The Ottawa Citizen from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada on December 20, 1972 · 7
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The Ottawa Citizen from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada · 7

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Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
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Wednesday, December 20, 1972
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7
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The Ottawa Citizen Wed., Dec. 20, 1972 Page 7 Whelan knows m farm problems By Ben Malkin Citizen editorial writer A fascinating new note will be sounded at meetings of farm organizations, the fed-era! cabinet, and federal-provincial conferences if the tone already struck by Eugene F. Whelan, the new agriculture minister, is maintained. For Gene Whelan is bringing to his work a bluntness and a contempt for diplomatic language that stands in bright contrast to the approach of most cabinet ministers. Even in appearance, Mr. Whelan makes a fine figure of an agriculture minister. A farmer himself, his six-foot frame has the well-nourished look of a man who enjoys his foods as well as grows it. His idiom remains that of the man chatting across a fence with his neighbor, not yet adulterated by the circumlocutions of economists and special assistants. May it remain so, together with the rugged, independent spirit that undoubtedly had much to do with keeping him at a distance from the cabinet during the 10 years he has served as a Liberal member from the Windsor area. Here is his idea of getting acquainted with his new constituency. He told a farmers' meeting in Winnipeg on Dec! 12: "I have had and still have first-hand experience with the pressures of rising costs for farm machinery, buildings, equipment and taxes. I know what it means when the bottom falls out on prices, when bad weather ruins a crop, when sickness strikes a herd and when bills pile up. "I might add that 1 have a keen sense for when farmers try to give the government a snow job. There are some risks in farming that are a natural part of the business. I've noticed that there seem to be a lot of free enterprisers in agriculture when things are going good, but a lot of socialists around when things are going; poorly. I don't think you can eat your cake and have it too." A blunt man Of his place in the Establishment, to an Edmonton meeting: "In the 10 years I've been a member of the House of Commons, I've earned a bit pf a reputation for being a rebel and for diking in blunt terms in the agriculture committee . . . Well, that's the kind of person I am, and that's the way I say things. I expect it's going to get me into hot water once in a while, and I suppose that Prime Minister Trudeau is going to wonder once in a while why he appointed such a rabblerouser as minister of agriculture." Of federal-provincial relations, also In Edmonton: "Often politicians at the federal level and at the provincial level have the same goals in mind, but approach problems with different angles and with different programs. "It Is really a sad state of affairs when Civil war threatens Sri Lanka By Lucien Rajakaruna London Observer Service COLOMBO Mrs. Srimavo Bandaran-aike fears that her island republic of Sri Lanka old Ceylon is on the edge of a new revolt by left-wing youth. . Her government has arrested more than 150 young people in several parts f the country who were thought to be plotting an attack on Colombo, the capital. The armed forces have been put on an alert and deployed to guard strategic installations and prisons. Security measures have been strengthened at detention camps where more than 5,000 vouths are already held. Main grievance The main fuel for this smouldering rebellion is the same as that which fed last year's revolt: unemployment Young people in growing numbers are educated to skills that their villages cannot employ. There is a consequent drift to the towns where jobs grow scarcer, and where specifically unemployed graduates from Ceylon's four universities feel they are suffering because the older English-educated classes still control the levers of power. Last year the government was caught napping, but the state of emergency that Mrs. Bandaranaike's government decreed in March that year is still in force and its pressures add to youthful resentments. At the same time Mrs. -Band arar.a ike promised speedy land reforms in response to the revolt Land was to be taken from the rich and distributed to the landless by limiting any private holding to 50 acres lor any husband and wife. But the effects of the reform still require time to be fully effective. At the beginning of this month the gov- farmers are shoved off to the side with their problems while politicians bicker over whose program is going to be adopted. I think we have to take another look at this situation and get down lo brass tacks and start acting instead of talking." Of his relations with farmers: "While I intend to listen and talk to farmers I don't want to leave tha impression that I'm going to be an easy mark for every petition and request for help that lands on my desk. ATo handouts "1 know farmers well enough to realize that they sometimes cry 'wolf when there is no wolf, and that they sometimes ask the government for help to do the jobs they could and should be doing for themselves. I don't think that the majority of farmers want government handouts. I think they want to earn their own way and to run their own risks, as long as those risks are reasonable and normal." That's the authentic Gene Whelan talking. Unless he becomes refurbished, the agriculture community is in for the plainest talk in years. It remains to be seen how the talk will be translated into legislation designed to help the farmer meet unreasonable risks. But at least the dialogue will be free of crocodile tears shed for the farmer, and unrealistic goals that can't be met. J&t aaaa ,v Battle against pollution Now there's hope for man 7f" LJ LJulMt Eugene Whelan A blunt man Mrs. Bandaranaike The malady lingers on ernment took over 14 privately-owned tea plantations in the Kandyan areas for youth resettlement to be run on a co-operative basis. But this will give work to only a small proportion