Solomon Valley Democrat from Minneapolis, Kansas on October 27, 1898 · 4
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Solomon Valley Democrat from Minneapolis, Kansas · 4

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Minneapolis, Kansas
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Thursday, October 27, 1898
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4
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lew Theory ol Mars' Canals. Astronomer Burnham Thinks That They Have Been Misnamed. mountains and filling up valleys may be seen active anywhere between western Nebraska and the Pacific ocean.) Then he assumes that the continents upon Mars resemble the flat country of Holland, and asserts that the inhabitants have to protect their shores by dams similar to those built by the Dutch. They have, therefore, built dams along their coasts, while at the same time they have tried to' lead the sea water into the interior of the continents by means of waterways and canals. Fortunately for the inhabitants, after the dams are built the canals do not have to be dug, but let in the water and it will flow between the dams up and down the continent. And he explains the changed appearance from time to time of the network of canals by saying that when one of the larger canals has given up much water to the lesser ones it feeds it must become, shallower and consequently fainter in appearance, and as soon as it gets more water from the sea it becomes darker and visible again. Leo Brenner is a man of science and in good standing among the astronomers, and hence his theory respecting the Martian canals is attracting a good deal of attention. It is but a theory, of course, for nothing is absolutely known concerning the supposed inhabitants and canals upon Mars, and it is next to certain that nothing ever will be known. Some are looking forward to a time when larger or more powerful telescopes will be made and pointed at the heavens. At such a time, many are 'thinking, we shall be able to see important things on'the planets that are now invisible. But this is not at all certain to come to pass. Mr. Burnham is of the opinion that the practical limit to the power of telescopes has been attained. Not that larger telescopes, with higher magnifying power, may not be constructed, but that our atmosphere presents difficulties that are increased proportionately to the increase of magnification. Mr. Burnham is not, it should be said, specially interested in Mars, and it might be better to consult Mr. Lowell or some other man that is devoted to the subject. Chicago's most noted astronomer is a famous hunter of double stars, and he has catalogued more of these, by 100, than any other man. He i3 hunting still, for he makes a trip, every other week, to the Yerkes telescope at Geneva, and his looking is frequently rewarded by some new find. While Sherburne Wesley Burnham, who is only one of Chicago's astronomers, but perhaps the most distinguished of them all, professes to have no very definite and unalterable opinion as to whether the planet Mars has artificial canals or not that can be seen from this earth, he yet does not hesitate to say that Schiaparelli, who first thought he saw them, wa3 unfortunate in tha name he gave them. A canal on our earth is a'thlng ma.de by human hands, and when canals are declared to be on Mars the idea is perforce carried that they, too, were constructed by beings that must have some resemblance to man. This was not Schiaparelli's idea, or if it ever once occurred to his mind he never Insisted on it. He did see on Mars lines that suggested canals, and henc3 he named them canals, but how they came to be there, what their use was, and all that, he did not say nor protend to know. Mr. Burnham, while doferring somewhat -to the opinion of other astronomers who have given more attention to the subject than he has yet been able to give it, inclines to the opinion that If the name "canal" had not been applied to Schiaparelli's discovery ob-aervers that followed him would have been a long time in coming to the conclusion that artificial canals are on Mars that can be seen from this earth. Mr. Burnham admits that great interest attaches to the subject, even in the minds, of skeptical astronomers, and far greater interest has it for unscientific people. There is so strong a : probability that some of the other planets are inhabited by intelligent and working beings, and so taking is the notion that mankind has a race 'cousin dwelling on Mars, that when-' ever the possibility of this is suggest-ed, men and women of all degrees of enlightenment eagerly hope that it all may be true. In the United StaUra, latterly, rather more of popular interest Is taken in the subject than in Europe, by reason of the recent studies and delightful writings of Mr. Lowell. He seems to require no further or better evidence than he has already discovered that the Martian canals are artificial. From his tower of telescopic observation at Flagstaff, Ari., be may yet discover further evidence, which will be sufficient to convince everybody. But there are other