisitorial despotism' The whola courBO of the history of this astounding development in tho bosom of the religion of poaco and good will to mon Is glvon by Mr. Loa with the faithfulness of thorough research, with the graphic description of tho aocorapllslftd narrator and with tho Impartiality of the philosophor. It is this last quality which extorts from the unwilling mind of tho hater of all montal dictation and spiritual domination the perhaps reluctant assout that the cause of human civilization could not have dispensod with those ago3 of bloody interference with human froodom of thought and feoliug. But the world has always gone on by authority, and there was no such thing iu thoso days as intelligent popular authority to say to ostabllshod authority, civil and occlosiastical, "Thus far and no farther." From tho Fourth Contury, when tho church first look human life to dofond tho faith, till tho Thirteenth, when sho set up tho stake with the same motive, and for centuries after. It was a mere question of her authority or a worse one, or none at all on the side of progress. The book Is a fine piece of printing and binding, delightful to handle a3 interesting to read. KawIinBon's Universal Illbtory. "Ancient History," J. B. Lippincott Co., by Georgo Kawlinsou, M. A. The author Is Professor of Anclont History in the University of Oxford. In this volume he covers the period from tho creation of tho world to the destruction of the Roman Emplro In tho West by tho barbarians, A. D. 470. Parallel narrativos of tho caroors of the various nations ad Statos are pursued, with special prom - lnonco given to tho loading ovents In their history. Hecent discoveries, as Is well known, have raised some parts of this history from the condition of fablo in which It before existed, These discoveries, consisting in tho disoutomblng and gradual doci - phorlng of inscriptions of tho different peoples treated, are freoly used by tho author. The inscriptions were made at tho time of tho ovonts which by them have now been;brought into clearer light, and the finding of such koys to the burled treasures of history, lying iu innumerable monuments of the timos which produced them of coursa gives new meaning to much that has hitherto beeu more myth, and makes it possible to construct a record of tho ages In question as authentic in many respects - as 1 modern history. Tho poriod from the creation to tho flood, however, the author considers as scarcely belonging to history, in the senso In which tbo latter Is an account of tho rise and progress of states and nations. Tho very duration of this period varies In tho dtfforont records, tho Samaritan giving it as about 1,300 years, tho Hebrew Scriptures ta 1,650 and tho Septungint translation as 2,762 years. And, while hesitating to chooso between these three estimates, tho author adds that there Is no certainty that the numbers themselves, as first written, have not boon altered; that the Babylonian estimate was ovor 4,000 years and that finally science comes in with estimates, based on archaeological findings, which carry man's existence on tho earth up to from 30,000 to 100,003 years. Tho only hopo of solution of this prehistoric question is in more ouch discoveries, and of a more definite charactor. answoring for this early and savage poriod of man, when he had nothing but rude Implements to leave behind him, to tho discoveries of those monumonts and inscriptions which recorded his history after Ianguago aud tho arts had made sufficient progress to render governments and Stat03 possible. Tho first States thus recorded and considered by tho author aro Egypt and Babylon, the formor lasting, under ono emplro and six, or according to Manetho thirteen, dynasties, from 2.500 B. C. through six conturios. The contemporaneous Babylonian Empire outlasted the Egyptian by 200 years, during which Egypt was under the Invading Shephord KtngB. Theso again aro succeeded by a new Egyptian omplra extending to the conquest of tho country by tho Persians under Cyrus, in 558 B. C. Two conturios later the all conquering Alexander tho Great establishes the Macedonian Empire in Egypt, as well as In Asia, and his successors, the Ptolomies, hold It till tho still more widely conquering Roman power wrosts it from them. Similar changes follow tho first Babylonian Empire, exposed to the attacks of rival nations like tho Elamltos, the Hlttites and tho Assyrians, who Anally succeed to Its powor. Contemporaneously is given the history respectively of tho Phoenician, tho Syrian, the Lydian and tho Israelite monarchies, the parallel history of Persia, of Greece and of Carthage), and finally the rise of the groat power which was to rule tha wsrld from the city which to many minds Is yet the conter of it Itomo. Tho eighth and last of the periods In which tho author's work Is arranged covers tho consolidation of Roman power under the Empire and tho history of the lattor through five conturios, together with the parallel history of the Parthian dynasties and tho later Persian one of the Sassanides. In addition to a synopsis of this parallel treatment of his subject the author adds at the close of the volume valuable tables of events arranged according to their Idontlty in time of occurrence. Though compendious as to size tho history itself is writton with sufficient vigor added to its brevity of statement to make It Interesting roaJiug as well as valuable for reference, and the volume is at once handsome and handy. ilsrwin. "The Lifo and Letters of Charles Darwin," D. Apploton & Co., edltod by his son, Francis Darwin. The public owes special thauks to the publishers for tho two handsome and Inviting volumos which, under tho above title, admit It to an Interview of tho lifo and labors of one of tho great high priests of nature Tho particular aim of tho son in choosing from tbo father's correspondence baa been to illustrate the hitter's personal charactor, but, as this was shown in a whole lifo of work more than in any other way, the work becomea thus as conspicuous as the man and his researches appear throughout as prominently as his personality, fixing Indeed the whole order of treatment of the biography. Beside the lettors there was tho briefly Jotted diary of Darwin, ofton containing only dates of events, but valuable In determining tho ordor of the correspondence, which was as often without date. The illustrations, including tho lino portrait in the first volumo, are In many cases from tho plates first executed for tho Century. Tho later portrait which appears in the second volumo was taken In 1881, whonagehad diminished somewhat the boldness of outline which the face wears In the other, but apparently not dimmed the eyo which had peered from beneath the beetling brow into so many of nature's socrots. Tho book includes what will no doubt appear to readers tho most engrossing part of it an autobiographical chapter, in which tho philsoplior of evolution, the origin of specios and tho doscent of man appears In all the simplicity of heart of the child, aud with marvelous modesty unloss the only wonder Is that all men aro not as modest as nature and the animals pictures himself in youth as a rathor unpromising caso of unfitness to an ordorly, reputable lifo and in age as still dull In comparison with his compeers, whom ho claims only to navo excelled In minute and caroful observation. But the world will hardly be eatisQod with his own estimate of himself. A Sovcl by Crawford. "Marzio's Crucifix," Macmillan & Co., by F. Marion Crawford. Marzio l'andolfl, a skilled workman iu motals, an artist, a fit representative In fact of tho art of Banvonuto Cellini himself, is also, like Cellini, as 111 regulated in spirit as he Is skillful iu modeling things of terrestrial and especially of spiritual beauty. His free thinking soul rebels against tho authority, partly natural, partly occlos - aslieal, of his prlostly brother, Paolo. 