The Brooklyn Daily Eagle from Brooklyn, New York on December 11, 1848 · Page 2
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The Brooklyn Daily Eagle from Brooklyn, New York · Page 2

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Monday, December 11, 1848
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Brooklmi JOailn agk. mCOXItAY EVEKINU) DEC 11. I'ho Gold llcgiou. Tlic letter of Colonel Mason in our columns today, has already becu widely read, nnd perhaps by the greater part of our readers. To those who havo jiot so read it, it will prove a welcome visiter, as it contains an intelligent, itcresting and authentic account of tho gold region, and of the vast amount of treasure which it contains. Already peoplo have become California mad. We ;au scarcely meet a friend who is not half inclined to start for tho 1 Dorado, while some have goiie; and others are preparing to follow. Jt is id that nearly a hundred vessels will sail from the port of !Ncw York in a few weeks, and that the rush is equally great from Philadelphia, Baltimore, and the other southern cities. It is evident that a large interest is about to grow ftp on tho Pacific coast, and that, even sooner than we expected, a great state is to be planted there with its commercial cities, and its free institutions, Id push on the work of reformation towards tnsses tiug sun, and to scud out fiom th:s western centre, its free influences over the beuighied and stnpified regions of eastern Asia. This is what we - have said, from the first, would be the effect ol the war. The climate on the Paci. lie is mild and healthy ; the soil is snore - fruitful than tti.it on the Atlantic ; tho bays and harbors are the finest in the world, and it now appears that the earth abounds with tho richest of minerals, which aie futuui in the greatest abondauce. Who can doubt, iheu, that the population which is now ponr - ini; in su rnpidly, will mostly remain there, and will plant a jrejt and powerful stute, which will ba immediately admitted into ihe Union. ' W'e havu, in times past, glanced at the important commercial position of this new state. We havu all heard of the " wealth of the Indies." Its exhuber - enl proaucts are now scattered over the world, chiefly through the ageory of tho London capitalists, lis vast stores co i - o to us by tho way ol Londou and Liverpool, and arc heavily tolled by Juhu iiull before they rctchlhe other portions of the globs. When California is settled aud a line rau'ioad is constructed from that country to the .Ii. - sis: ippi, ali tins will be changed. The " wealth oflheIudie.it" will ihen fl w upon California, lheuc to New York, and thence, to London, thus laying the old world under conliioulion to the new, aud making ISmv York what London now is. We have no fear that the gold mania will bathe ru.u of us us it was of Old Spain. On the other hand we b - lieve that our enterprise and intelligence will euable us to manage Una treasure and make it contribute to our commercial, agricultural and mechanical ndvjucemout. It is true lhatinauy are to be disappointed, and that their golden visions will end in sickness, poverty "aud death in a foreign laud. But others will succeed better and a tide of wealth will flow in on our country which will give an impulse to our general advancement a new spring to commerce aud enterprise, and add to the greatness ai.d glory of our common country. The Cholera. A committee of the New York Board of Health have issued a circular, in which they give the following advice to the public. In the first place, they would advise particular atteutiun to clothing. From the uaturcof the com. plaint, it is evident that much depends upou keeping the body ivurui, ami protecting it from sudden exposure to cold and moisture. Flannel next to tho sKui should be a universal article of apparel, and they would re. - pectfully suggest to those, chantab.e associations whion are in the habit of supplying the poor with cloihing, to make this an objact of special attention. At this seasou of the year, too, the supply of fuel to the poor should bo liberal in the second place, the diet should be particularly attended to. The uuuersigned would not advise any sudden or groat chauge in the ordinary modes ol living, where those modes are temperjte, and have Oeen lound to agree. i?ueii changes ihey believe would do more harm than good. From the peculiar nature of the disease, however, it is well known that certain kinds of i'oodajs injurious, and, wiihout going iulo naviculars, they will merely state that all such articles that have a tendency to relax the bowels, ought to be avoided. All crude aud raw vegetables, as well as violent purgative medicines, aio calculated to do mischief. Excesses cither in eating or drinking, cannot be too religiously abstained Irom. In the third place, attention to personall cleanliness, by the irequeut use of the tepid bath, is par - ticularly recommeuded. in the fourth place, ihe preservation of a calm and composed state of mind is all important, and may do more than is generally supposed in preventing the onset ol tiiis disease. It is the result of experience that all epidemics are aggravated more or less by menial disturbance, whether iu the shape ol active panic or low despondency. To the cholera, this is particularly applicable. While, our citizens, thercli re, use every prudential aud precautionary measure, let them keep up a good heart and dispei all fear. In the fifth place, with regard to the treatment of cholera, it may he ob - erved lhat, as u general rule, the disease does not attack t - o suddenly as to preclude the pi Si.bil'ny of calling in timely medical assistance. A relaxed stale ol Hie boweisfora lunger or sho;ier period, gives not ce of its approach, "hi all cases, ilwiel'oro, n nun any dis udor of ihis kind exists, common prudeuce will suggi - si the necessity of resorting to rnedic.l aid. if ihis be dune, ius - a - t"m t.. (Ji.mj.isu may generally be promptly arrested. Where prole. - s.ouul aid cannot he immediately ob tained, anu w..it simple relaxation ot the tio.ve.ls cxisi, 15 or 2J diOps oi laudauum may bo'lalier: ; to be repeated in one or two hours according to circumstances. Fur voting persons aud children the dose iniiSL bo reduced according to the age at tlie ego ol it) jeais, 5 drops,at tho age ol two or ihree , rar, '2 or 3 diops. v'iier I liu symptoms are moro severe and the patient is cold, in audition to the laudanum, ho beould be put immediately to bed between blankets, and every appliance in tne shape ol bolt!; - of hot water, bags ol hot salt or sand, frictions, etc., &.:., &.:., be dnioontiy resorted to. A strong mu.stard po.iltice, loo, should be applied over Ihe region of the stomach, to re nam on until it produces siiiariing of tho skin In addition t . this, a lmln biaudy and walcr. snuuld be given, wuh tho view of restoring Warmth. As iu tfiis city no dithcuity in obtaining Ihe speedy asstancu uf a phj siciati can exist, any cirt ci.oris in reUliun tolhea:ter treatment are deemed Unnecessary. The Star We beg parduu of the Star for the injustice hich we did it in our paper of Saturday. Our attention has been called to a paragraph in Ihe report of the St. Nicholaf D.uner, in which a portion of tho proceedings were duly credited lo ihe Edgic. 