American writers than Mr. Lowell on the subject, and the very latest Is author of "Astron- JOSEPHINE A MASCOT. The Eioltoment She Created at Camp' Wlkoff Sunday. Camp Wlkoff. An exciting episode relieved the tedium of camp life for the cowboy soldiers Sunday. The interest began the night before, when Josephine, the mountain lioness mascot of Troop A, got loose and nearly killed a horse. Josephine was a kitten when given to the Arizona troop, and taken south by it as far as Tampa. Now Bhe Is nearly half grown, and able to kill a horse. So when Bhe slipped her collar the other night she made directly for the horses of the Second Cavalry, which were the near-jst she Baw. She had just jumped on a horse and was on the point of burying her teeth in the neck when a cavalryman ran out with a club. He chased her to some undergrowth to the north, of the camp and was belaboring her with the stick, when some of the Rough Riders came to her rescue and took her back to her cage and chain. "Curious how. they love horse flesh," said a big, whiskered Arizonlan, a3 a H,not of them gathered around Josephine and discussed this new development in her character. "Onct let the critter get a taste of a colt, and she'll never eat anything but horses. You can poison them, but you must use lots of strychnine. There's only one thing they're afraid of dogs. The littlest flee that ever barked will make one of them turn tail. They don't come after a man unless he wounds them, and then they would attack a whole regiment. I shot one . while hunting in tho Grand Canyon once. The bullet passed through his throat, and just missed his eyes red with rage. I shot nine bullets into him before he dropped dead. Just before I fired the last shot the lion made a thirty-foot leap toward me from a bank. He measured nine feet and a half in length from nose to tail." Josephine submits to petting with a fairly good grace. Once in a while she will spring around and open her great mouth to hiss. Her favorite playmate is Cuba, a woolly terrier, which the Rough Riders say was the first over the Spanish lines at San Juan. Josephine antipathy to dogs does not seem to extend to Cuba, with whom she frolics. An offer-was made Troop A of ?300 for its mascot. There was a later offer ol $ 400, but both were refused, as the troop is determined to take Josephine back to Prescott. New York Tribune. DAIRY AND POULTRY. INTERESTING CHAPTERS FOR OUR RURAL READERS. A NURSE'S STORY. MAP OF MARS, SHOWING THE CANALS. (Drawn from Photo.) omy" in tho "Useful Storios Series," published by D. Appleton & Co. This author accounts in a simple manner for the canals on Mars. In his opinion they were made in course of long ages by water from the melting snow and ice around the poles distributing Itself over the continents. That is his guess. But in Germany is another new guesser Leo Brenner who is out with a most interesting theory, which, if true, accounts in a quite human way for the canal3. . Leo Brenner feels certain that Mars is inhabited by beings in some respects resembling ourselves. Ho recognizes this resemblance in what he calls the stupendous Irrigation system on Mars. The amount of work expended on irrigation shows, In his view, that the Inhabitants are very dissimilar to ourselves, since human beings would be incapable of performing Buch labor or If not potentially incapable, conditions are such on this earth that It would never need to be performed, only in very limited sections. He believes that the people of Mars live in perpetual fear of a water famine, and that the network of canals wards off the danger. Of course.then, he believes that the canals are artificial and In his publication lately made on the subject he attempts to explain away some difficulties that have been considered by many as insurmountable. He finds a reason why the supposed Inhabitants of Mars should have dug canals of such extraordinary breadth, and why no mountain chains hindered the straight-lined direction of almost all the canals. Mars, he Bays, must be many hundreds of millions years older than the earth, and It is also considerably smaller, so that Its surface must have become leveled up in the course of ages, the debris from tho mountains gradually filling up the valleys until the surface has become a fiat plain, a state of things to which our earth will ultimately attain. (This process of wearing down It is, therefore, but reasonable that he be inquired of concerning celestial objects, including Mars. The other day he was inquired of, the. first question put to him being: "Do you think the canals upon Mars are artificial?" Answer: "We don't know that there are canals upon Mars." The next question was, "What degree of dissimilarity to ourselves is it possible the inhabitants of Mars possess?" Answer: "We don't know that there are Inhabitants upon Mars." Thinking that he should not be allowed to escape so, his questioner followed him up with this: "Well, if there are inhabitants upon Mars, is it probable that they have built canals that can be seen from this earth?" He got this for his pains: "My dear sir, you recall to my mind one of Lord Dundreary's droll questions. 