1113 whole individual aud family lifo soeras to his socialistic mind to be nottod and bound down undor tho domination of that Influential and prevailing relative. He is blind to the nobility of character which enforces that Influence on all, and chorishos the design of ending it and his brothor's lifo at once, not for any mercenary object like that of succeeding to property, but for an idoa. But tho silver crnclflx upon which tho artist happens to bo engaged, Into which ho Is throwing the whole force of his genius, and which is receiving an added exprosslvoneis oven from the association of the priestly brother with Its working out, proves tho saving of both. As It slips from Its pad upon tho artist's table tho intended victim turns rapidly from the contemplation of It and tho would bo fratracide's murderous arm is not raised. But the same day a ladder falls upon the prlost 1 n the church, aud he Is supposed to bo dying as Mar - xio comos homo with tho comploted cruoIDx. Ho has now reasoned out the merciful escapo ho has had from horrlblo guilt aud remorse, and falls across his brother's insensible body. Tho priest 13 rousod, looks upon the crucifix and utters words of Scripture which always como to him when gazing upon its wonderful artistic linos. The household of Marzlo Join In the latter's Joy at the return of the good priost to consclousnoss, and the daughter of tho house is further made happy by tho consent of father and undo to her marriago with the artist's favorite pupil. In tne dlssoctlon of Marzio's hot Italian passions and dark designs, from which a lucky circumstance and reviving consciouco rescuo him, tho battle between ecclesiastical authority and Individualism is strongly sketched. Cabot's Emerson. "Memoir of Ralph Waldo Emerson," Houghton, Mifflin & Co., by James KUlot Cabot. Tho groat "Greek Yankee," as somebody has called him, tho llowor of the ages of thought and culture that have Included not only Greece hut every school of learning and art, tho New World's intellectual alombic In which they have all been rodlstillod and given forth In quintessence, tho boast of New England and, In spito of flings against her by American minds beyond her borders, tho pride of tho whole country as Its representative iu tho congress of human thought Emorson might perhaps have mora fitly found a biographer outside of Now England. Ho may yot do 89. For though his mind was bred there as well as his body, and was ns thrifty as anything in Now England charactor, It was yet as large as American territory and Included all that Americans think and feel throughout that territory, fused together with his thrifty logic aud his classic chasteness of statoment and illustration. But for the presont Mr. Cabot fully fills tho needs of tho caso In the delineation of tho montal career of this scholar and philosopher, poet and moralist combined. Ho does so largely by letting Emerson tell his own story of Intellectual development, in his dlarlos and lottors, which have beeu worked Judiciously to that end by tho selection of what in each caso was most fit to illustrato tho large minded man who was the subject. Not that there was a great mass of trivialities to reject in tho research, for Emerson had no trivialities In the senso of hobbles, pet anecdotes, or personalities geuorally. Not, again, that ho failed to observo little things and petty traits In persons. But they took up less important place In his mind, which saw so much above and below our ordinary hurried and excited American life, nenco tho view which tho book gives of its subject and of hi3 time Is rather ono of the course of contemporaneous thought than of ovents. To bo suro Emerson him - soil did not fail to take tho full meaning of tho latter, but he was not so much their plaything as more active men, and saw tho springs by which thoy were producod more clearly, and tho mechanical character, so to speak, of the whole moving scsuo, momentous aud oven portentous as It was at tme3 to his country and his age. Ho had tho key to It all, and In his transcendental, and not at first obvious, way told his countrymen pretty much all that could bo said from his loftier standpoint about their fovorish and too often fraud infected political and social life. It Is such things In his books that their children will ponder through generations to come. Calvinism had prepared for him a strong hereditary mental tenacity, and tho issuo from its shell left htm Intellectually equipped for at least stating Inimitably tho problems of mind and soul. Of course leaving Calvinism behind such a largo mind could not take up with any other system, but 6pont Its years In doing Justice between all Bystoms and distilling tho wisdom to bo found in them all. Tho presont volume is crodltablo to publishers as to author. luxurious 1'dilloau. "The Count of Monte Cristo," Georgo Routlodge &, Sons, New York, by Alexandre Dumas. This superb folio, Ave volume edition of tho oldor Dumas' most noted story Is a sample of tho sump - tuousness with which bookmaking Is carried on in this ago for tho popular appetite as well as for that of the dilettanti. Boalde the rlchnoss of paper and typography It contains about 500 Illustrations from designs of ominent French draughtsmen of fifty yoarB ago, which give the costumes and fashions of the time when the famous romance was first published. Though somewhat ponderous and moro fitted for costhetia examination than for continuous reading, this'" odltlon of luxury" can hardly fail to stimulate tho perusal of Dumas' wonders of narration, the Ingenuity of adventure, the Strang contrarieties of fortune, tho romantic human vicissitudes and the bold morallzings on lifo to bo found In "Monte Cristo." Thero Is a certain fresh Interest In the wholo vast variety of exciting experiences in tho fortunes of Dantos and thoso of his friends and his enemies whon thoy aro compared with tho later romanciugs of Verno, Haggard and the rest who so boldly sail their literary barks Into tho unexplored oceans of modern fablo. The wonder faculty will never dlo in man, so long as he starts in this world as a child, and slnco tho food craved by it Is aa unlimited as. the fac ulty Itsolf this vast feast of the marvelous, In which not only Europe bat both Asia and Africa aro laid under contribution, Is probably destined to a vory respectable Immortality among romances. Its value to history as a picture of the manners, customs, raodos of thought and action and phases of passion of Its time will be nono tho less considerable because of the systematic preservation of the moro serious printed records of historic fact In later ages, and It Is not beyond possibility that it may oven survive such mere businesslike records, aa ro - manco, by virtue of its popularity and wide currency, so ofton does. It would bo a curious speculation which should woig'n tho chances of preservation throuirh fuMie centuries of the heavy volumos of historic and scientific writing f the pro - Hint one. In cotiipa. - i.ion with the higher but vastly more bundled aud moro widely read productions of imaginative talent. iVoteH. CasscWi Family Magazine for November Is