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FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12, 19S! " BLYTHEVILLE (ARK.) 1 COURIER KEWI PAGE NIK1 FARM HHEWS *" p REVIEWS How Does Defoliation Affect Bean Yields?—Here's Answer By KEITH J. BII.BREY And H. H. Carter i« Hov much'removal of leaf surface can soybean's stand without reducing ylelds?,This is a question that has plagued farmers and county agents in Mississippi County for years. Every year the bean beetle has removed some leaf surface from soybeans. This year the beau beetle has h?.d substantial'help'from the clover worm. Farmers and county agents have wondered how much leaf -damaRe s.hoijld be permitted by these pests before going io the expense of controlling them. It has been a common belief, as a result of field obsen'atoin. that considering leaf surface could be removed on soybeans without any apprecla- . b!e reduction in yield of lx?ons. The need for controlled experimental results to determine the effect on soybean yields of defoliation-by bran beetles has long been recognized in ^Mississippi County. Until such work can be conducted in the county undr-r local conditions and with varieties grown here, defoliation tests conducted by the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station should be of help to Mississippi County farmers, in determining •l^hen to use control measures for ^uean beetles, clover worms, and other leaf damaging Insects. In the Iowa defoliation tests, 10, 25. 50, .15 and 100 per cent of the leaves were removed from plots ol Richland soybeans at five stages oi plant development to determine the effect on yield and other characters. The effect on yield from these five percentages of defoliation shown in the table at right. The results are an average of two years 1945-46. According to Professor Weber of Iowa State, these results have been duplicated a number ol times since 1940, The results arc reported in percent reduction in yield from the hceck plot (no defoliation). The check plot averaged 36.5 bushels per acre. From the table,.- the following 2. Blooming just beginning ................ 1| 03| :tage of growth when defoliated Percent reduction in yield from check plot - with: II ior.1 25%i 50%! 75r<-:ioo% IIDef. |DcJ. iDef.lDef. [Def. Plants 4 to 6" high 1| 1%\ 4r<.| 31| 5r«l 18% 2%] 8%| 261 First pod formation ; || 2%| 4%1 9%j !5%| 31% 4. Beans beginning to develop in pods 1| 8<;«] 13"7<| 18^,1 36%[ 83% 5. Beans in "green bean" stage i| 7%[ 5? c \ T%\ 14%| facts may be noted: . Facts Noirrt | <» Little or no reduction In yield j resulted when 10. 25 and 50 per "cent j of the leaves were removed at j stages 1 and 2. 1 121 Little or no reduction in yield resulted when 10 and 25 per cent of the leaves were removed at stage 3, firs! Dori formation. '3l The effect, of defoliation on yield was greatest at stage 4. the beginning of bean formation in the pods. The primary reason for this was the lack of food material necessary far bean formation. As a result, many pods aborted. '(4) After soybeans reach the critical stage where beans are lye- ginning to develop in the pods, removal of not more than 10 per cent of the existing leaf surface should be permitted. A complete report of this research may be obtained from the Iowa State College of Agriculture. Ames. Iowa. Ask for The Effect of Injury Simulating Hail Damage to Soybeans.—Research Bulletin No. 359. (5) Yields at stage 5. were not decreased as much by defoliation as at stage 4. This Is because most of the beans in the pods were almost fully developed by that time. Little Effect There was little effect on maturity and seed size where defoliation did not exceed 50 per cent. Defolia| lion trad no effect on chemical ' comppsition. From these resulw of the Iowa test*, certain conclusions might be drawn. Certain factors make the application n[ (he Iowa results to our .itluation somewhat uncertain However. For example, in ihe defoliation tests, leaf surface was removed almost instantly, giving tl... beans In the early stages opportunity to put out rtew leaves without being further molested. In the case of the bean beetle, removal wouk be over a longer period of time Too. the climatic situation and varieties grown in Iowa arc different from those, here. Again, applicatloi of the Iowa experiment to our situation would assume no ot'ner damage by the insects other than lea feeding — such ns