'Does your brother like cheese?' 'I have no brother.' 'But if you had a brother would he like cheese?' Noth-lng,I repeat, is absolutely known about Mars' inhabitants, if it have any, nor about its canals, if it have them." Kitty In a Mall Bag. The officials of the Oakland postof-fice were startled this morning to discover a small kitten in a registered mail pouch from San Francisco. Besides the feline there were a number of heavy packages in the pouch. When it was opened by the postofflce employes, who were attracted by a mewing inside, the kitten jumped out in a playful manner, much to the amusement of those present. It is believed the kitten crawled into the pouch while it was in the San Francisco post office. The pouch was thrown off the train at the Sixteenth street depot when the train was speeding at' the rate of forty miles an hour. San Francisco Call. Woman Is called the weaker vessel presumably because she is leaky and lets out all tho secrets she hears. The. Boy Was Dead With the Smllo on His Lips. Said one soft-eyed night nurse, according to Collier's Weekly: "Oh, if you could have seen my first patient! He was a lovely boy of 19 from somewhere out on the Mexican border. In the four days in which he was under my charge I grew very attached to him, but suddenly, when I was perfectly sure he would soon get well, a violent change came, and, in spite of every care, he died. My heart failed me completely, but there was no time for weakness. Too many cases were needing attention. I was put in another ward temporarily and took especial charge of one very peculiar patient. He lay stolidly staring at me without a particle of expression in his eye, and by his apathy rather than by real opposition refused all nourishment and medicine. I couldn't induce him to speak at first, and it took ten minutes of coaxing to persuade him to swallow a teaspoonful of beef tea. Finally ho did so, however, and, after another five minutes, he consented to take another and then another, the stolid expression changing into one of intelligence. If you could have seen the change! Why, he laughed and joked and smiled such grimaces that my orderly and I were convulsed with laughter, and even the weak men on the neighboring cots feebly joined in the laugh. His nonsense was absolutely contagious; so much so that at last I was obliged to slip away into the dispensary to give him an opportunity to sober down, and incidentally to prepare some malted milk. When I returned, five minutes later, his expression was still a laughing one, and the orderly, although attending another patient, gave me a knowing smile as I leaned over the weak man's cot. But this time the patient did not speak. He was dead, with the smile still on his lips and a strange, half-mischievous wink lingering about his eyes." 1 Why Bhe Sought tho Office. "So you are a candidate for mayor, are you?" inquired a friend of a western village maid, whose years were rather more certain than otherwise. "What salary does the office pay?" "Oh.," replied the female standard bearer, "there is no salary at all; but you see the mayor has authority to advertise for proposals, and " "Yes, I think I see," interrupted the other. GOOD SUGGESTIONS. Try cranberries for malaria. Try a sun bath for rheumatism. Try hot flannel over the seat of neuralgic pain, and renew frequently. Try buttermilk for tho removal of freckles, tan and butternut stains. Try harjl cider a wineglassful three times a day for ague and rheumatism. Try taking cod liver oil in tomato catsup if you want to make it palatable. Try a silk handkerchief over the face when obliged to go against a piercing wind. Try a cloth wrung out of cold water, put about the neck at night, for a sore throat. Try walking with your hands behind you if you find yourself becoming bent forward. Try breathing the fumes of turpentine or carbolic acid to relieve whooping cough. How Successful Farmers Operate This Department of the Farm A i Few Hints to the Care of Lire Btook and Poultry. Enforcing tho Michigan Oleo. Law. The Dairy and Food Commissioner, in a report says: The law as it now stands on our statute book provides: "That no person, by himself or his agents or servants, shall render or manufacture, sell, offer for sale, expose for sale, or have in his possession with intent to sell, any article, product or compound made wholly or in part out of any fat, oil or oleaginous substance or compound thereof, not produced from adulterated milk or cream from the same, which shall be In imitation of yellow butter produced from pure unadulterated milk or cream from the same: Provided, that nothing in this act shall be construed to prohibit the manufacture or sale of oleomargarine in a separate and distinct form, and in such manner as will advise the consumer of its real character, free from coloration or ingredient that causes it to look like butter." The statute does not prohibit the manufacture or sale of all oleomargarine, but only such as is colored in Imitation of yellow butter, produced from pure unadulterated milk or cream from the same. If free from