full of illustrated stories and other interesting matter. " Mero Suzanno aud other Storlos," narper & llrother, by Katharine Maequ"td. is a collection of vivacious, pleasant tales of lllo in Frauco. Tho Christmas number of tho Publisher' Weekly Is a profusoly Illustrated affair representing num - bors of now books from which the illustrations aro taken. The Cun'o for November shows Increasingly handsome treatment in its engravings and phototypes and has a variety of artistic and archaic interest in tho toxt. Tho writers in Whh Awake for lf'.SS will be E. C. Stodman, Andrew Laug, II. R. Haggard, Sidney I.uska, Jessie Benton Fromont, Ik Marvel, John Burroughs, E. E. Hale, G. P. and Rose Hawthorne Lathrop and many others popularly approved. Macmillan & Co.'s "Musical Instruments, Historic, llaro and Unique." will contain fifty chrorao lithographic plates from subjects In private and public collections, such as the late loan exhibition at South Kensington. The notes are by A. J. Hip - kins, F. S. A. "Life of Washington," Worthington Company, by Virginia F. Townsend, is a handsome, illustrated, clearly ..rinred biography, writton from a woman's DOint of viow. Tt is thus calculated to Interest youth and all who care for a sight behind the grand historic scenes in which Washington movod. Messrs. Little & Brown, Boston, will shortly publish a volumo of stories of a humorous cast entitled " Five Hundred Dollars and Other Storlos of Now England Life," by II. C. W., a writer who has figured in tho Century. Some of the other titles aro: "Tho Village Convict," St. Patrick," "The Hew Minister's Great Opportunity," etc. "A Manual of Oil Painting," Cassoll 4 Co., by non. John Collier. This useful little volnme treats first of the practice, after tho objoct teaching ordor of things, and then of the art of painting. Compact as it is it is very complete in instruction and made interesting by frequent reference to the masters in the art and tho living painters of reputation. "Select Notes on tho International Lessons," "International Question Book," in turoo parts, and " Sunday School Lessons and Golden Texts," for 1888, N. A. Wilde & Co., Boston, by F. N. Peloubot, D. D., contain variously: commentaries, explanatory. Illustrative, doctrinal and practical, with Il lustrations, maps aud chronological charts in tho formor, which is a neat octavo volume. "Calamity Row, or Sunken Records," Rand, Mc - Nally & Co., Chicago, by John R. Musick, Is a vory varlod picture of Amorlcan lifo, as tho author seems to have soon It In all sorts of situations, high and low, refined and revolting. It doos not claim to be anything more than realistic, which is what the reading world seems to demand that a story should bo now, as realistic as a newspapor. "The Whole Truth," Cassoll & Co., by J. IT. Chadwlck, Is a bold aud enterprising novel In its comprehensive rango ef charnctors, eitios and countries treated, and will bo road with consider able Interest for tho mingling of American, English and other nationalities which figure in Its plot. This is intensified by a case of long sought but elusive identity. There Is also an art element In the story. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. aro doing the public o geuuine service in the publication of the biography of that vigorous and original man, inventor, astron omer, author and soldier, Ormsby Macknlght Mlt - chel. it Is by his son, F. A. Mitchol, and Includes the general's correspondence, throwing light upon passages of the War of the Rebellion, iu which ho figured at ono time with a bolduess and offleloncy that seemed to call for greater advancement than fell to his lot. The Eclectic Magazine for December, Now York, has articles by Professor Freeman, the English his torian on education; Dr. Fothergill on tho effect of town life on tho body; Zebohr Pasha's story of his life; N. II. Mallock on wealth and labor, treated very pungently; Sir Salar Jung, giving an East In dian's view of European politics; W. L. Courtnoy on "Pascal;" Dr. Traill "In Praise of the Country;" "Tho Experiences of au English Engineer on the Congo," etc. Stockton's story, "Tho Duaantes," boglns in tho Docombor Century with another casting away differing from that of Mrs. Leeks and Mrs. Aloshine. Professor Shields, of Princeton, continues " Church Union " with further propositions as to tho churchos of the Unitod Statos. Cable's "Au Largo" has a 3trong style of charactor In 'i'arbox, tho book gent. Brandor Matthews' "Notes on Parisian Newspapers" is Illustrated by the French artist Jeanneit with portraits of Wolff, Rochefort, Clemencoau and Sarcoy. Latent Publication. J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia. Tho Sportsman's Paradise, or the Lake Lands of Canada. By ri. A. Watson, A. .M., .M. u. Illustrated by Daniel C. and Harry Beard. D. Appleton & Co., Now York. Origins of tho Eng lish People and the English Language. By Joan Boosner, LL.D. Health and Progress. By George Guutou. Andy Morrlgan's Groat Discovery. By M. P. Allon. Popular Soiouce Monthly. Lifo and Letters of Charles Darwin. By his son, Francis Darwin. William H. Amies, Philadelphia. True and False Theories of Evolution. By llov. Chauncey Giles. Cuahles Sckhikek's Sons, New York. Scrlbuer's Magazine for December. CaSSKLL a Co., Now York. Cassoll's Family Afag - uzine for Docomber. Lifo and Death of King John. By William Shnkspoare. Tho Twilight of Life. By John Ellerton. Practical Electricity. By W. E. Ayrton. FlUNK E. HOUSH & Co., Brattleboro Vt. Woman's .Magazine forNovembor. Anson D. F. Randolph & Co., Now York. Aids to Prayer. By Henry Wu'd Boochor. - Botweou tho Lights. Thoughts for tho Quiet Hour. By Fauuy B. Batos Socialism. By Roswell D. Hitchcock, D. D. Harper & Bhothers. New York. Mere Suzanno. By Katharine S. Macquoid. Engravings on Wood, i By American Wood Engravers. Introduction by William M. Laffan. A Magnificent Phobeian. By Julia Magruder. A Prince of tho Blood. By Jamos Payn. Women and Mon. By T. W. Iligglnsou Modern Ships of War. By Sir Edward J. Rood and Admiral Simpson, II. S. N. R. W. Whigut, New York. The Curio for Novom - ber. Forum Publishing Co., Now York. Tho Forum for December. Century CO., New York. St. Nicholas for December. Publisher's Weekly, New York. Number for December. T. B. Peterson & Brothers, Philadelphia. Who Cares? By Mrs. Han - let N. K. Goff. Porter & Coates, Philadelphia. The Store Boy. By Horatio N. Alger, Jr. Castell Brothers, London. The Landing of tho Pilgrim Fathers. By Mrs. Homana. On the Wing. By Lucy A. Bonnott. E. It. Pklton, New York. Eclectic Magazlno for December. Nortii American Review, Now York. December Number. D. Loturop Co., Boston. Gladys, a Romance. By Mary Greeuleaf Darling. Wide Awake for December. Kani), MciNali.y & Co., Chicago. Calamity Row, or the Sunken Records. By John R. Musick. Robeuts Brothers, Boston. A Garland for Girls. By Louisa M. AlootL Calendrier Francals for 1888. Tho Saono, a Summer Voyage. By Philip Gilbort llamorton. Somo of Our Follows. By Rov. J. S. Mllllngton. Heroic Ballads. By the Editor of Quiet Hours. Henry Holt & Co., New York. Pine and Palm. By M. D. Conway. Tho City of Sarras. By N. A. Taylor. International News Co., New York, Nelson's First Farowoll, A Mischievous Puppy and Portia. Yule Tide, Tho Christmas Graphic and Holly Leaves. Literary World, Boston. Holiday Numbor. Magazine ok American History, Now York. Number for December. M. T. Richardson, New York. The Painters' Encyclopedia. By Frank B. Gardner. Century Co., New York. December Century. American