The Messenger from Madisonville, Kentucky on May 27, 2018 · C4
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The Messenger from Madisonville, Kentucky · C4

Madisonville, Kentucky
Issue Date:
Sunday, May 27, 2018
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C4 THE MESSENGER, Sunday, May 27, 2018 Visit Alabama's Legacy Museum and lynching memorial . I IHK ' ltd' Hf ' Washington Post photo by Ricky Carioti A narrative display of racial injustice at the Legacy Museum in Montgomery, Ala. BY ERIN SHAW STREET WASHINGTON POST Standing next to me in front of the new Legacy Museum in blazing hot Montgomery, Alabama, my 12-year old son asks: "Why are you taking me to another museum?" To be fair, it's not surprising that a sixth-grader would rather be playing video games. But we live only an hour from the museum and the also-new National Memorial for Peace and Justice, which is receiving international attention for its stunning public acknowledgment of our country's history of racial violence. It seemed wrong not to take him as soon as possible. The museum and the memorial are the work of the Equal Justice Initiative, a legal rights organization in Montgomery. The museum depicts the history of black people in the United States, beginning with slavery, through Jim Crow laws and segregation, to current issues of mass incarceration and police violence against blacks. (Its full name is the Legacy Museum: From Enslavement to Mass Incarceration.) The memorial honors 4,000 victims of lynching and other types of racial violence. Since opening in Alabama's capital in April, both sites have received steady streams of visitors, including many children, said Sia Sanneh, senior attorney for the EJI. If you, too, are contemplating a visit with your children to these thought-provoking and moving sites, here are some things to consider before you go, based on my visit and discussions with museum officials and other experts. Though the subject matter is disturbing, the museum and memorial are "less about shocking people and more about careful and deliberate storytelling to start conversations," Sanneh said. "Children have a lot of instincts about what is fair and unfair. Our job is to equip them with facts." A former middle school teacher, Sanneh helped develop the content in the museum and at the memorial, which is designed to fill gaps in the history that most Americans learn in school, and to help families discuss issues of race, power and inequality in the country today. Inspired by sites such as the U.S. Holocaust Museum in Washington and Berlin's Holocaust Memorial, the museum illuminates difficult history through individual stories, exhibits and works of art. Visitors encounter the material through video, text and interactive exhibits, including a touch-screen housing the Google-funded "Lynching in America" interactive online experience. Both the museum and the memorial are self-guided, with staff members available to answer questions. Located less than a mile apart in the heart of downtown Montgomery, they were designed to be visited together. Ideally, visitors tour the museum then go to the memo rial, where more than 800 six-foot-tall steel columns stand tall over Montgomery's landscape. Victims' names are etched on the columns, which are organized by county. Sanneh said the museum is probably best for kids of middle school age and older, because that's around the time when children can process and engage with the material. Though no space is off limits, "we are careful with how we display graphic imagery," she said. Images of violence are contained to one area, where warnings are prominently posted. A visitor must press a button to see photos, which are displayed for 10 seconds. My son, Nate, did not press the button to observe the content. He did comment on the signage at the entrance informing visitors that the museum is on the site of a former slave-trading quarters. He lingered at displays of actors portraying slaves, sharing their personal accounts of being separated from their families and enduring brutal conditions. He visited the exhibit designed to simulate a modern-day correctional facility, where visitors can pick up a phone and hear actual accounts of imprisoned people. He listened as I provided context about historical photos of protests in Birmingham, where we live. He saw the jars of soil collected from lynching sites around the country as part of the EJI's Community Remembrance Project. In some jars, small greenery has sprouted in the soil's cracks. "In all of that death, there's still hope," a museum staff member said. 'We're just going to let the little plants grow." Hope is an important part ol the experience. 'We want children and adults to see that the people who led the civil rights protests grew up in a time of lynching, and that hope came from this dark chapter," Sanneh said. To help get that lesson across, "It's important to ask children, 'What kind of resilience did it take to live in conditions like that? What kind of courage did it take? What choices did a person make about whether to fight or whether to obey?' " said Maureen Costello, director ol the Southern Poverty Law Center's Teaching Tolerance project. Montgomery offers plenty of sites to spark such conversations, including the Rosa Parks Museum, the Freedom Rides Museum and the Dexter Avenue King Memorial Baptist Church. But such conversations can be overwhelming, so Costello suggested mixing history-intensive touring with other activities, such as renting a paddle board or having a picnic by the Alabama River, catching a minor-league Montgomery Biscuits baseball game, or visiting the Montgomery Zoo or the King Barn Dairy Mooseum, a hands-on children's museum with an agricultural theme. BLOOD FROM PAGE CI the aorta. The aorta is somewhere around an inch in diameter. It has a very thick, muscular wall with lots of elastic connective tissue in the outer layer, because the aorta takes the full pressure pulse from each contraction of the left ventricle. As the ventricle pumps blood into the aorta, the aorta stretches to accommodate the volume of blood (called a "bolus") being pumped into it, like squirting water into a balloon. As blood is pumped into the aorta and it stretches, the pressure in the aorta goes up. When the pressure in the aorta is higher than the pressure in the ventricle (as the ventricle starts to relax) , the aortic valve between the left ventricle and the aorta closes, preventing blood from flowing backwards, back into the heart. The pressure generated by the contraction of the heart, along with the "rebound" of the aortic wall as the wall that was initially stretched returns to normal, pushes the blood further down the aorta. The aorta rises up from the heart for a few inches, then turns downward. This loop is called the aortic arch and the part that carries blood downward is the descending aorta. There are lots of branches off of this main artery, leading into the head, the arms, and the kidneys, with other smaller branches, as well. Each of these major branches is