'Ihis paragraph had escaped our notice, aud as the Star is innocent of the charge of " plunder," it is proper that we should retract it. Cholera Tno resident physician at Stateu Inland reports no new cases of cholera and only one death since Friduy last. The disease cholera or not is evideuily on the wane. Aleautime the cleaning of tin: streets and other pluces In this city is in progress, and the health officer will make a communication to the common council on the subject this evening. Gen. Worth arrived in Pittsburgh on Friday uigut and had a. brilliant reception, Grace Church. The opening of the new Episcopal church iu Hicks street yesterday called out a crowded house. Rev. Dr. Vinton, tho pastor, preached from these words: " Hitherto the Lord hath helped us." In tho courso of his sermon he staled that tho church was nearly paid for, there being on it only a debt of 6000 which ho hoped would be eutirely li quidated by the Bale of the pews. Ho also slated that when the debt was wiped off tho church would receive an annuity of gUOUO from Trinity, which with tho pow rents, would be ample to meet the annual expenses. It was intended tho church should ultimately be entirely free aud about one third of tho pews arc to be free from the first. This church is one of the handsomest structures in our city and its pastor, Or. Vinton, ranks among our ablest and most popular clergymcu. The architecture of the building is of Gothic and Mosaic. The interior is finished very elaboratoly. The Wood work is of black walnut, the windows arc stained and in tho latest aud best taste, and the large oue in the rear of the chancel is particularly beautiful. This part of the church is very imposing aud hardly surpassed in beauty by any church in the couulry. In the south end of the building is the gallery, immeniately over the chapel, containing an organ of tones full and sweet. The ceiling is cancellated, and suppoited by eight sextagonal pillars. Rev. Dr. Welch preached his inaugural sermon yesterday morning to a most attentivo and intelligent auditory. His text was from Acts 10, 29 ; when, alter Peter had seen his vision aud been taught by it, that what God had cleansed was not to be regarded as common or unclean, ha followed the messengers of Cornelius to tho house of the cen - tu:icn, nud alter exulaiuing tho teachings of the vision , said : Therefore ca. ie I unto you without gainsaying as soon as 1 was seut for: I ask therefore for what in - leut you have sent forme? Tho Doctor is, we should say, approaching 60 years, with a little stoop iu his shoulders, but strong and auunated in his enunciation, and clear and accurate in ,his ratiotination. He preuches without notes, and evideuily understands what ha is aboui. The general tenor of his discourse may be gathered fn m the text. We regret to learn fiom his remarks that a considerable debt hangs over iho Pierrepont street Baptist Church ; but we do nut doubt that the energy and popularity of the new pastor, will soon sweip it away. The discourse of yesterday morning evinced sliong good sense, as well as ability, and we arc gratified that so valuable an accession has been made to the clerical ranks of our youug city. Fire Last Night. A lire broke out about 12 o'clock in the dry goods store of Robert Staples, No. 53 Atlantic stieet, which did great damage to tho large sleek of goods therein contained, and wrought .vonsiderable destruction to the interior of the lower story of the building, but the prompt arrival of Engine No. 2, prevented any further spread of the flames. It was some time before the remain der of the department' arrived, owing to the erroneous ringing of the alarm bell, which sounded (or the first district iustcad of the second. The file was evidently the work of an incendiary, who gained au entrance through the side entry, aud communicated fire to the goods on the shelves. Death or Mrs. Stryker. We regret ro hear of the decease on Su.tu.rday last, uf the venerable and much respected mother of itlayor Stryker, at the advanced age of eighty - one years, at her residence, No. 185 Adams street. She has gone down to tho grave full of years and honors, and will be generally and sincerely mourned. Her funeral takes place this afternoon, and will bo attended by the common council and other civicVuuc - tionarics. Riotous Firemen. The chief ongiueer has deprived the belligerent companies, Nos. 1 aud 8, of their engines, and locked tip their houses. An investigation will forthwith be made by the fire department committee into the riot on Friday night, with a view to the severe punishment of all the offending parties. Election in France. Ytsterday was the day appointed for the election of a President of the French Republic. What a pity that a new state should begin this great duty by a violation of the christian Sabbath. 