Magazine Co., New York. American Magazlno for Decern nor. Funk & Wagnalls, New York. Homlletic Review tor December. Ubs. Frank Leslie, New York. Holiday Illustrated Number. THE OLD GOWANUS ROAD. Researches Into the History of Past Centuries. A First Paper on the tine of Travel from the King's Highway Toward the South An Antiquarian's Walk and Objects of Interest by tin'. Way. Iu investigating the origin ami early history of the old roads of Brooklyn f have found two points which have given rise to disputo and my conclusions in'rogard to which might as well be stated In this article as elsewhere. Ono point Is in reference to the King's Highway. As far as my search has gone I have found but one road which wont by tho name ef the King's Highway and that was tho road from Brooklyn to Bedford, to J - Jast Now York and on t;i Jamaicn. Asa matter of fact all tho old r.iads lai 1 out under the king's authority by the klug'H coaiiiiissioners wero king's highways, Just as roads now laid out undor orders of the commlssiotierd of tho counties aro called county roads, and woro so dosiguated in legal documents; but tho designation as a spociflo name attached Itsolf only to tho road mentioned abovo. Thus, as tho Gowauus road was laid out by royal commissioners, according to their report of March 28, 1701 (tho sarao ditto as tho report on the. road through Bedford), it was a king's highway, but unliko tho Bedford road it did not carry that title, but was always callod tho Gowanus road. The other point is in reference to the legal status of tbo roads, whother Dutch or English, now included within the limits of tho city. By tho tonure of Hollaudtsh laws tho titlo of all public highways was vested In tho State; and thus tho British Crown became the lawful proprietor of tho foe of tho old Dutch colony roads. As the legal succossor of this right the Common Council of tho City of Brooklyn camo into possession of the title. By English law tho foe remains In tho adjacent proprioturs, aud in disuso, or abandonment of the right of public oaso - mont tho land in the roads of the English colonies may bo solzed and occupied by thorn. But the land in tho roads oponod before 161U (tho Dutch roads) was the property of tho City of Brooklyn, and I think that tho adjacent property owner occupies them at his peril. I am satlsllod, however, that a deed from the city will givo the holder a perfect title. According to the records tha Gowanus road was laid out in 1704, and ran southwest from tho King's Highway at Atlantic avonuo down along tho coast, which gained for It the name of tho Coast road to New Utrecht. A3 thero aro matters of interest con - noctod with it which can best be so treated, I shall divide it into two sections, tho first and short soc - tion being between Atlantic avenue and tho Porto road (about First street); the secoud extending from First street southwest to tho city lino. Whon tho Gowanus road was laid out the King's Highway was also laid out across tho depot grounds of tho Atlantic avenue Railroad to the Junction of Atlantic and Fifth avenues and Into the center of tho next block, and thonce oast to Bodford and beyond. Tho Flatbush road wa3 also constituted a King's thoroughfare at the same time. There had been old Dutch cartways to Bodford and Flatbush for over a hundred years previous to this time, and in all probability there had been a road down to Gowauus as oarly as to the other places, as the last named was the first locality settled in Brooklyn, and some of tho houses on tho lino of the road wero old, when tho royal commissioners laid It out; but In order to mako things all right according to their idea the English did ovor again everything tho Dutch had dono before thorn and laid out king's highways whore tho slmplo hearted Dutch had been content with cartways for half a contury. But whethor there was a road along tho same line to Gowanus or not previous to that date, the lino laid out by tho English in 1704 mado tho Gowanus road branch off from the southerly side of Hie Flatbush road, at about tho present Junction of Atlantic and Fifth nvonuos, and run on tho lino of Fifth avo - nue to Bergen street; then, dlvorglng a short distance to the east, running parallel with tho lino of Fifth avenue to Berkeley place, then across said avouue to the west, aud down through the conter of tho block to tho Junction of the Porto and Mill roads, in tho block between Garfield place and Firststreet, Fourth aud Fifth avenuos. In following tbo lino of road now it will bo found that thero aro no reminiscences of it for the first throe blocks, which are all solidly built up. At Bergon street a dollectlon being made to the oast of Fifth avonuo, a depression iu tho ground through a vacant lot on tho corner of tho block toward St, Marks place shows the formor lino of tho road. From St. Marks placo to Linooln tho blocks aro pretty solidly built up. Tito road ran through tho west end of theso blocks about 100 feet oast of Fifth avonuo, and thoro is now a lino of vacant lots through from Prospect to Lincoln placo, vory closely approximating tho line of tho road. At Lincoln placo wo havo vory tangible relics of tho oarly thoroughfare. On tho north sido of Lincoln place, fronting on and about thirty feot back from Fifth avonuo, is a one and a half story frame house. It has a basement and a high stoop both in front and roar. Tho roar, in years gone by, used to be the front, and faced tho old Gowanus road. Ou tho south of Lincoln place, about 100 foot east of Fifth avenue, stirroundod by a largo yurd and facing Ninth strcot, its gablo ond being diagonally to and about thirty feot from Lincoln placo, Is a long ono story attic and baso - niont woodon house, with a high stoop in front. To tho rear of this house there is quite a hill which tho house ruus Into, making tho hallway, which Is eu - torod from a high stoop In front, even with tho ground at the back. Tho hall runs directly through tho contor of the house and tho doors at oithor ond are the old style of Dutch double doors, somotimes known as mill doors, bolng divided horizontally In the conter a very wiso provisiou ou the part of Mynhoer, for It allowed ventilation by opening tho uppor door and provontod his dozen or moro children of tondor years from tumbling out, as somo of thorn were liablo to do. This houso has four windows in tho front, aud the door In tho centor. The hall runs through from the front door.and in it is a stairway loadinc upstairs;to tho attic and down to tho basement. On tho loft of tho hall is a largo room, about twenty foot square, while on tho right handtho same amount of spaco is dlvtdod into throe rooms oue in front and two back. Tho attic is divided into small rooms, while the basement has but two rooms and tbo hall botwoon, tho north room having ovidently been tho kitchen from tho large, old fashioned flroplaco, while tho south room was probably a bako and store room, tho remains of the old brick oven still belug apparent. Thoro Is also a largo fireplace In this room in - tondod to furnish smoko for tho smoko houso abovo. Tho houso 13 at presont occupiod by A. T. Dooloy and wife. Just how old this houso is I do not know, but it was occupied and owned by Tom Poole, a farmer and milkman, seventy years ago. Poole had two daughters, who subsoquontly bo - camo, 1 havo been told, Mrs. Barr, and Mrs. Tyson. He built tho houso which stands on tho north side of Lincoln place and Is similar in stylo to the older house on tho south side, so as to givo oach of his daughters a