toxic effects which may or may not exist. However, until more applicable results are available, the following conclusions might be used in Nortl Mississippi County as a guide ii determining nhen to poison: fl) A large amount of leaf re mpval by bean beetles and othe: leaf feeding insects may be per milled In the case of young beans prior to blooming—possibly up ti 50 per cent leaf surface removal. (2) Soybeans in early pod forma lion can permit up to 25 per cent o leaf surface removal without reduc ing yields sufficiently to Justif control measures. West Virginia has nearly 120 dif ferent coal seams. On Missco Farms Count; Agent JteHh J. Bllbrej Don't Miss II We are holding a Visiting Day >n the cotton and alfalfa research plots at Osceola Tuesday afternoon. These plots are supervised by the University of Arkansas. Needless to say, they are most Important to Mississippi County armers. It has been a great effort on the )art of Farm Bureau leaders to :et the University to do this research here. It is separate from heir regular experiment stations, divides ihcir personnel, and is naybe more expensive. Because this -research is of value to you, I wish you would attend the Visiting Day and show the University officials you are interested in tile results. That's Good The tremendous reduction in the cotton forecast should lend stability to the market. That news will make the farmer more certain that the price will stay around* forty cents this fall. H also should help to prevent your rush lo get the cotton out and prevent an Insane spiral in picking costs. Cotton Defoliation We recommended that several fields of cotton be defoliated this week. That is three to four weeks earlier than usual but the cotton has matured very rapidly and there was no lop crop on these fields to be protected. In - other words, all of the bolls on the plant were well past twenty five days old. Robert Pie.rce at . I.eachville. Jack Lewis nl Dell, Charles Brogdon ai Blytheville and Brad Shearin at New Liberty were the first men I know o" to defoliate. Cheek with them and see what the results will be this year. Whit to Use These men are using cyanamid to defoliate. There are several new materials for'defoliation but I have not had enough experience with any of them to make recommendations. \Vc have a 1S52 bulletin on de- foliation guides. I see one statement about Pentachlorophenol defoliation that might be Important to you. It says. "Not recommended unless cotton has fully matured." I'copie GENE OUINN, Ihe county entomologist, finished his contract with the county yesterday and left the following statement. "There Is considerable reason lo believe tha. the county will not have the heav> cotton leaf worm infestation that, we had anticipated earlier in the season." P. D. FOSTER in Blytheville just called to say that he has already sold 6,000 bags of vetch, in this area. That is enough to vetch this area. That is enough vetch for 25,000 acres! (no not sow vetch unless you inoculate the seed!. J. W. RAYDER sairl last night thai a neighbor looked at his cotton, a part of which followed vetch and said, "That does it. I am going hack and sow my cotton land In vetch." PAUL HUGHES. Farmers Soybean Corporation, says they have already bought nearly 30,000 bushels of soybeans from farmers on the futures market. Here's Valuable Proof Twenty-five per cent of soybean leaves can be removed from plants up to the time of first pod formation and will reduce the yield only 4 per cent. Research shows that actually 50 per cent of the leaves can be removed up to blooming lime and the yield will be reduced only 2 per cent. This valuable information has just been received from a research bulletin on the subject from the Agricultural Experiment Station in Iowa. They have been trying to find oul what: leaf removal on soybeans would do to soybean yields when the leaves were removed at various stages during plant growth. Based largely on farmer experience and our observaton in the ' '-n venrs. we have been say- Ing that Insect* could remove Drouth Area Farmers Get Hay Shipments CHICAGO m — Emergency shipments of hay to farmers In drouth areas at Texas and Arkansas will licfiin Immediately, the Chicago office of the Production and Marketing Administration said yesterday. Farmers hi five other drouth states — Kentucky', Tennessee, Mis sissippi, Alabama and Georgia — already are receiving hay through