03" The Circuit Court of Oyer and Termiuer are in session to - day at the county jail. Cj" The County Hoard of Supervisors will meet to - morrow afternoon at the county j - iil. Correspondence Jour. Com. Washington, Dec. I have seen the specimens of gold, sent to the secretary of war. by Col. Mason. They are now exhibited at ihe President's house. They are valued at 4,000. Most of the specimens present the gold in a form resembling fish scales. Some are in pure gold, weighing nearly or quite an ounce, and some smaller. There are also specimens of gold mix - d with a quartz rock. The gold of commerce is generally found iu I grains or dust, iu the foimalicin called by geologists diiuvial. These specimens came from a diluvial I soil. Very little, if any ot the nold of commerce is obtained from the original place of its deposit. Iu Cal.fornia, il is said that the original veins of gold are inthe mouniaiu ot the Sierra Nevada, and, in the course uf ages, have beeu worked from the mountain, on hutli sides, upon lha plains below. The existence of this g ild has been known for more than a ccuiury. Spauish jealousy and .Moxi - ci.n indolence have guarded it from view. In Ware's History of Mexic - i, there is an account j of a .Spaniard who had a mine in California. The old j hunks would not allow the mine lo bo worked, but ! he use .to go and lake, from it as much money as j ne v. anted occasionally, uud when he died he let Ins ! secrel die with him. The extraordinary abundancnof gold ju California ! is scarcely JK cicd.ltd by Ihe public ; but still il is j pcrl'ec' ly cousistant wuh Ihe lacls that we do know, j We know ihat many Spanish families acquired vast wealtii from mines, Hie iocalily of whicn Ihey hid. , Tenia us, for instance, came from Spam with some capital. lie t - pent nea. ly Hie whole ol it in seareh - ing Tor gold. At length, lie of a sudden became vastly rich, having an income il a million of dollars a year, and was created Condc de Regie. The Obrcgou family present a siiu.lur instance ol luck in discovering a mine. Tho original Obte"on came from Spain, discovered the mine in Guanajuato, made a vast fortune, and presented a line ol buttle ship, fu.ly armed and quipped, at one lime to the King of Spain. He was created Couda de Val - anciana. The richest man in America, at this moment, is a Mexican mmcr. Perez Gal vez, by name , uroDrie - I tor ol the miue of La Luz and Mellador, nt Guana - i juato. I suppose that some great speculations, and some very successful ones, will be made in that region. I was Htruck with a remark of' Mustaug," on this subject. He is soon to go to Ca'iforrna to reside permanently, and establish a press. I asked somo questions of him. in regard to the miniug speculation, aud he said in reply, that he was afraid of gold mines aud would sooner track a rattle.iuakn. Sn. j there will he one editor in Culirorniu, who will not ' be carried away by the " accursed ihirutV,f M ' California Gold Mines. Among tho documents received by the Secretary ol War, aud communicated with" the President's message, is the following letter from Col. Mason, the military commaudant of California, who presents the fullest description wo have seen of tho gold " places" of that distaut region : No.37.J ' Headciu - aiiter'b 10th Military Dept., ' i Mouteroy, California, Aug. 17, 1848 '' Sir : I have the honor to inform you that, accompanied by Lieut. W. T. Sherman, 3d artillery, A. A. A. General, I started on the 12lh of June lastilo make a tour through the northern part of Califoruja - My principal purpose, however, was to visit die newly discovered gold "placers" iu ihe valley of me Sacramenio. I bad proceeded tibout forly milps, wliou I was overtaken by un express, bringing mo intelligence of tho arrival at Monterey of the United States ship Southampton, with important letters from Commodore Subrick and Lieut. Col. Uur'.on. I ro turned at ouce lo Monterey, aud dispatched wliat business was most important, and on the 17th re sumed my journey. We reached Sau Fianciscojon tne utri, aud louuu that all, or nearly all of ils male inhabitants had gone to the mines. Tho toipn, which a few mouths before was so busy aud thriving was then almost deserted. On tho eveninrr of ih 25th, the horses of the escort were crossed to Souso - leto in a launch, and on the following day we re sumed the journey by way of Bodega and Sonoma to outtcr s lort, where wo arrived on the morning of the 2nd of July. Along the whole route, mills wera lying idle, fields of wheat were open lo cattle and horseB, houses vacant, aud farms going to waste! At Sutter's there was more life and business. Launches wore discharging their cargoes at the river, and carts were hauling goods to the fort, where already were established several stores, a hotel, occ. dipt. Sutler had only two mechanics in his employ, (a wagon maker and a blacksmith,) whom he' was then paying ten dollars a day. Merchants pay him a monthly rent ol 100 per room ; and whilst I was Iherc, a two story house in the fort was rented as a hotel for igjoOU a month. At the uigenl solicitation of many gentlemen, I delayed there to participate in iho first public celebration of our national anniversary at that fort, but ou the 5th resumed the journey, and proceeded twenty - five miles up the American fork to a point on it no w - known as the Lower Alines, or Mormon Diggins. The hill sidt s.werc thickly strewn withcauvass leuis nnd hu - h arbours ; a store was erected, and several boarding shanties in operation. The day was intensely hot, yet about two hundred men were a: work in tho full glare of the suu, washing for gold somo with tin pans, some with closei woven Indian baskets, but the greater part lid a rude machine, known as tho cradle. Th.s is on rockers, sixor ei"n! feet lou, open at the foot, and at its head l coarse grato, or sieve : the bottom is rounded, with small i leels naili d across. Four nieu are iequire.1 lo work this machiue : one digs the (pound iu ihe bank close by the stream ; another carries it to tne cradlo and empties it un tlis grate; a third gives a violent rucking motion to the machine ; whilst a fourth dashes on water from the stream itself. The sieve keeps tho coarse sloues from entering the cradle, the current of water washes off the earthy matter, and the gravel is gradually carried out at the foot of the machine, leaving the gold mixed with a heavy line black sand above the first cleets. The sand and gold mixed together are iheu druvvn oli' through auger hoies into a pan below, are dried in the sun, and aficrwards separated by blowing ofl'the sand. A parly of four man thus employed at the. lower mines, aveiagcd a hundred dollars a day. The j inuians, aua inose wno nave nollnni; hut pans or willow baskets, gradually wash out the earth, and separate the gratel by hand, leaving nothing but the gold mixed with sand, which is separated in the maimer belore described. The gold iu the lower mines is in tine bright scales, of which I send several specimc - us. As we ascended the south branch of the American fork, the country became more broken and mountainous. At the saw.mill,25 miles a'iove the lower washiugs, or 50 miles fiom Sutter's, the hiils rise to about a thousand feci above the level of the Sacramento plain. Hero a species ofpiuc oner - , which led to the discovery af the gold. Capt. Sutter, lecl - ing the great want of lumber, contracted m September lust with a Mr. Marshall to build a saw - mill at lhat place. It was erected in the course of the past winter and