houso. Back In the first years of tho contury Thomas Baisloy had a ono story houso on tho west sido of the road betwoon Dean and Borgen stroots; Mr. Wiltotts, a retired merchant had a two story houso on tho oast side botweon Wyckoff and Warren, and Adolph Browor lived ou the oast and John Ham on tho west side near Butlor, but all traces of these have long slnco disappeared. Thomas Puraoll's blacksmith shop, south of Poole's house, is also gone. After crossing from Lincoln to Berkeley placo, tho road, trending southwost, crossod tho Junction of Berkeley place and Fifth avenue, aud continuing across tho upper end of the blocks to the west of Fifth avenue. On the southeast corner of Berkeley place and Fifth avenue stands a two and a half story frame house, about forty feet back from Fifth avonuo, with a box hodgo on either side of tho walk leading from tho street to the houso. Tho fact of the box being about four foot high Is good ovldonco of age, as the box bush is of very slow growth. This houso was originally, 1 believe, the house of Jerry Brower about seventy years ago, and was subsequently owned by one of the Cortel - yous. Thero are no special marks to indicate the lino of tho road between Berkeley placo and Carroll street. The only house that used to stand on tho road bo twoon the Brower houso and Carroll street was tho eld house of Thoodorua Polhemus, farmer, which stood on the east sido of tho road, west of Fifth avenue, near President street, but that has been moved over to the neighborhood of the canal la the neighborhood of Third avenue and First street. These blocks aro pretty well built up and city Improvements aro being rapidly made In this direction, the real estate men in the Twenty - second Ward claiming that property la cheaper in this sec tion than anywhere els In the city. In tho block between Carroll street and Garfield placo, which is about half built up.there are somo old houses,wblle In the block between Garfield placo and First street there are not over half a dozen houses, probably none of which stood on the old Gowinus road. Seventy years ago there was a long house on this latter block near the northeast corner of the Porto and Gowanus roads. One end of It was used as a schoolhouse and the other was ocsapled by Joe Tllton, a laborer. On the opposite, or southeast corner, was Bill Furman's tavern, Furman had tho misfortune, while out gunning in Flatbush Bay, to shoot his grown son, and had to row home with his dead boy in the boat. This was along abont 1815, and he novor recovorod from the shock, but showod tho elTocts of it up to the day of his death many years afterward. fiowauuH, or Gowanos, or Cojanes, wa3 the Nyaok Indian name for cove or creek, so that the Dutch settlors received it from thom and continuod the title. Tho Dutchmen made tho same mistake In their day that their English successors mado and Bpoke of the bay and creok as Gowanus Bogt and Gowanus Kill. Tho English speaking people call thom Gowanus Bay and Gowauus Croek. Bringing the terms down to their truo meaning, both nationalities designated them tho bay bay and creek crook. Tho Nyacks did better. They simply spoke of the Gowanus or Oojanes, thus indicating the eri'oli or cove. It will thus bo seen that whon ttio young American of the presont gonorntion, in his Inclination to bo slangy nnd his desire to abbreviate, says that he 13 going down to Gowauus, meaning thereby the creek or bay, he strikes it wiser thau he knows. At tho point of Junction of tho Gowanus aud Porto roads. betwoon Garllold place and First street, Fourth and Fifth avenues, the Gowauus road made a near ap proach to Gowanus Creek and then beyond that point followed south in a parnilol line the creok and bay. Bratichiug oiT from tho Gowanus road, right opposite tho Junction of tho Porto route, there was in old timos tho mill roud to Donton's and Froeko's mlllB, generally known as the yellow mill and tho old Gowanus mill. The old Gowanus mill, the oldost iu the Town of Brouckolon, was erected some lime betwoon 1015, whon tho land was first patouted, and 10G1, whon It is recorded as being run by Isaac DoForost and Adam Brower. it was lo cated Just north of Union street, west of iXovlus, betwoon that stroot nnd the canal. ' Ou March 28, 1701, tho Commlsslonors laid out a road and landing placo at, or near, the mill, of which the following is tho record : "Ono common highway to Gowauus mill, to begin from the northeast corner of Laflort Petorso's foneo, and so along the road westerly, as it ia now in use, to tho laue yt parts the land of Jlendrlck Vochto, and Abraham Brower and Nicholas Brower, and soo all along said lane as it is now in feuco to tho house of Jurlau Collier, and from tltouco along tho roado now iu use to tho said Gowanus mill, being In all four rod wide to tho said lane; and that thoro bo a convenient landing place lor nil porsous whatsoever, to begin from tho southermost side of said Gowanus mill houso, and from said houso to run four rod to the southward, for tho transportation of goods and the commodious passing of travellers; and that said highway to said Gowanus mill, from said house of said Jurian Collier, shall be two rods only and where it is now In uso; said common highway to be aud continue forever; and further that tho fonco and gate that now stands upon the entrance Into said mill neck, for the inclosing and securing of said neck, shall soo rouialue and bo always kept soo Inclosed with a fonco and hanging gate; and tho way to said mill bo thorow that gato only, and to be always suutt or put to by all porsons that passes thorow." On tho Mill road, Just south of Carroll street, used to bo tho rosidonce of Nehomlah Denton, sixty yoars ago, and whore the road crossed tho Intersection of Novlns and Union streets, John C. Freoko residod. Tho mill dam of tho Freoko mill was across Oow - anus Kill, about Sackett street, aud during tho battle of Brooklyn many of tho lleolng Americans escaped across It. Tho Donton, or Yellow Mill, was located on the northeast sido of First street, near tho presont canal. It was built In 1709. During tho battle, while tho remnant of tho Amorlcan troops wore trying to make their escapo across the marsh and crook, a panic stricken Now England officer, having secured the retreat of bis own mon, without thinking of the safoty of tho other fugitiuos, flrodtho Yellow Mill and a bridge which It soems then oxlstod about Carroll street. In 1709 tho commissioners laid out a road and landing placo at or uoar tho mill subsequently known as Denton's. Tho record Is as follows: "Ono common highway to begin from the houso of Jurian Collier to the mill of Nicholas Browor, now sett up on Gowanus Mill nock soo called, as the way Is now in uso along said nock to said mill to bo of two rod wido; and that thoro shall bo a landing place by said mill iu the most convenlont placo for tho transportation of goods and the commodious passing of travellers, and said highway and landing placo to bo, romalne and continue forever." Dontou's pond, or rather tha pond of tho Yollow Mill, which was formod by damming off a branch Gowauus Kill, was tho subject of a curious coutract botwoon its original proprietors, Adam and Nicholas Browor, who built It in 1709, and Nicholas Vechte, the builder and occupant at tho timo of the old " 1699" or Cortolyou houso. Vechte was an ec - coutric and Independent individual, with the strong predilection of his countrymen for dykes and canals. His houso stood on the bank, just abovo the salt meadow, at a distance of 100 