of Sri Lanka's idle hands. The signs that revolt may soon break surface again are numerous. Youths organized in the now banned Janatha Vimukthi Feramuna (People's Liberation Front) are reported to have been holding regular secret meetings and collecting arms. Caches of arms have been found. For several months there have been armed hold-ups in the provinces, especially in the dry zone regions where rebel activity was heaviest last year. Groups of rebels arc known to be hiding in the dense jungles of the North Central province. There have been two major jail-breaks in the past two months, and a train has been held up and robbed. Same symptoms Among those arrested is the brother of Rohana Wijeweera. the acknowledged leader of the Peoples Liberation Front, who is already detained, charged with conspiring to overthrow Mrs. Bandaranaike's" government News of the most recent arres's came as no surprise to most Ceylonese who see the same symptoms which preceded last year's revolt The government says that its forces are this time ready for any attack. Thev may well be ready. But the government is still groping its way towards trying to find a solution to the problems that caused the earlier revolt and now threaten a new one. Until the government can give a convincing sign that it can deal effectively with mass unemployment the spectre of civil war will haunt the streets of Colombo. By Azhar Ali Khan Citizen editorial writer (One of a series) UNITED NATIONS Hydrogen- bombs more than 1,000 times more devastating than the atomic bomb which ravaged Hiroshima. Huge missiles, launched from submerged nuclear submarines or underground silos, racing into outer space, then re-entering the atmosphere and releasing dozens of thermonuclear warheads, each racing like lightning to its independent target Uncontrolled population explosion packing whole continents with human beings like cans of sardines. Mortal threats These threats are real, but they aren't the only perils facing mankind. Carbon dioxide in the air, industrial wastes in the seas and oceans, mercury and other poison in the fish and animals which human beings eat they all pose mortal threats to us in the future. The United Nations couldn't bring peace to Vietnam, justice to the Middle East or freedom to Southern Africa. But it has begun to move slowly, though surely, to protect the human environment and to regulate man's activities on the oceans. Maurice Strong, secretary-general of the UN Conference on the Human Environment at the Stockholm meeting last June, says that the environment danger is like a cancer, "difficult to detect and to cure." But Strong, just appointed by the UN to head its new environment agency, is hopeful that man realizes the peril and is prepared to counter it. Prior to Stockholm, some of the developing countries were suspicious that all the pollution hullabaloo was raised by the developed countries who, having achieved a high standard of living, could afford to talk of curtailing growth. But for the developing countries, the problem is not to limit but to spur growth so as to provide at least basic amenities to their peoples. By the time the conference, two years in preparation, had taken place, almost 100 countries had realized the dangers of galloping technology and had taken some anti-pollution measures. The enthusiasm generated by Stockholm is evident from the fact that the headquarters of the proposed UN environment agency will be Kenya. This has shocked Western pundits, who find this wasteful, inefficient and costly, since New York and Geneva with their modern facili- The Citizen's Ali Khan was at the UN with Canadian, American editors and editorial writers or a seminar. ties and UN offices would have been far more efficient and inexpensive. But politically and psychologically, Kenya Js a wise choice because it brings the UN closer physically to the developing countries and makes their co-operation with the new agency more likely. Distressing fact The Stockholm conference had the distressing feature of having East Germany, the world's 10th biggest industrial power, absent along with other East Europe countries and the Soviet Union. East Germany had been excluded because only countries which were members of the UN or one of its agencies were invited as participants. East Germany was invited as an observer, but it refused to come on that basis. This led to a boycott of the conference by the Warsaw Pact countries. But with the forthcoming membership of the two Germanys East Germany is already a member now of a UN special agency co-operation from the Communist countries is assured. Strong refers to the Stockholm conference as the world's "first co-ordinated attempt at tackling pollution." At Stockholm, 113 nations agreed on a 26-point declaration to preserve the human environment and to devise new UN machinery to implement the Stockholm decisions. If the Stockholm decisions are implemented, says Strong, "we will have hope for man." He feels the decisions will be implemented and, in time, the nations might go beyond those decisions as they discover the advantages of co-operation in this area. Meanwhile, the UN has already decided to hold the third Law of the Sea conference late next year, with the substantive conference being held in Santiago, Chile, in early 1974. As in the case of the pollution Initiative, Canada has taken an active leadership role and has successfully pushed its case for the International community deciding on a comprehensive approach to the problem. Canada has a vast coastline, no major oceangoing fleet, a huge coastal shelf, and impressive off shore resources, both in terms of fishing and mineral deposits. This, along with its large trade through the seas, makes this subject one of vital interest to Canada. In 1609, Hugo Grotius, a Dutch scholar who believed that the seas had inexhaustible resources, was able to win over the British scholar John Selden, who felt that national sovereignty should prevail over the seas as well. The result was the concept of the "freedom of the high seas." The fact that land-based cannons had an effective range only of three miles meant that, except for the three-mile range of coastal waters, all the seas were left free for the Maritime states for doing whatever they wished, whether for fishing or