spring a dam and race constructed, but when the waler was let on the wheel, the tail - race was found to be too narrow to permit the water to escape with sufficieut rapidity. .Mr. Marshall.to save labor, let the waler directly into the race with a stroug current, so as to wash il wider and deeper - He eliected his purpose, and a large bed of mud and gravel was carried to the foot of the race. One day Air. Marshall, as he was walking dowu the race to this deposit of mud, observed souieglittering particles at its upper edge ; he gathered a few, examined them, and became satisfied of their value. He then went to the fort, told Capt. Sutter of his discovery, and they agreed to keep it a secret until a certain grist mill of Sutters was finished. It, however, got out, aud spread like magic. Remarkable sject - ss attended the labors of the rirst explorers, and iu a few weeks hundreds of men were drawn thither. At the time of my visit, but little more than three months after its first discovery, it was estimated that upwards of four thousand people were employed. At the mill there is a fine deposit or hank of gravel, which the people respect as the property of Capt. Sutter, although he pretends to no rijjht to it, and would be perfectly satisfied with the simple promise of a pre - emption, on account of tho null woich he has.built theic at a considera le cost. Mr. .Marshall was living near the mill, and informed rue that many persons were employed above aud below him ; lhat ihey used the same machines as at the lower washings, aud that thrir success was about the same ranging from on? - to three ouuees ol gold per man daily. This too, i - s in scaics a little coarser than those of t.ie lowermines. - From the mill Mr. Marshall guided me up the mountain on the opposite .r north bank of ihe south fork, where, in the bed of small streams or ravines now - dry, a great deal of coarse gold has been found. I there saw several parties at work, all of whom were doing very well; a great many specimens were shown rne, some as heavy a four or five ounces in weight, and 1 send three pieces labilcd No. 5, presented by a Mr. Spence. You will perceive lhat some of the specimens accompauy iug this, hold mechanically pieces of quartz; liia the suiface is rough, and evidently moulded in the crevico ol a rock. This gold canuol have been cairied far by waler, but must have remained near where it was first deposited from the rock thai once bound it. I inquired of many people if they had encountered the m tal iu its matrix, but. iu every instance they said they had not; but that the gold was invariably mixed with washed gravel, or lodged in I lie crevices of other rocks. All bore testimony that ihey had found gold in greater or less quani ities in tln - uumcrous small gullies or ravines that occur in that mountainous region. On ihe 7th ol July, I lull the mill, and crossed to a small stream einptyino mio into tiic American fork, three or four nnies heiow the saw - mill. I sirncn. this stream (now known as Weber's creek) nt ihe washings of Sunul &. Co. They had about thirty Indians employed, whom they pay in merchandise. Tucy were gelling .r0d of a character similar to that founu in trie main fork, and doubtless in sufficient quumiiies to satisfy them. I send you a Brnall. specimen prcsontcd by this company, of their gold. Fiom this point we proceeded up the stream about eight miles, where we found a great many people aud Indians some i - n - gaged in the bed of tho stream, and otlurs m tho small sidcvallies that put into it. Tiiesc latt r are exceedingly rich, and iwo ounces w.ru considticd an ordinary yield for a day's work. A small gutter, not 111010 than a hundred yards long by four feci wide and 2 or three feet deep, was pointed out to me as the one where two men William Daly and Perry McCoun had, a short time before, obtained S 17,000 worth of gold. Capt. Weber informed me mat he knew that theso two men had employed - 1 white men and about a hundred Indians, ami' 1l1.1t, at the end of one week's work, they paid oil' their party, and had left 10,000 worth ol this gold. Another small ravine was shown tne, from which had been taken kupwards of 12,000 worth of gold. Hundreds of similar ravines, to all appearances, aro as yot untouched. 1 could not havu credited these reports, had I not seen, in the abundance of tho precious moral, evidenco of their truth. Mr. Neligh, an agent of Commodore Stockton, had been at work about three weeks in the neighborhood, and showed mo m bags aud bottles, over $2000 worth of gold ; and Mr. Lyman, a gentleman of education, and worthy of every credit, said he had beeu engaged with four others, with a machine, on the American fork, just below Sutter's mill; that they workud 8 days ; and that his share was nt tho rate or $50 a day ; hut hearing lhat others wero doing better at Weber's place, they had removed there, and wero on tho point of resuming operations. I might tell of hundreds of similar instances ; but, lo illustrate how plentiful tho gold was m tho pockets of common laborers, I will mention a simple occurrence which look place in my presence when 1 was at Weber's store, ihis store was nothing but an aibor of bushes under which he had exposed for 6ale goods and groceries suited to his customers. A man came in, picked up a box of Seiilliiz powders, aud asked its price. Capt. Wobcr told him it was not for sale. The man oft'ered an ouuee of gold, but Capt. Weber told him it only cost 50 cents, and ho did not wish lo sell it. The man then offered an ounce and a half, when Cupt. Weber had to take it. The prices of all things are high, nnd yet Indians, who before hardly knew what a breech cloth was, can uow afford to buy ihe most gnudv dresses. The couulry on either side ol Weber's creek in much broken up by hills, and is interested in every direction by small streams or ravines, which contain moro or less gold. Those that have been worked aro barely scratched ; and although thousands of ounces have been carried away, I do not consider that a serious impression has beeu made upon tho whole. Every day was developing new and richer deposites; and the only impression seemed to be, mat tho metal - would he found in such abundance ns seriously to d cpreciato its value. On the 8th of July 1 returned 10 the lower mines and on the fol owing day to Sutter's, where ou the 10th I was making preparations for a visit to tho Feather, Yuhuh. and I3uar rivers, when I received a letter irom Commander A. II. Long, U. States Navy, who had just arrived from San Francisco from Maicatlan, with a crew for the sloop of - war Warren, with orders to take that vessel to the squadron at La Paz. Capt. Long wrole to me that tno .Mexican congress had udjourned without ratifying the treaty of peace : lhat ho hid letters for me irom Com nodore Jones, nnd tht his orders wero lo sail wilh the Warren ou or h"f.ire the 20th ol July. Iu consequence of these, L determined to return to Monterey, and accordingly arrived hero 011 the 7th of July Uefore leaving Suiter's, I satisfied myself lhat gold existed in the bed of the Feather river, in the Yubah and Bear, and in maiiy of tho small streams that lie between the latter and the American fork ; also that it had becu found in the Cutisumines to the south of the American fork. In each of these streams the gold is lound in small scales, whereas in fie inieu'euiug mountains it occurs in coarser lumps. 