yards from the navlgablo water of tho creek. To socuro access to the navigable water from bis door, Vechto dug a narrow canal to tho creok, but tho tide ofton left bis boat in tho mud when he wished to roach the city market with produce. Ho thoroforo oontractod with the Bowers to supply him with water from their pond, and a channel was dug to a water gato through which his canal was flooded. Vechte would load his boat, seat himself in it, and signal with his pad - dlo to his negro servant to raise tho water gato. Tho Hood would come, ralso the boat out of tho mud and float it out to tho creok, down which Vechte would go chuckling at tho advantage ho had ovor his neighbors, whose stranded boats lay stuck In the mud waiting for tho flood tldo. H. J. S. TH OLMiHTK. Bosldo my window stands a treo. With branches hanging droopingly ; Its trunk tho tempest cloud hath riven. Yet still Its hoad looks up to heaven. Parched by the sun's too potont ray. Its sillton loaves have passod away; But, fearless of the Winter cold, Another green its arms enfold ; Fair flowers dock its form in Spring, Tho birds upon Its branclioj sing, Aud, while in grace aud boauty dressed, Tho powor that mado it stands confessed. Thus, when my years shall mako mo bo Tlmo worn and wasted llko that treo Alas! that lime has come to be May strength unto my head lie given To lift my face always toward hoavou: Thou, clinging to my sido and feet, May clustering vines their tondrils moot, And, loaning to their soft control, No dark regrot shall shako my soul; Though old, yot fresh, llko this firm treo, While young arms fondly twine round me. A. M. Richards in Button Transcript. THE COPYISTS AT THE LOUVBK. What a study there is to bo mndo of tho odd collection of malo and female copyists who poo - plo the galloriosof the Louvre! Old women with gray curls bending over the rosy uuditlos of copies from Boucher as it wero Alocto illuminating tho manuscript of Auacreou; yollow skinnod women with gray bibs and spoctaclos porchod ou tho top of stopladdera hung with green sergo to spare the modesty of thoir lean limb3; porcelain painters grimacing through a magnifying glass as they copy tho entombmont of Titian; little withered old mou In black blouses, their hair parted in the middle, and looking like angolic dwarfs presorved In spirits of wine. What is the history of all thoso personifications of irony who have been cast at tho feet of masterpieces by hunger, misery, want or the dos - poratlon of a mlstakon vocation 7 Poor, ridiculous folk picking up tho crumbs aud alms of art at tho feot of Its gods. And yot these copyists must havo their homes, their ploasures and their passions. Thoy woo, we suppose, and marry, for have we not soon a touching and Innocont declaration of love - two poaches placed by an unknown hand on the lid of an unguarded color box? Art Amateur. A HlfilSTSB'S lfEDDlRfi FEES. "What do you ask for marrying a oouple?" asked a Manchester business man of a woll known clergyman of that city the other day. "I leave that to the gentleman," replied the divine. "It Is $5, $10 and sometimes moro whon the groom feels especially generous." "I'll give you $3, and that's all I can afford," was tho merchout'a final offer, to Which tho clergyman said "All right," and tho tlmo tor the coromony was fixed. At tho appointod hour tho man presented his intended at tho parson - ago, but before tho trying ceremony was begun astonished tho ministor by saylsg: "My woman horo is pre tty sharp at a bargain, and sho thinks 2.50 is enough for this 1ob." That amount footed tho bill. Concord (N. U.) Afonffor. Judging from the inflammatory utterances of tbo Rev. Hugh O. Peutecost, tho Newark Socialist, the modern day of Pentecost is not like that w read about In tho Scriptures. Boston I'otU DISCRIMINATING CHARITY How Careless G - iving Sometimes Promotes Fraud. The Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor the Best Instrument of Benevo lence Its Origin and Its Methods. As Winter approaches the problem of relieving tho sufferings of tho poor of our groat city again presents itself to the philanthropic portion of tho community. In attempting to solve this problem lu such a way as to avoid making professional paupers of those who aro the recipients of charity the people of Brooklyn havo tho assistanco of a great charitable agency which represents in its plan and methods of work tbo results of many years of experience. I refer to the Iirooklyu Association for Improviug tho Conditiou of the Poor, which Is familiar to all old reaidonts of our city. As many new people are constantly locating among us, however, a few words regarding the workings of this society may bo a moans of putting them in the way of bestowing their charity where it will do tho most good. Again, tho voluntary solicitors who collect tho bulk of tho money with which the work of tho society is carried on are now commencing thoir labors, and those notes, retrospective and prospective, may sorvo to remind old frionds of the society "that tho grand work still goes on, and mayhap thoy will be thus prompted to greatly Increase their usual contribution.?. First as to the association's history. In the year 1853 Rev. Dr. F. A. Farley, while reading in a Now York morning paper an account of tho workings of the Now York Association for Improving tho Condition of the Poor, asked himself the question, Why can wo not have an association of the same kind in Brooklyn? Dr. Farloy consulted with Mr. Seth Low, grandfather of tho ex - Mayar, Mr. Cyrus P. Smith ond others, and a meeting was held in a small room iu the old Armory Building, corner of Henry and Cranberry streets, which was attended by less than twenty porsons. Dr. Farley, then pastor of the Church of Our Saviour; Dr. W. II. Lewis, rector of Calvary Church, in Jay street, and afterward of Holy Trinity, wore the only pastors present. A committee consisting of Dr. Farloy, Dr. Lowls and Mr. Cyrus P. Smith was appointod to call and make arrangements for a public meeting. This first public meeting was hold in the Presbyterian Church, corner of Clinton and Fulton streets, then under the pastorate of Dr. Ichabod Spencor. A constitution was adopted aud the following officers woro elected: President, Seth Low; vice presidents, Cyrus P. Smith, John Greenwood, Honry C. Murphy, William Rookwell, Henry N. Conkliu; treasurer, Abraham Hulaey; recording secretary, James Howe; corresponding secretary aud general agent, Stephen CrowolL Tho Kxocutivo Committee consisted of Fisher Howe, Robert Nicols, Charles Addoms, Hosoa Webster, Honry N. Conklln, John Greenwood, William liock - woll, Honry Sheldon, J. Sullivan Thome, Cyrus P. Smith, William H. Cary, Alexander Newman, Dr. J. M. Moriarty and John W. Hunter. A board of managers was also chosen which consisted of five representatives one of them boing a physician from oach of tho seven wards which at that time constituted tho City of Brooklyn. As this list contains the names of many persons who have become well known in Brooklyn, and as It indicates tho standiug of tho mon who have always Interested thomselvos in the welfare of the association, it Is given in full. First Ward Henry Sheldon, John H, Brower, Bra - zilla Ransom, Frederick T. Poet, Dr. F. W. Ostran - der. Second Ward Dr. J. S. Thorno, David Coopo, William M. Harris, George S. Uowland, Qerritt Smith. Third Ward C. P. Smith, John Dlmon, N. D. Carlyle, R. J. Thorne, Dr. T. L. Mason. Fourth Ward William H. Cary, Dr. David F. At - water, William L. Hudson, Michael Muller, J. F. Garrison. Fifth