coloration or ingredient that "causes it to look like butter," the right to sell it "in a separate and distinct form and in such manner as will advise the consumer of Its real character" is neither restricted or prohibited. The statute simply seeks to suppress false pretenses and to promote fair dealing in the sale of an article of food, compelling the sale of olemargarine for what it really is and preventing the sale for what it is not. We believe that the state, In the exercise of its police powers, may protect the public against the deception and fraud that would be involved in the sale within its limits for purposes of food of a compound that had been so prepared as to make it appear to be what it was not. - As has been held by the United States supreme court, "If there be any subject over which it would seem the states ought to have plenary control, and the power to legislate in respect to which, it ought not to be supposed, was Intended to be surrendered to the general government, it is the protection of the people against fraud and deception in the sale of food products. Under the policy of the department in the administration of the dairy and food laws, as sustained by our supreme court, every dealer is hold strictly responsible for the character of the goods he sells, without regard to whether he knows them to bo adul terated or not, and a guarantee of purity received from the manufacturer or jobber will not relieve him from that liability. Until a court of competent jurisdiction declares the anti-color oleomargarine statute unconsti tutional we shall strictly adhere to the above rule in our efforts to accomplish the results intended by its enactment. In the administration of the affairs of the department, we do not believe it our province to ignore any law on the statute books with the enforcement of which we are charged, and in pur suing the policy above set forth we adopt the only course open for the proper conduct of the duties of the office. Trotting;. The trot is essentially an English pace; that is, Englishmen invented the practice of rising in the stirrups, by which the trot can be performed with the greatest ease to the horse and the rider, says a writer in the Book of the Horse. Never begin to trot until you are quite at home in the walk, and feel that you can do nearly all in the saddle that you could sitting In a chair. Begin trotting on horses easy in their action and obedient to the reins, without being too light-mouth ed. There are exceptional horses with so smooth and even a pace that it Is not necessary to rise in their trot, or at any rate perceptibly. The conti nental and military practice is not to rise in the stirrups, but to try to sit close to the saddle, relieved a little rups. No doubt there must be good reasons for this practice of bumping (which was universal with all European horsemen, civilian as well as military, . until steeplechaslng with English horses and riders was intro duced Into France and Germany), be cause it is retained in the British cav airy in which the most distinguished officers have been and are hunting men, who adopt the English style of riding when they appear in plain clothes or hunting coats. The military horseman uses the curb rein in trot ting, although he receives his first les- fjy the support of the knees and stir sons on a snaffle bridle without stir rups. Trotting and rising In the stirrups should be performed with the snaffle rein only; the feet so placed in the stirrups that the heel can be kept well down without strain, the leg from the knee downward falling straight and moving as little as possible; the rise and fall to escape bumping Just as little as the action of the horse will allow. Some horses, and particularly English horses, are much more impressive In their trot than others. The elbows should be close without clinging to the sides of the rider, and the snaffle rein should be held firmly, at the proper length, In each hand, and not be allowed to slip a hair's breadth as long as the trotting continues; In this respect differing from the mode of regulating the reins in the canter or gallop. In the trot the rider BDDears to suooort the horse on the snaffle bit; of course he does not do so; but tho well-trained horse relies on the rider to hold him to that pace. HorBes may be trained to trot with a loose rein (the fastest trotter I ever possessed did this), and also to slacken their pace and halt as soon as the rider with a soothing word Bits down and loosens the reins.' Perhaps more vulgarity is displayed in trotting than In any other pace by hard riders of the sporting publican class, their admirers and imitators. It is a pace in which, with a free goer, it is very easy to acquire bad habits. On a really good trotter it is, for a man, one of the most pleasant and healthy forms of exercise. So thought Lord Palmerston, who might often be met, in his seventieth year, going down the Green Park from Constitution Hill, or by Birdcage Walk, to the House of Commons, on a hot summer's day, trot- ing at the rate of twelve miles an hour. "Twice in 18G4 Lord Palmerston, be ing then In