military purposes. Outdated concept But the concept of freedom of the high seas is now outdated. First, modern technology is so efficient that nations are over-fishing in many cases with no thought about conservation. Second, modern technology has also enabled man to go far into the sea and, through sophisticated equipment, extract petroleum and other mineral resources from the coastal shelf or the sea-bed. This could also produce intense national rivalry and conflict among nations over the resources. Three, the huge tankers of today carry to much oil that if one should break or sink near the coast of a state, it could seriously harm that country. All of these factors mean that the freedom of the high seas does not entitle nations to arbitrarily over-fish, pollute someone else's waters, or go hunting for oil and mineral resources far from one's own borders. The need for a law of the seas is clear. Seventy per cent of the earth surface con sists of water and national rivalries are inevitable in the absence of such regulations. Canada has acted unilaterally, like many other countries, to protect its own interests but ha? also pushed at the UN for effective action through an international treaty. Canada's UN record suggests that at the 1974 law of the sea conference, it should be able to convince other nations that a treaty regulating the conduct of nations in the ocean and conserving ocean resources and protecting it from pollution is urgently needed. Finding clues to moon riddle Bright orange dirt yielding exciting data lo scientists By Stuart Auerbach Time-Pos New Service HOUSTON A billion years ago, perhaps longer, trapped gases wisped out of a tiny crack in the moon's surface. The gases were the last gasps of a violent, eruption that, perhaps a million years earlier, had spread a black ash from deep within the moon over a wide area of the lunar surface. These conclusions have emerged from the discovery by the Apollo 17 astronauts of a yard-wide bank of bright orange dirt on the rim of a crater calied Shorty- Complex history This finding, during man's last chance to explore the lunar surface in this century, proved that the moon underwent a complex volcanic history that stretched over three billion years. The thermal history of the moon," said Apollo geologist Farouk El-Baz, "was very long, maybe comparable to the earth's. "It makes the moon a lot more dynamic. It's heat engine was still working as re cently as one billion years ago." Besides proving that the moon's core was molten longer than scientists thought the discovery of the orange band showed that there were at least two types of volcanic activity on the moon. The discovery of the orange band of soil evidence of a volcanic vent called a fumarole by astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison (Jack) Schmitt is probably the greatest smsie find made during America's six explorations of the moon. It electrified scientis's at the manned spacecraft centre near here. Gerald Wasserberg, a principal lunar investigator, was so excited when he saw the color television picture of tne orange soil that he reported: "I leaped from my chair and stood in front of that TV screen as if I was looking at God." The finding itself, according to lunar scientists, nailed down the theory that the moon had a dynamic, volcanic history and as not just born as the dead p'anet it appears to be today. And when the orange soil, whose colors really ranee from red to yellow, has been carefully studied, geologists will be able to tell: The time volcanic activity stopped on the moon and how long its core was molten. The chemical composition of the moon 30 to 60 miles below its unace, where the airy, dark pumice-like ash that spread over the landing site probably came from. The evolutionary process of volcanic events on the moon. Various shades The appearances of different shades in the orange band "is what directed Jack's attention to deaung with volcanic activities," said El-Baz. For the gas either oxygen, a hydroxyl (a combination of oxygen and iiydro-gen) and water vapors (steam) oxidizes (rusts) the soil it passes through. But the gas doesn't vent in a steady stream, and the varying amounts that wisp out of different sections of the vent cause the range of colors. The graduations in color, said El-Baz, "is what one would expect from fumarole activity." This venting, said El-Ba?, must have taken place after Shorty crater was formed, and Shorty, with its fresh-looking halos, is considered a very young crater. It certainly was formed after the rockslide down the steep-walled south massif that Cernan and Schmitt explored earlier and that is considered one of the youngest lunar events ever explored by man. Shorty, named for a soulful character in Richard Brautigan's novel "Trout Fishing in America," is a football-sized wide crater less than 30 yards deep. El-Baz doesn't believe it was created by an impact: he thinks it is a cinder cone the source of the ash that is blown up with gas from deep within the moon. Other scientists here disagree. Eugene Shoemaker, chairman of the geology department at California Institute of Technology, called the finding "'startling." Slim chances But he said that Shorty doesn't look like a volcanic crater. "The pattern of ejec- ta and the rays look like an impact," said Shoemaker. He suggested that the fumarole might have had nothing to do with the crater; tiie gas vent on its rim might just have been coincidence. Coincidence or not, Schmitt and Cernan went to Shorty crater on the off-chance they could find evidence of volcanic activity. "We talked about finding fumaroles but actually jokingly because the chances were so slim," said El-Baz. The violent eruptions from cinder cones best exemplified on earth by- Hawaii's diamond head is not the only kind of volcanic activity in the moon's geological history. Earlier around 3.2 billion years ago tar-like lava flowed gently out of cracks in the moon's surface and filled its large ba5.ns. This vokar.ism is different from the violent activity that comes from cinder cones; it comes from less deep within the moon and its activity is far gentler. The surface it forms is hard and smooth, in contrast to the pumice-like rocks that erupt from cinder cor.es.

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