a smaller than the aorta, just like the pipes that branch off the main. The smaller arteries then branch some more, each time becoming smaller. The pressure inside the arteries doesn't go down very much in the main branches for the same reason the pressure in your water pipes is pretty much the same, no matter if it is the first pipe to branch off the main supply coming into the house or the last. The main supply coming in may be 1 inch in diameter. The main branches (like the one going to your bathroom) are probably 3A of an inch. The individual pipes in your bathroom, going to the sink, the shower and the toilet are probably V2 inch. If you have good pressure coming in to your house, there is plenty of water that can flow through one 3A inch pipe to supply several V2 inch pipes without losing much pressure. This holds true for the larger branches of the arteries that carry blood out to the body. Let's use your hand as an example. The blood that goes to your hand came through the aorta, which branched into the subclavian artery, which is the main artery into the arm. The subclavian branches into the axillary artery, which carries blood mostly into the muscles of the shoulder, and the brachial artery, which has branches that carry blood into the muscles of the upper arm and continues down into the forearm. In the forearm, the brachial artery branches into the radial and ulnar arteries (along with smaller branches that feed the tissues of the forearm) . The radial and ulnar arteries then have branches that go into the hand, and those arteries have branches to each finger. The pressure in these large branches is only a little lower than it was in the aorta. This is why you can get a good measure of your blood pressure from the brachial artery in your arm. If you ever wondered how that works, by the way, the cuff inflates until the pressure in the cuff is greater than the blood pressure produced by the contraction of the ventricle (this contraction is called "systole", pronounced sis-toe-lee, so the top number in your blood pressure reading is the systolic pressure) . The pressure in the cuff shuts off blood flow in the brachial artery. The person taking the reading puts a stethoscope on your brachial artery in your elbow and slowly lets pressure out of the cuff until she can hear blood flow starting back up in the artery. That is your systolic pressure, which is a measure of how powerfully your left ventricle is contracting and pumping blood. The person continues to let pressure out of the cuff until she can no longer hear the blood flowing. The blood is still going through the artery, but when it gets to this pressure, it starts flowing smoothly, so it doesn't make any noise for her to hear. This is the diastolic pressure (the relaxation phase of your heartbeat is called "diastole", pronounced di-ass-toe-lee) . Your diastolic pressure is a measure of the pressure in your arteries due to the resistance in your circulatory system. Anyway, all of these arterial branches are just carrying blood to where it needs to go. No oxygen or nutrient exchange is occurring in these arteries. Once the blood gets to where it is going, the arteries branch into smaller, thinner vessels called arterioles. There are lots and lots of arterioles that branch out into the tissues, so blood pressure drops considerably in the arterioles. However, because there are a lot of them, it is the contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in your arterioles that responsible for maintaining your blood pressure, under normal circumstances. When the arteriole smooth muscle constricts, resistance to blood flow goes up and the pressure goes up. When it relaxes, blood flows more easily and pressure goes down. The ability of the arterioles to control pressure and flow is extremely important to your overall body function. For example, if you are lying down, your blood is circulating in your body without having to overcome gravity, because your body is mostly on one level. If you stand up, suddenly, your head is way up there and your feet are way down there and, if nothing was done, all your blood would rush into your legs and feet, leaving the blood flow and blood pressure to your brain very low. Your brain can't function with that low blood flow, so you pass out. But that isn't what happens (usually) . Instead, as soon as you stand up, the arterioles in your legs feel the increase in pressure and very quickly cause the smooth muscle in the walls to constrict, restricting blood flow into the legs and keeping blood flow and pressure normal in your upper body and head. It's an amazing system. Problems with the regulation of this mechanism of smooth muscle contraction in the arterioles is often a contributing factor to why some people have what is called "idiopathic, or primary, hypertension", which is high blood pressure that has no obvious cause. Secondary hypertension can result from other disorders, such as kidney problems, some tumors or obesity. The arteriole branch into the smallest vessels in the system, called capillaries. Capillaries are less than hair-thin, just large enough in diameter for red blood cells to squeeze through. They have very thin walls, often just one cell layer thick, to allow gasses, nutrients and wastes to be exchanged between the blood and the tissues. There are also millions upon millions of capillaries, so even though each capillary is very thin, collectively they allow a great amount of blood flow, so the blood pressure in the capillaries is only about 25 percent of what it was in the aorta. This helps protect the fragile capillaries and allows blood to move slowly through the capillary networks, so that there is plenty of time for gas and nutrient exchange to occur. Next week, I'll finish up on capillaries and explain how blood gets back to the heart in the veins, even though the blood pressure on the venous side of the circulation is quite low. Michael J. Howard, Ph.D., is vice president of education and research at Baptist Health Madisonville. He can be reached at madisonvillesciencegmail. com or via Twitter at madville Hight Ashby Ricky and Misti Hight of Madisonville announce the engagement and upcoming marriage of their daughter, Mallorie, to Aaron Ashby, son of Kenneth and Deborah Ashby of Manitou. Mallorie is the granddaughter of Tony and Carolyn Faulk and the late Ray and Sharon Hight. Aaron is the grandson of Joann Ashby and the late Allen Ashby and the late Chester and Patricia Joseph. Marjorie is a registered nurse at Baptist Health, and Aaron is employed at Century Aluminum. Their vows will be exchanged at 5:30 p.m. on June 23,2018, at the Plantation House in Greenville. Invitations have been sent. Landscaping & Garden Center Starting Tuesday May 29th Annual Plants, Herbs, Vegetables and Hanging Baskets (Excluding Annual Container Gardens, Hibiscus , Ferns & Perennials) 410 Princeton Road Madisonville, Ky 42431 270-821-0350 Big Green Egg I hi- U l male Coo-; in 9 bxycrsenco Authorized Deafer YETI

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