his eightieth year, rode over from Broadlands to the training stables at Littleton, to see his horses gallop on Winchester race course starting at 9 o'clock in the morning and not getting back until 2 o'clock. It was his maxim that 'no other abstinence would make up for abstinence from exercise.' No member ever trotted harder with his own hand, and his rule was daily horse exercise." If George Grote, the historian of Greece, had not given up the horse exercise which for a long period was his favorite outdoor amusement, his life and valuable literary labors might have been prolonged many years. The young rider should bear In mind that there Is a limit to the speed of a hack's trot it may be at the rate of eight miles, ten miles, twelve miles or four teen miles an hour; within the limits of that pace he will travel farther, more safely and with less fatigue to his horse, than at a canter; but press ed up to or beyond the limits of your horse's trotting powers, it becomes most exhausting. It is also dangerous, because, at full stretch, the horse on making a mistake has little chance of recovering his balance. Tightly and firmly held, at about eight or ten miles an hour, or whatever be the pace of the slowest of the party's horse on a fair road, trotting is a very conversa tional pace. Liquid Food and the Milk Yield. According to the British Dairy Farmer, M. Dancel, principal of one of the dairy schools in France, reports his experiments to determine the effect of the quantity of water cow3 drink upon quantity and quality of milk. He says that, by inducing cows to drink more water, the quantity of milk yielded can be increased without Injuring its quality. He asserts that the amount of milk is proportional to the quantity of the water drunk. In experimenting upon . cows fed in the stall with dry fodder that gave only 9 to 12 quarts of milk a day, when this dry food was moistened with from 18 to 23 quarts of water daily, their yield of milk was increased up to 12 to 14 quarts a day. Besides this water taken with the food, the cows were allowed to drink the same as before, and their thirst was excited by adding a little salt to the fodder. The milk was of good quality, and the amount of butter satisfactory. He found, by a series of observations, that the quantity of water habitually drunk by each cow was a criterion to judge of the quantity of milk that she would yield. A cow that does not drink as much as 27 quarts of water a day is a poor milker, giving only IV2 to 7 quarts a day; but all cows which drink as much a. 50 quarts of water daily gave from 18 to 23 quarts of milk dally. He believes the amount of water drunk by a cow is a test of her value as a milker. ( Overproduction of Poultry. Overproduction of poultry and eft ia a possibility, but that such has a , V,-any time occurred is doubtful, says the'V Poultry Keeper. The fear that the market may be overstocked bag deterred some from venturing largely In poultry, but such fears have never been realized. It is not unusual to find the market full at all times, not only of poultry and eggs, but of all kinds of produce; though there is a great difference in quality. It has been . said of butter that there was no intermediate kind, as butter was either good or bad. If not of the best quality, it was of no value; and if but little inferior to the best, there waa no place for it whatever. Such may be said of eggs also, and It may be extended to poultry. Quality regulates the prices. A difference of only one cent a pound on poultry or a dozen eggs seems insignificant, but when a large business 13 conducted the difference is great. As long as there are several prices for the products the market is overstocked with the lowest priced articles only. The best will be in demand, and will sell for all that it is worth: but the term "best" means a great deal, for it includes everything pertaining to superiority. There is a large field open for those who aim to supply the market with the best; and every season they will find that they have room for Improvement in order to excel. There is also much to learn In order to know how to provide the market, with the best, and the market will ac cept it readily at 'all times and with out regard to the quantity of inferior grades that may have been offered fof sale. There is something more to looB after than feeding and caring for the fowls. To produce the best, the hena must be of the best. This demands tha use of the best breeds. No farmer can afford to raise chickens for market from the common stock, for the reason that no system of feeding will enable the inferior birds to equal their supe riors. With the breeds for the purpose the market can be supplied with something choice, and there will be little or no competition. Overproduc tion of the best is a result not yet attained. It is anticipated by many, and as long as the farmers will not improve their flocks, the market will always demand more. Troper Feeding. An Eastern poultry raiser says: Leghorns will by nature take a great deal of exercise, if not confined in too close quarters. They should have something always In