1 S r. Sinclair, whose ranciio is three miles above Suiter's on the 1101th side uf the American, employs about 50 Vidians mi ihe north fork, not far from lis junction with tho main stream. He had been eu - ;agcd about five weeks when I saw him, nnd up to that lioiu his Indians had used simply closely woven willow baskets. His nett proceeds, which I saw, were about 16,000 worth of gold. lie - showed mc the proceeds of his last week's work fourteen pounds avoirdupois ol clean washed gold. The priucipal store at Sutler's Fort, that of Brau - non &. Co., bad received in payment for goods .s3li,00ft worth of this gold from the 1st of May to th.e 10th ol July. Other merchants had also made extensive sales. Large quantities of goods weio daily sent forward to the mines, as the Indians, heretofore so poor and degraded, have suddenly become consumers ol the luxuries ol life, I belore mentioned that ihe greater part of the farmers and r. - mcheros hud abandoned thoir fields to go to the . - nines. This is not the case with Capt. Sutter, who was carefully gathering his whei - .t, estimated at 40, 000 bushels. Flour is already worth at Sutter's 3G a barrel, and soou will be fifty. Unless large quantities of breadstuff's reach the country, much siifieriug will occur ; hut as each mail is now able to pay a largo price, it is believed the merchants will bring troni Chili aua Oregon a plentiful supply for tiie coming winter. '! he most moderate estiinat - s could obtuiti from men acquainted with the subject was, that upwards iuur uiuusaiia men were wonting in the gold district, ol whom mo'.e than one half were ludiaus and lhat from 30,000 to 50,000 worth of gold! if not more, was daily obtained. The entire gold district, with very few exceptions of grants made some years ago by the Mexican authorities, is ou land belonging to the United States. It was a matter of serious reflection with me, how I could secure to the government certain routs or fees for the privilege of procuring this gold ; but upou considering the large extent oT the couulry, the character of the peoplo engaged, aud tho small scattered force at my command, 1 resolved not lo interfere, but to pei iu it ail to work freeiy, unless broils aud crime should call for inteifereuec. I was surprised to learn that crime of any kind was very un frequent, and that no thefts or robberies had been committed iu the gold district All live i:i tents, iu bush arbors, or iu the open air ; and men have frequently about their persons thousands of dollars worth of thie gold, and it was to me a matter of surprise that sopencelul and quiet a slate of things should continue to exist. Conflicting claims lo particular spots of ground may cause collisions, but they will bo rule, as the extent of country is so great, and the gold so abundant, that for the present there is room and enough for all. Still tho government is entitled to rents for this land, and immediate 6teps should be devised to collect them, for the louger it is delayed the more difficult it will become. Oue plau I would suggest is, to send out from the United States surveyors with high salaries, bouild to serve specified periods. A superintendent to be appointed at Sutter's Fort, with power to grant licenses lo work a spot of ground say 100 yards square for one year, at a rent ol from 100 to 1000, at his discretion ; the surveyors to measure the ground, und place the rentor in possession. A better plan, however, will be to have the district surveyed aud sold at public auction to the highest bidder, in small parcels say from 20 to 40 acres. Iu either case, there will ho many intruders, whom for years it will be almost impossible to exclude. The discovery of these vast deposites of gold has entirely changed the character of Upper California. Its people, belore engaged in cultivating Iheirsmali patches of ground, mni guarding their heads ofcat - lle aud horses, have nil goim to tho mines, or are on their way thither. Labuier. - i of every trade have loft their work benches, and tradesmen their shops. Sailors deserl their ships as fast as they arrive 011 the coast, and several vessels have gi ne to soa with hardly enouoli ol hands lo spread a sail. Two or liireo are now at anchor in San Francisco with no crew on board. Many desertions, too, have taken place fiom the guriiaus within ihe influence ol liiesc mines ; twenty six soldiers have deserted from the post ol hoiiomu. twenty four from that of S.111 Francisco, and t.wcntv four from Alontorcy. For a few days ihe evil appeared so threatening, lhat great oangci existed tiial the garrisons would leave in a body. - 1 have 110 hesitation in saying that there is more gold 111 the country drained by the Sacramento and San Joaquiu rivers, than will pay th! cost of iho present war with .Mexico a hundred times over. No caui - tal i.i required to obtain this gold, ns the laboring man wauls nothing hul Ins pick and shovel and tin pan, with which to dig and wash the giavel : and many frequently pick gold out of the crevices uf rocks with their butcher kuivos, in pieces Irom one to six oiiucco. .Mr. Dye, a gctitlciiiim residing nt Monterey, and worthy of eveiy credit, has returned from the Feather river, lio tells me the company to which he helong' - d, worked seven weeks and two days, with an average of - 10 Indians (washers) andthat their grussi product was 27:2 lbs. of gold. His share, (one seventh,) after paying all expenses, is about 37 lb.