the emergency program. Fanners in the drouth area pay $38 a Ion. or less, depending on (he kind of hay they buy, the PMA said Losses involved In buying the hay paying snipping costs and selling at ceiling prices are being borne by the Department of Agriculture out o prc.Mdcntial emergency fluids, the PMA reported. from your John Deere dealer VISIT OUR DISPLAY AT THE FAIR! Missco Implement Co. will have a very special attraction for farmers at the Northeast Arkansas District Fair which begins next Tuesday, the 16th. You'll see one of the largest displays of John Deere Farming equipment ever shown in the Mid-South! Of course you'll want to try out the revolutionary "60" tractor— but (hat's just part of this story. Plan now to see our exhibit during the fair which will last through Sunday, September 21st. l Come and drive the NEW JOHN DEERE QUALITY FARM ^EQUIPMENT m Missco Implement Co. Your JOHN DEERE Dealer In BIythevillt G/'s Like 'Long-'Hair' Music in Korean Area WITH U. S. 45TH DIVISION' Korea (XP> — Two solrJIer-muslcla are to'.irini? United Nations troo] centers In Korea and proving th average soldier appreciates classlca music. Pic. Kenneth Gordon, conceit vlo linist, and Pfc. Seymour Bernstein concert pianist, are teamed in ap pearances entitled "An Hour o Classical Music" featuring the mu sic of Bach, Beethoven nml Brnhtns After an experimental concert a U. S- 8th Army headquarters Ir about 25 per cent of the leaf stir face without noticeably recluein yields. We had no proof lo bac s vip, until (his time. A complete summary of tills re earch will appear in ihe Blylhc ille Courier News today, or i ic near .future. Watch for it be ause it is valuable Information. rhtch they beeped off after eight ncores, Gordon and Bernstein were sookcd for an 'extensive tour of Korea. Since June 15 they have apj>earod lefore more than 25.000 Allied troops. In a six-day stand with tFt 45th Division, accompanied by singer Cp). Walt Thompson, they gav» three shows daily under & broiling sun with ihe mercury often over (he 100-degree mark. AMAZING GREASE GUN FOR COMBINE OWNERS The new electric Grcasemasler is just what farmers have been looking for! 1 man can do Ihe job in less limn half Ihe lime required for ordinary grease guns. Here's how: just atlach (he Oreascmaslcr In your coihhine battery. The gun is equipped with an automatic pressure switch and a booster control valve giving up to 12.000 Ihs. pressure! Weighing less than 40 His., this compact grease gun can be easily carried . . . and with 25 feet of hose, all points can lie quickly reached. That gives you an idea of how you can sav« time (and money) with the new Electric Greusemaster. See it now at Delta Implements! Delta Implements, Inc. 312 South 2nd Phone 6863 Once you own a new International Truck, you'll never be .quite satisfied with anything less. The reasons are simple. International Trucks are engineered for your job. You get a truck that is more comfortable, easier to handle. You get a truck that_ gives you lower operating-and maintenance costs, longer truck life. These are just a few of the reasons why so many InternationalTruck owners are repeat buyers. Why not stop in soon for all tb.e reasons? You'll da better wMi fr»»« International Truck featured • All-lruck ti^irtW-buUl m *» weMt l.rg^l fcu* •ngln« plant. . i • The "iuoml«tl, molt comfxfaMe cab M *• i — th« Corr.fo-VMon Col). • Sup«r-tt*aiFn8 jystwm— «»o if! handling and 37° tvrntng ang4*. • TKe lame traditional truck toughn«M ihot ke» fapt Inttrnolional lull i« r^cvy-duty tract »!•• for 3t • Ttii trud •nslnxml tor r*f fofa . . . T «iadt!i, (ro« K-ton pickup* to 90,008 RM. GVW votinol. •vdtmv* Irwdc MrvLg* I... International U60 ictio offeri GVW iDlingl .from 14,000 to 16,500 Ibi, 130 to 172-in. wh«lbo>«. Buy on Proof! Before yoji buy any truck, let us give you a list of persons in this area who have recently bought new Internationals like the one you nrc considering. Check with nny or all of them. Find out how Internationals cut hauling cosls on jobs like yours. THE NEW <3IRL YOU HIRED IS MI6HTY LAZY. HOW CAN YOU SAY THAT? I JUST SAW HER PUT POPCORN IN THE PANCAKES TO MAKE THEM TURN OVER THEY'RE NOT LATY AT DELTA IMPLEMENTS.!? THEY PUT THEMSELVES TO PLEASE AND SATISFY YOU! ; OUT DELTA IMPLEMENTS INC INTtRNATIONAL'UABVfSTfR Wtf J £ SfRV/Cl 4>fo*K 6863 - - BLYTHEVILLE, ARK- INTERNATIONAL ;^ TRUCKS 'Standard of the Highway'