Ward Alexander Nowman, Dr. A. Ottor - son, P. J. Borry, Joshua Rogors and flonry T. Tabor. Sixth Ward Dr. J. M. Moriarty, Daniel P. Parker, Samuel Smith, William R. Wadsworth and S. W. Thomson. Seventh Ward John W. Hunter, Dr. William C. Betts, John A. Taylor, Samuel Fleet and Fitch Taylor. Tho following gentlemen woro also elected members of the Board: John Skillman, Josoph L. Brigham, N. B. Morse, Lowell Ho", brook, Peter Clark, J. M. Vqu Cott, Thomas Kirk aud Benjamin W. Davis. Tho objoct of tho society, which has never been changed or doviatod from, was clearly stated In the constitution first adopted, which reads in substance as follows: "To elevate the moral and physical conditiou of tho indigent, and so far as is possible with thoso objects the relief of their necessities. But in securing this a Judicious discrimination must be oxorcisod, otherwise the worst and moro numerous class would rocelvo the most aid, whllo the deserving class would bo left to suf - for. Accordingly, tho association rigidly oxcludes from its benefits all paupers, vagrants, professional boggars, drunkards and the permanently holploss. Organized for tho promotion of morality, it prevents Immorality by removing poverty oue of its prolific sources. Tho association endeavors to aid those who try to aid themselves." Another Important objoct of the association is to provide our citizens with a safe and satisfactory channel for tho exerclso of liberality. During the first financial year the sum of f2,259 was collected. Tho contributions stoadlly Increased, until in 1S72 - 73 thoy amounlod to $34, 290.88, which included a legacy of l."),000 from the estate of Mr. Francis D. Ma - sou. To January 1, 1878, $'J!)6,788. - 15 had boon contributed and oxpendod for charity through channels of tho association. As to tho method pursued by tho socioty It is vory simple aud very thorough. Each ward is laid out In districts, and a porson Is found to explain tho objects of the socioty to residents and ask for contributions. This work is entirely voluntary, aud is undertaken by public spirited men who aro so impressed with tho importanco of the work tho association Is doing that they will do all in thoir powor to hslp it along. Tho solicitors of tho association furnish tho contributors with onvolopbs containing tlcko:s which introduce the applicants to the association. All contributors become annual members. These and no others are permitted to present tickets to thoso needing aid, and no notice is taken of tlckots coming from non mombors. A thorough investigation Is made of every caso which Is pre - sented. Information is sought from all available sources, and the auswers of the applicants are verified whenever it is possible to do so. When tho applicant proves upou a careful Investigation to bo unworthy of assistanco tho person sending him or her Is notified of the fact. There were 244 solicitors at work last year and the sums they collected amounted to 22,083.93. No ono Is asked to give any spocllo sum, but each residont in ordinarily good circumstancos is expected to givo something. The numbor of families assisted during the past year was 11,739, consisting of 52,823 personB ; 5,423 grocery orders wero issued ; 1,220 tons of coal delivered, which was valued at 50,404, and glvoa in quartor and half ton lots to 3,055 families. The wholo numbor of packages of groceries glvon out was 39,603. The following aro among the fundamental rulos adopted for the operation of the society: To give relief only after investigation of each caso, either by visitation or through Inquiry; to givo only articles immediately necessary; to give assistanco at the right moment aud not boyoud tho necessity which calls tor It; to require from every one receiving aid entire abstlnonoe from iutoxlcatlng drink as a bevorage; that children of a proper ago be kept at school, and those of suitable ago ba apprenticed to some trade or sent to eorvico. To give no relief to recent emigrants, except In urgont cases, until thoy can be referred to the Commissioners of Emigrants, who are required by law to oare for such persons, If needy, during live years after their arrival. To givo no aid to persons who from Infirmity, imbecility, old ago or any othor cause are unable to earn their own support and thorofore aro permanently dopendent. Iu oxtromo cases, or until thoy con bo rjforrod to tho propor institutions for pormanont rellof, temporary assist ance may be glvon. To dlscontlnuo relloving all who manifest a purpose to depend on alms rathor than on thoir own exertions for support. In the earlier yoars of the assoolatlon orders were glvon for supplies on certain stores, but more recently tho association has purchased everything in tho line of groceries and provisions at wholesale and dispensod them from a central depot. No perishable goods are kept aud tho association saves tho retailor's profits and secures a uniformity in tho quality of goods dispensed. By the new system three barrels of flour are furnished tho poor given out In small packages for only 55 cents more than what two barrels oost under tho store system for merly lu vogue. For a number of yoars previous to 1878 the City of Brooklyn dispensed charity in the shape of what was known as outdoor relief. The value thus dls - irlbuted for the ten years previous to tho above dale, when tho system was abolisnod, amounted to an average of $130,000 yearly, consisting partly ot coal, but mostly of groceries, which wore distributed among 10,000 familios. This system was a most pernicious ono. Tho County Supervisors ordered the supplies and the Commissioners of Charities distributed them. There were Ave distributing offices, to some one of which each ward of the city was assigned, each having Its particular day for distribution. On these days many hundreds of women would sit In a crowd for hours with their baskets waiting for their waekly dolo. Paid visitors to tho homos of tho applicants had been tried and found worso than usoless. Ono Winter overy applicant had beon compelled to swear to her poverty, but still tbo numbor Increased. The outdoor relief system was vigorously assailed by the Eagle and by many public spirited men in Brooklyn. It was shown that it gave a set of petty ward and county politicians certain patronage whleh they utilized for thoir own benefit : that it encouraged the paupor class and that the really deserving poor wero not benefited by it. Immediately upou the abolition of outdoor relief by the city tho Society for Improving tho Condition of the Poor extended their field of operations to every ward in tho city, and right ably have they prosecuted this work of sifting tho wheat from the chaff in the matter of applicants and only bestowing charity whore It could bo shown that It was deserved. There Is a legend In Florence that a grand duko once proclaimed that every beggar who would ap - poar in the grand plaza at a certain lime should bo glvon a now suit of clothos. Tho beggars of tho city wero on hand promptly, when all the avenues to tho plaza wore dosed, and each beggar was compelled to strip off his old clothes before receiving his now suit. In the old clothes thus collected enough money was found secreted to build a bridge over the Arno, which is still called the Beggars' Bridge. Incredible as this story may seem to some, it will not be deemed at all unreasonable by those who have familiarized themselves with tho workings of the Poor Association, The system of Investigating tho cases of p.U who apply for charity