(., which he bmiight wilhlinn and exhibited in Monterey. I see 110 laboring man from tho mines who does not show his tw , three or four pounds ol gold. A lioldifi of the. artillery company returned here a few days ago from ihe mines, having been absent 011 furlough 20 dnyu. He made by trading and working during Mint, time, 1,500. During thesn 20 days ho was tiaveliug ten or eleven days, leaving but a week, in which ho made a sum of money grector than he receives in pay, clothes and rations duriug a whole enlistment of five years. I'hese utatemeuts appear incredible, but they nre true. Gold ie supposed to exist on tho eastern si ope of the Sierre Nevada ; and when at the mines, I was informed by an intelligent Mormon that it had been found near tho Great Salt Lake by some of his fraternity. Nearly nil tho Mormons aro leaving California, to go to tho Salt Lake ; and this they surely would not do, unless they were sure of finding gold there in the sanio abundance as they now do on the Sacrameuto. The gold " placer" near the mission of Sannan - do, has l.,ng been known, but has been little wrought for want of water This is the spur that puts off from the Sierre Nevada, (see Freemout's niap,) the same in which the present mines occur. Thi - .re is, therefore, every reason to believe, that in Ihe intervening spaces of five hundred miles (entirely unexplored,) there must be many hidden and rich deposites. The " placar" gold is now substituted as the currency of this country ; in trade it passes freely at 16 per ounce; as an article of commerce its value is uot fixed The only purchase I made, was of the specimen No - 7, which I got of Mr. Neligh at 12 the ounce. This is about the present cash value iu the country, although it has been sold for less. The great demand niado for goods and provisions by this sudden developemcnt of wealth, has increased the amount of commerce at San F.aneisco very much, and it will continue to increase. I would recommend that a mint bo established at some eligible point on the bay of San Francisco ; and thut machinery, and all the necessary aparalus and workmen, be sent by sea. Theso workmen must be bound by high wages, and even bonds to secure their faithful services, else the whole plan may be frustrated by their goiug to the mines as soon asthe3' arrivo in California. If this course be not adopted, gold to the amouutof many millions of dollars will pass yearly to other countries, to enrich their merchants and capitalists. Before leaving the subject of mines, I will nientiou. that ou my return Irom Sacramento I touched at New Almoder, the quicksilver niiuos of Mr. Alexander Forbes, consul of her Hritauic Majesty at Tepic. This mine is in a spur of mountains 1000 feet above the level ot ll) bay ot Sail b raiicisco. and is distant in a southern direction from the Pueblo de San Jose about 12 miles. 'J he ore (cinnabar) occurs in a large vein dtppiog at a strong angle to the horizon. Mexican miners are employed in working it, by driving shafts and galleries about 6 feet by 7, following the vein. The fragments of rock and ore are removed on tho backs of Indians, iu raw hide sacks. The ore is then hauled in an ox wagou, from the mouth of the mine down to a valley well supplied with wood and water, in which the furnaces are situated. The furnaces are. of the simplest construction exactly like a common bake oven, iu the crown of w.lich is inserted a whaler's trying kettle ; another inverted kettle founs the lid. From a hole iu the lid, a small brick channel leads to au apartment, or chamber, iu the bottom of which is inserted a small iron kettle. This chamber has a chimney. Iu the morning of each day the kettles are filled wilh the miueral (broken in small pieces) mixed with lime ; fire is Iheu applied aud kept up all day. The mercury is yolatilized, passes into the chamber is condensed on she sides and bottom of the chamber, and flows into ihe pot prepared for it. No water is used to condense the mercury. During a visit 1 made last spring, four such ovens were in operation, aud yielded iu the two days I was thero (156 pounds of quicksilver, worth at Mt - "?atlan, $1 SO per pound. Mr. Wilkingshaw, the gentleman now in charge of this mine, tells me that the vein is improving, nnd that he can afford 10 keep his meii employed even in these extraordinary times. This mine is very valuable of itself, and becomes the moro so as mercury is extensively u?ed in obtaining gold. It is not at present used iu California for that purpose, but will be at some future time. When I was at this mine last spring, other parties were engaged in searching for veins; but none have been discovered that are worth followiutr uo. although the earth in that whole ratige of hills is iiignty discolored, indicating tho presence of tlm ore. I send several beautiful specimens properly labelled, 1 he amount of quicksilver in Mr. Forbes's vats on the 15 :h of July was about 2.500 pounds. I inclose you herewith sketches of the country through which I passed, indicating the position of tne mines and the topography of the country in the vicinity of those 1 visited. Some ol the Bpecicnens of gold accompanying this were presented for trausmission to the department by the gentlemen named below. at R. B. MASON. Col. 1st dragooas, commanding. Brig. Cen. R. Jones, Adji. Geu. U. S. A., Washington, D. C. . Mil. Editor." Keep the ball in rnotiou." Is it not a fact worthy the attention of the tax - payers of this city, that while our taxes are higher than our sister cities, we are far below them in the cleanliness of our streets, as well as in other municipal regulations. To designate particular localities, take fur iustance Tillary street ; the writer of this was compelled tho other eveuing to go something of a distance out of his way, iu order to escape the filth in crossing the street. While our taxes are 97 cents on the 100, those of the city of Boston aro only 60 cents ; yet, mark the difference in all her city regulations, especially iu reference to her streets. Censor. 