the coops to pick at or scratch for. Brahmas and Plymouth Rocks, on the other hand, if given a full meal say In the morning, will sit around and mope in the sun with no Intention of laying an egg. It is best to give them just sufficient to arrest the cravings of hunger and make them scratch and exercise for the rest of their breakfast. Exercise means eggs; therefore, anything which will serve to keep your hena moving during confinement will promote laying. It Is a hen's nature to be busy from early morning until sundown. She hunts the fields diligently all day, gradually filling her crop until at roosting time her crop is full and she passes a comfortable night. If you go contrary to nature and fill a hen's crop before ten o'clock In the morning, you simply Induce a fit of Indigestion, to which all yarded and cooped fowls are more or less subject, and this is the forerunner of almost all the diseases to which fowls an keir. Butter Called Danish. Referring to the large increase In the total exports of butter from Denmark in 1897, which were no less than 11,000,000 lb. ia excess of the previous year, the Smor-Tidende says: About 4,000,000 lb. of the exported butter was packed in tins; the remainder, 128,000,-000 lb., in casks of the usual type. Of this quantity more than 102,000,000 lb. were produced in Denmark, 5,000,000 lb. were transshipped in Danish ports without being landed here, and 21,000,-000 lb. were landed here and reshipped to foreign countries by Danish exporters. About 18,000,000 lb. of these foreign butters were of Swedish origin and 3,000,000 lb. of Finnish. The increase in the exports of actual Danish butter was thus 4,666,000 lb. as compared with the preceding year. The strawberry Is a fruit susceptible of wider cultivation than perhaps anv other. ' Mating for Size. Mr. E. Cobb, In the Feathered World of July 29, makes the following remarks on mating for size and shape "The male bird undoubtedly exercises a certain amount of influence Iij regard to the size and shape of the offspring; but to attempt to remedy as so many amateurs do the deficiency of size in their stock by the pur chase of an extra large cock, is the wrong way to go to work. The hen has far more influence over both the size and shape of the progeny than the male has. Take a broad shoulde ed, deep chested cock and mate with narrow shouldered hens, deficient also In breast, and the result of such a union will be but little, if any, improvement. Had, howexer, the tables, been turned, and the hens possessed the Bize instead of the cock, far greater improvement would appear In the offspring; but, as we before remarked, the male bird doe3 exercise a certain influence. It will be found that by breeding from lrge hens and a cock deficient In this respect tho pul lets produced show a far greater im. provement than is observable in thi cockerels, and it is only by continuing the process of breeding from larg hens that the cockerels will far outdistance the original cock. There hi no question but what the best plan is to have size and shape on both sides; but if a deficiency must occut on one skle or the other, do not let it be oa that of the hens." The above is truth undeflled. We regret that a common practice among amateur fanciers is a tendency to breed from overgrown and abnormally large males. -Many a fine cockerel, because he happens to be undersized, albeit correct in shape, is cast aside, and some big, coarse brute, because ot his size, is selected to mate with an average lot of females. Mr. Cobb's advice should be carefully considered and followed. American Fancier. "V Fixtures. believe that much be gained if in all t Movable Fixtures. We cannot but every way would be of our poultry houses the "fixings" were movable. The roosts especially should be so constructed that they may be easily taken down and cleaned. This will also make it easy to clean out the henhouse. It takes but a few minutes to do the work when the roosts and other obstacles have been taken out of doors. We have movable roost3 constructed in the following manner: Two long, low "horses" are fixed with slits In the top of the cross pieces, into which the roosts can be dropped. Each horse is ten feet long. If we want the roosts two feet apart this will give us five roosts. The roosts are square at the ends, bo as to fall easily Into the square grooves. Each roost Is twelve feet long. This makes sitting room for a large flock of fowls. Sprouting Potatoes. While the sprouting of potatoes under ordinary conditions is very objectionable, they may be so sprout"?, as to materially advance their earliness. This Is done by placing them, stem end down, in single layers in shallow trays on the floor, in a light and moderately warm room. Thus placed they will send out short, stubby, green sprouts which will remain in that condition for weeks. Such potatoes, planted without breaking the sprouts, will grow immediately and produce an early crop. The kitchen garden Is not usually appreciated for the reason that the farmer does not keep an account of t It J returns. i

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