and tho keeping cf tho record c.f unworthy cases has been made almost perfoct by Mr. Albert A. Day, tho General Agent of tho society, who lias devoted over ten years to tho work. Ho Las the records of 7,000 professional seekers after charity, which are arranged so systematically that they can be referred to In a moment, and Impositions thus prevented. It would hardly bo supposed that with such a per - fctsy8tem for tho intelligent bestowal of charity anybody in Brooklyn would be so unwise as to give alms at the door without any attompt to investigate the truth of tho applicant's plea. But there are a great many porsons in Brooklyn, nevertheless, who still do this. They mean well, but the effect of thoir course Is to produce and maintain a mendicant class which Is the curse of any community. The Ladles' Clothing Bureau cf the association is an efficient and vory Important portion of the work. Materials are purchased at wholesale and aro made up by womon in return for supplies furnished them. Second hand garments aro also sent In, which aro 1 mended and then bestowed where they are very roau are In the association building, 104 Livingston street and are In charge of a committee of twenty - six ladies, with Mrs. James O. Cleaveland as directress in ehargo and Miss Baylls as secretary. There is a branch of the Clothing Bureau at 212 Sumner nve - nuo, of which Mrs. M. G. Young Is directress in chief and Miss May W. Abeel secretary, with a committee of twelve ladies. From the report of tha bureau for 1887 we extract tho following interesting facts: Number of women receiving work on garments, 353; number of familios assisted with clothing, 602. The numbor of garments given out by tho bureau was 4,050, which wore valued at $3,200,42. Beside this 614 articles of second hand clothiug were also given out, which were valued at $313.50. Tho iuvortigatIous h. tho aeents of the society have devtlopod many cases of human dopravity and have brought to light not a few cases which seem almost Incredible. A woman applied to the society for aid. Her caso was Investigated and it was found that sho had $3,500 on deposit in tho savings bank, but had boon rocoiving charity for a number ot years. Another person who had succeeded In Imposing upon tho society's officers was found on the lino at the Tax Office waiting to pay her taxes, A husband and wife had been for years receiving aid from public charitable funds They wero found domiciled on the second floor of a rear tenement, of which thoy wore tho owners. They also owned the largo brick tenement in front, which they rented, two families boing located on each floor. They also owned other brick tonements In the city and country. The woman was a good conversationalist and could make tho unwary believe that sho was iu tho depths of poverty. The floor they occupied was comfortably furnished, but when a visitor from any of the charitable societies called they were shown into a poorly furnished room on tho first lloor. Tbeso instances of unworthiness on tho part of applicants tor charity are only a few among tho many which have beon discovered. It has been said that not a few professionals In the art of begging becorao wonderful adopts lu duplicity, and whether as actors or orators there might bo difficulty in finding their equal ou the dramatic stago. Indood, it would not bo harsh to say that thoy aro the champion liars of tne day and they achieve many brilliant successes, for the field of their oxploits is eoextonsire with tho olty. and chiefly among the fomiuino heads of onr households, whoso sympathies are often too oasily touched and who cannot endure the thought of so much privation and misory as that which is depicted by the forlorn object shivering at their doors. Tho dead body at home for which collections havo beon made for months past still awaits a burial, and the little children at tho point of starvation nobody knows how long have not yot had anything to eat. Ouo of tho most common frauds is tho begging lotter writer. Gonoral Agent Day, In a recont report, says: "Ho or she, as tho caso may bo, is a porson of somo educational acquirements. This practice is pursued regularly and systematically. Names, addresses, pamphlets In which are to bo found tho addresses of charitably disposod persons, incidents relating to and identifying persons to be addrossod, and much other mat - tor of an ingenious and curious charactor constitute a stock in trade and may be found carefully classed tor reference lu tho business bureaus of theso people. Thoy send out letters addressed to their victims, in which the imagination has full scopo for invoutivo fiction. Dlro distressjof heartrending character is depicted, themselves and their families boing the central figures In tho fictitious sufloriug portrayed. A comparison of thoso lotters at tho olllco of the Poor Association has frequently beon tho means of dotocting aud exposing tho fraud. Tho abovo facts should serve to convinco any ono of tho uttor fjlly of bostowiug charity upou any applicant who may apply for it at the door. It the charitably disposed doslro to make their own investigation, well and good, but the Poor Association has facilities for doing this work which secures groator thoroughness than is possible to a novice. Then again the officers and agents of the society havo become, by long yoars of experience, familiar with many persons who solicit charity, aud especially with thoso who are undosorvlng of It. Tho work of the society has boon the means of putting a chock upou street bogging and It would stop It ontlroly if people would not encoursgo it by giving out alms to any one who tells a pitiful story at tho basement door. Thoro can bo no question that tho Brooklyn Association for Improviug tho Condition of tho Poor is a most perfect organization for tho Intelligent dispensing of oliarlty. As a proof that in saying this wo are not claiming too much we relate the following lncidont: A gentleman residing in Galveston, Tex., loft a large bequest to bo used In improving the condition of the poor of that city. Uls executor visited the principal cities of tho North in order to ascertain tho methods pursued in tho dispensing of charity, with the purpose of adopting the most perfoct ouo for tho carrying out of his trust. In his search ho finally reached Brooklyn, whore, after making a caroful examination of the books and the methods of tho Poor Association he made this statement: "Of all that I has - e seen and examined, your system seems the wlsost and calculated to secure the best results. " Upon returning to Galveston ho notified the officers of the Brooklyn association that their methods had boon adoptod and requosted that a full Bet of blanks bo sent, with Instructions for all work. The presidents of tho Poor association havo beon as follows: Seth Low, 1813 - 53; John II. Brower, (pro tem) 153 - 54; Stephen Crowell, 1854 - 57; George Hall, 1857 - 03. Rouben W. Ropos has beon tho president of tbo association since 1803, a period of nearly twenty - flvo years. C. D. B. In the name of the Southern good and national welfare, what possible benefit is to be got out of parading Jefferson Davis and his secession followors 7 Is it not plain thai this act Is offensive to a very largo majority of the people of this country ? Suoh a proportion, we believe, desire peace and no more allusions likely to revive the desperate differences of fooling and opinion over which the war was fought Birmingham Age. i

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