03" The firsl performance of the Brooklyn Dramatic Association will lake place this evening at the little theatre recently fitted up at the City Hotel. Damon and Pythias will be presented on this occasion. tiUESt. Iu Brooklyn, on the flth inst, Mrs. Susan, widow of the late burden Stryker and mother of F. B. Stryker esq, Mav or, in the Blsi year of her ajje. Funeral ihb afternoon at 2 o'clock. CF" SoutU Brooklyn To m po ranee VH - l8o lne subscribers to una enterprise are hereby notified thata ineetlnj! will be held iu Washington Hall, cor Tiilaryaud Adams sts, on F1UUAST evenine, i.'ith inst, at ' o'clock, wheu the drawing for a choice of lots will take place previous to drawing, $1 5 on each lot subscribed lor must be );iid. The bouku will 1)8 closed at that time, and no further subscriptions received until alter the original subscribers llavo chosen their plots. Temperance, men wishing informatiOD on thesub.ect will please cull at Mr. Georye Hall's paint store oui.osite Hie (,'iiy liuil linits, Henry st, Brooklyn, any evenine from 6 to 1 o'clock. Ln t(i ZjF" I - 'irc! In consequence of the Gmut rITho j 3iiiier'lier has removed his store from 1 10 to Jf Fulton st, """'m oiuiimia, wnere win do lound a lull assortment of PAINTS. OILS &. VI. UOW tJI.ASS, which hewill sell as low for C. - tSil as tiny stole in Brooklyn or New York. JliltHMIAH MUNOEI.I,, 3l - tf N". it Fulton street, second iloor. KjT Celebrated ItUKSiau Kczan SoapT l.eiitlemcn wishing a superior urticlejlor shaving or washing, can rind a large supply at CAKMJS' Uair Cutting Sa loon, ol l'ulton t. jlQ Z'J A Ciiril Tre North American Fire Insurance Company Agency Ollice having been destroyed by tho late tire in Fulton street, tho undersigned has accepted tho kind oiler of Messrs Sul well & Hinting, No. 43 Fulton street, (ne.u door lo the office uf ihe ltrooklyn Fire Insurance Company,) for room lor a desk, until ho gets a. more per inanent location, where ho will receive applications lor 'S""CC' f"G 1J 'J K UWJE'tliH.L. tST A CnrU DR. W. K NORTHALL, Knrgcon Dentist, begs to iiitorm his friends and the public thut he lias removed his Office from No. 83 Fulton street to his residence, No. 43 Cranberry street. Office hours Irom; A..M. in 5 P.M. s III tf .1 iiiidcU'N Firat Premium Hoot & Shoe ftlOltli REMOVED. Tho subscriber would most re - spec tlully Inform his friends nnd customers, that in consequence of the late lire, he has removed to the corner ol Hicks und Fulton streets, opposite B. VV. Davis's grocery storo, whore HOOTS & SHOES' of his own manufacture nmy be had, of tho best quality and latest style, sia JJAVID MUNDELL. ItctuoviU oil Hie Post Office. THE I'ost Ollico has been removed to MONTAGUE II ALL niMrly opposite the City Hall. nl5 3iu ' Stewart st Co. hare removed their stock of CAUt'ETS, since tho Flre.ovor Hall fc Hughes', No 117 Fulton troot. IS u fr?m HiSf,1? Attractions nt Hubbard's store in SHAWLS ! Just received per steamer Cambria, tnrougn the auction rooms; at about half tho costs of importation, one lot of superfino Zephyr Wool Ol'EUA ? fi.a J?' an, ENTIRELY NEW, neat, ind very rich evening Bhawl for it Lady. CUD fresh Long Shawls, all wool, i..!??! ,vl F - KT ootton in the store, but all war - T. W,001' aP - , - ,adles buVK tt Long Shawl at Hub - harts may depend upon Tins.) of rich highest colors made ; RlSr?. r',c!5!sl '"'Ported mourning do ; and also, 3H0 M.,?iS0,'ISS Sh'tlvl? - Ai ''" wafni as a cloak, for about 53 to S9 50each; besides Shawls, HlJKFd of almost every description, ut the Shawl Emporium of HUBBARD. 07 and to Main street, ii!ll!i5!liln st' H'ooUyn. . 23" Select Dancing ana Waiizinir ,,.,, - MI,riAM,f.FAGUL:',ALL' COVHTwSz - r.H'; LU5A!? ls"108thHppy to announce to his friends and patrons, tho Ladies and Gentlemen of Brooklyn ar J Jnnmr'iM Vhe, b nmd?, ""angemcnts for the above rooms (which, he is confident in saying, cannot be surpassed by any In tho State.) for the ensuing season, for his MOftVfh Ai"r l,nb,"V - rbe Aademy wilt ,en 011 MONDAY the lGth of October, und will be held every ? ,?yM?d phudiy - f - om zy. uzy, o'clock. P M, - ror Ladies, Misses and Wasters under 11 years of ago ; and from - to JO for Gentlemen. Pupils attending Mr. L.'s Sll be taught all the ne and fashionable style! ? gan? Wa"'zlnB - The Assemblies will be held S 1m beVg?ven.. The aoa"aea':' which due no - Terms to the Academy of 24 lessons, per quarter. S8 in advance, or S10 hall quartorly - in advance. SeaVoT subscription to tho Assemblies 155 - in advance. ir u , . ir , 5 Da - nctng and Waltzing Academy ai Vauxhall Garden, N Y, will open on TU ESDA Y, Oct. 0, and will be held every Tuesday and Friday hours as "j3 s28 3m t3T Kcduccd JPriceu lor lIootN 1 4 Ann street, near the American Museum, Now York I,' B..AP' paving adopted the cash syslem. and the motto Quick sales and small profits," by which both buyer and seller are benefited, he respectfully invites both strangers and citizens to an examination of the quality and prices of ins ' CHOICE STOCK OF BOOTS. The assortment embraces the following articles, which lor style, durability and workmanship, challenge competition I or Fine French Imperial Dress Boots.. g4'50 to 4 75 Fine French Boots 3 50 to 4 UO Congress Boots 3 50 to 4 00 trench Patent Leather Boots 7 UO French water proof Bools 4 50 lo C 00 r T. ,, VL WARrKD TO OWE SATISFACTION. &,It will be observed that tho prices are far uelow the or - iinary demand tor fashionable Boots ofa superior quality and therefore deserve the attention of all who may choose to suit thoiiucivos iu the best manner at the smallest expense, lha principle adopted being that of "consultlne the mutual interest 01 both buyer and seller, by manufucturine a good article and selling ii at the lowest possible price for cash, and realizing a profit in theincreascd amount ol sales and quick returns." Remember No. 14 Ann street, JVca York, nearthe Ame - ' wSt - ,?ore,!;? Kpts and Shoes. JOHN L. WATKINb, 114 Vidian street, JVeu y0rk, respei - ifully invites the attention of citizens and strangers visiting the city, to his large assortment of Bools, Gaiters und Shoes made ot the very best materials and inthe most fashionable manner. He also wishes Ihe public to understand that although he sells at very low prices, jet the goods he oilers are not the common couulry made trash which is nsually sold as French, &c, about tho city ; but all his work is made in flis own store, under his immediate supervision; and can, therefore, be warranted to give entire sitti, taction to the buyer. Gentlemen wanting a suu - rior quality of CONGRESS UAi'i'LR IJ' iuTs, are invited to call and examine those made by the undersigned, which will be found superior to any thine manu - faciurcd iu the city. BUOTS, SHOES, AND CAITEES made to order on unproved principles drawings taken of the feet, andlr.sts kept expressly lorach customer, by which his Ntw boots tit as easily as old ones. Strangers leaving their measures w hen in the city, can have their boots inane and forwarded to them atany future time, to any part of the Uniud States GUTTA PERCH A SOLES put on Boots or Shoes in the best manner. These soles are perfectly impervious to water, and will out - wear at least three pai s of leather ones. Constantly nhand, a good assortment of Boys' .Ladles.' and Children's Boots, Gaiters and Shoes. N. B Superior Boots for the Southern and Western markets. JOHN L. VV ATKINS. 114 Fulton, sl3 3m2pM13 between Nassau and Dutch sis. N. 13 Cliolera! Xiiis terrible disease nam resisted nearly all the efforts of medicine to arrest its. progress: but bRANDKETIl'S Pills aiuiost immediately after they are swallowed, exert a beneficial influence they carry out of the system the irritating matters upon which the disease depends for its continuance they arouse the vital powers, restore warmth to the suriace previously chilled by the coldness of approachin death'. There is no occasion for fear, provided Brandreth's Pills are on hand, ready lor immediate use; their prompt ad ministrstion will vanquish the malady and restore the health. Dr Brandreth pledges his reputatios on the result. For ninety seven years this medicine has had the preference ; all others of this class are mere imitations - quite imbecile when compared with the original Vegeta' - hle Pills of Dr. brandreth, which have in no case failed to give full and perfect satisfaction. Tho wise should be prepared always with a box of these Pills in heir possession; then, when sickne&s is near, or you feel within its noxious circle, you may.rcsorl to this medicine of health securing power, and be saved. What medicine so congenial for the human lrame as that which is certain to exert its influence only for good 1 Brandreth's Pills cannot be used amies. When fever is aronnd, when pestilential va - ors are floating, perhaps in the atmosphere We breathe, how important lhat, upon the first feeling of giddiness, heavy pain in the head, intolerable langour and sleepiness, pain in the hack, especially about the kidneys, and these are occasionally accompanied by a queer, gnawing leeling down the left side, with remarkable heaviness just below the ribs, these feelings, or any of them, admonish that four or six of Brandreth's Pills are wanted ; down with them, they ill save a world of trouble. Those who have used them most affirm they are not re commended, not sufficiently advertised, not enough made known. They prevent danger from contagious maladie 1 do not profess lhat the disea e, for which they may D'a used as a preventive, may not assail the constitution oat I do affirm that 110 danger would result from the aitack provided the Pills were used through its varioc - , staees' This is particularly applicable in regard to the Yellow Fever, Cholera and Dysentery. These dredlul disturb ances of men's minds are entirely withiD the control of Brandreth's Pills, and those who will keep them on hand have no need to fear consequences. " stich in time " a.c, said a man whose brain was not small, and whose name is better than hoaps of wealth to his descendants. And another has observed, an ounce of prevention Is better than a pound of cure." , .,,. , DR. BRANDRETH. Brandreth's Pills are sold, with full directions, at 25 cents per box, at his Principal Office, S41 Broadway, New York, and by one agent in every place of importance throughout the world, each agent having a certificate ol agency from DR. BRANDRETH, having fac simllies of labels on tho Braudreth Pill boxes tngraved thereon SST Agent for Brooklyn MRS. GOFF, No. 4 Market street. vg ow AVm. 1. I'eclr, since tlie Fire, IlUh opeil - " ed his Jtore at 99 Fulton atreet, opposite Henry, where he" will be pleased to see histriendsand customers, (and espej cially those whose accounts are unsettled) where they can be supplied with HATS equal in style to those offered :n Broadway. P.S. His stock of Trunks and Carpet Bags has been removed to the basement under Hall Hughes' dry goods' store, 107 Fulton street, where those in want of theartlcles are invited to call. Brooklyn, Sept. 15th, 148. s!5 tf Eg" Xlie preatest Bargains ever offered. At the Cklkbratkd Chkapkst Carfilt Establishment in Tan Ujiitkd States, No. 99Bowert HIRAM ANDERSON'S. Those about furnishing with Carpeting, Floor oil Cloth, Hearth Rugs. Druggets, Table Covers, Window Shades, etc, will havo an opportunity ol securing the lollowlnr articles at unusual low prices, viz: 10,01)0 yds warranted all wool tine ingrain Carpeting, from tisiiil to 4s per yard ! I ! 15,000 " double superfine English do do, 5s to 7s !! ! 5.U0O " English Imperial three ply Carpeting, new' patterns, at low piicos, 2,500 large Tufted Hearth Rugs, 20s each ! ! L 1U.0U0 pairs new and beautiful Window Shades, from 8s to 20s the pair I ! ! 12,000 sq yds Floor uii Cloth , 3 to 24 ft wid 5, at low prices. d4 tf HIRAM ANDERSON, i9 Bowerv, N. Y t&A, .! JFitlMAX liVJiM;, DEC'R 15, - ...at cmui o oipiiv, itjiv. t oiaui, win give un Jin tllttri'tcrtainment at the Brooklyn Institute, Washine - ton street, when ho will sinir a seleeLinn nf i,ia most popular SONGS AND BALLADS. Mr, Wilson will be accompanied on the Piano Porta hu ms DAUGHTER. The dours will be open at i o'clock. The entertainment will commence at 8, and terminate aboui 10. Tickets 50 cts. Books of the wurds. I2i cts. dll St I IjMliJL; SALAMANDKR A LEGEND FOR CHRTshP - JL MAS Found among the papers of the lale Erneit lielfenstein edited by Mrs E Oakcs Smith. , For sale by R HAKMER SMITH, dll Phenix Bookstore. 191 Fulion st. "MAlTxjBJEK.S' MISCELLAN Y of Useful and En - J terlaining Knowledge, in 10 volumes, for sale by A M WILDER, 51 Fulton, dll and WILDER A - m. imj Ari,.r,,i t WAKi'ED - FIFTY GOOD STRAW SEWEHS"; old hands will have work all the season. App v at aj Adams street, Brooklyn, to 31 ELI C. BLAKE. iVH. for ONE night more. Mr. HILL re jpectlully announces to the cllizcds of Brooklyn, that at tho earnest de. siie of hundreds who were unublo to obtain admitunco oa the evening of the 5th inst. he will give another entertainment on MONDAY evening, Dec. 11, at the above named Hall, which will he the last uf the season. N.H. A great number of addit - onal sents will be furnished, and only a Limited Nu.nber of Tickets sold, to that eachuuditor will have amplo room. Mr. HILL will in tho course of the evening give a variety of new Anecdotes, Yankee Stories, Imitations, Fluto .Melodies, &c, and selections from his celebrated drama of Casper Hauser. Tickets25centseach. Doors open at 7 to commence at S o'clock. No postponement on account ot weather. d9 2t it OVA' Yesterday alternnon, Dec. 8, in l'ulton street. i between Tillary nnd Willoughby streets, a PURSE, containing twenty 0110 dollars in bank bills and soma change The tinder will be tuitnbly rewarded by 'ss,vln ihe iimi at the Sheriff's office, 50 Fulton st. to tr Si!.. -

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