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The San Francisco Examiner from San Francisco, California • 70

San Francisco, California
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IxT IT ii in rm v-; -v Discoveries In a Buried City of the Mysterious "Shepherd Kings9 9 Who Conquered Egypt, Reveal That the Ruler Who Honored Joseph Was of His Own Race, and Why the Hebrews Fared So Badly When the Invaders Who Had Protected Them Were Finally A Bronze Mirror Kj AllM in which Some 1 3t sJift lft Hyksos Beautv 3 vHl 111 Admired Her.lf Lk 1 JfV It Driven Out 1' "TfM wl! Curious Ivory Sphynx Found in the Buried Hyksos City, Showing a Marked Semitic Nose. skeleton lies between that of the warrior and another skeleton. This last may have been his wife or a slave, killed to "keep him company" in the other world. It was the size of the animal which surprised the scientists. It had been a great war horse, not at all like the small, rangy animals characteristic of Central Asia, from a part of which, according to some theories, the LONDON, August 12.

IIR FLINDERS PETRIE, the distinguished English archeologist, has uncovered in South Palestine a city UI7Mi YlSVYlftVifTL archeologist, has uncovered in South Palestine a city of the mvsterious lost race called the Hyksos. Dis A Crave in the Cemetery of the City Containing the Skeleton of a Hyksos Warrior Who Was Buried Beside His Horse, With Wife or Servant Also Interred to "Keep Him Company." coveries there have thrown a wholly new light upon the reasons for the welcome of the Israelites into Egypt, the favor they enjoyed for many years, and their subsequent cruel treatment by the Egyptians, which ended in the Ten Plagues and their escape, led by Moses and Aaron, from the bondage of the Pharaohs. It now appears that the Pharaoh who welcomed Joseph and his brethren was not an Egyptian at all, but belonged, as they did, to the Semitic race. No one has known much about the Hyksos, and all kinds of guesses have been made as to their identity. They appeared one day about 3,500 years ago on the frontiers of Egypt.

They were horsemen with swarms of cavalry. The horse at that time was not known in Egypt, and the Hyksos Plaque Apparently Showing a Fabulous Bird Carrying Away a Deer, and Entirely Un-Egyptian in Its Characteristics. Hyksos originally came. It is the first of the Hyksos horses ever found. If there were thousands of the followers of the "Shepherd Kings" mounted upon such powerful brutes, as is probable, it explains their rapid conquest of the best part of Egypt.

It has also been stated that they used the bow and arrow. As the Egyptian method of fighting at that time was on foot and hand to hand, they could, of course, put up no resistance. The Jewish historian Josephus quotes from ah ancient tradition as follows: "In the days of a King of Egypt named Timaeus the land was suddenly invaded from the east by men of ignoble race, who conquered it without a struggle, destroyed cities and temples, and slew or enslaved the inhabitants." It is obvious that soldier3 so lightly armed as the Egyptians of the time and having neither horses nor HyKsos speeaiiy conquered a large part of the country. They ruled for about five hundred years, and were known as the "Shepherd Kings," because of the flocks of sheep they introduced with the horses, and of their rude, unpolished habits as contrasted with the far more cultured manners of the conquered. They were skilled in the art of war.

The Egyptians, with their usual high intelligence, studied the Hyksos' efficient military organization and bred horses from stock bought or stolen from the invaders. After three centuries they soundly whipped them in a series of battles and drove them out of Egypt. It had taken them a long time to get around to it, but the ancient Egyptians were a patient race and didn't mind taking plenty of time to do the thing right. The "Shepherd Kings" then disappeared, apparently, off the face of the earth. Just as nobody knows where they came Glden Hair Bins.

One Perfect and One Crushed, Dug Up in the Buried City. 4 A Partial View of the Houses of the Ixng-Lost City Discovered by Sir Flinders Pelrie. therefore no surer way of Joseph's family obtaining his favor than by laying stress po this occupation as their own. And as shrewd Joseph had foreseen, the Pharaoh welcomed them as brother shepherds, and, further to humiliate the haughty "I will go up and show Pharaoh, and say unto him, My brethren and my father's home, which were in the end of Canaan, are come unto me. "And the men are shepherds, for their trade hath been to feed cattle, and they have brought their flocks and their herds, and all that they have.

"And it shall come to pass, when Pharaoh shall call you Joseph Explaining Pharaoh's Dream It Is Now Believed That the Mysterious "Shepherd Kings" of Egypt Were a Semitic Race, Thus Explaining Why They Welcomed the Israelites Into Egypt, and Why the Israelites Were So Badly Treated After the Hyksos People Were Driven Out of Egypt. bows and arrows could not put up much of a "struggle" against those who did have them. Anbther tradition says that the survivors of the Hyksos hordes were finally concentrated in one of their fortified cities called Avaris. Unable to capture the stronghold, the Egyptians finally allowed them to depart, whereupon they went forth, established themselves in Palestine and built Jerusalem. The discovery only a few days ago of a number of letters written by worried Kings of Canaan, or Palestine, to Tharaoh Amenhotep and his successors seem to conclusively disprove this.

Amenhotep was the successor of the Pharaoh whom Moses defied and who finally let the Israelites go. The letters were inscribed on clay tablets and were found at Tel El-Amarna, Egypt. In them, the Cannanites beseech Tharaoh to send them soldiers and chariots to help them fight the "Habiru" who, were trying to take their, country from them. Sir Charles Marston, noted Biblical archeologist who is financing an expedition exploring the site of Jericho, and he believed the Habiru could be identified as the Hebrews. Sir Charles also said that the letters bear a date which according to modern research coincides with the period of the Israelite conquest of Palestine.

They were sent either to Amenhotep, or to one of his immediate successors. The fact that they were found at Tel El-Amarna shows they reached their destination, but if any replies were Eent there is no evidence as yet to show it. It seems obvious, however, that a people who had been comparatively recently driven out of Egypt would not turn to those who had hated them for help. Even if the answer to the enigma of where the Hyksos went is not found in the city Sir Flinders Petrie is excavating, the mystery of where they came from may be. and from, nobody knows where they went.

The Egyptians considered their successful invasion the most shameful page in their history, and spent years destroying every trace of them. They did this so thoroughly that only a handful of their statues, art works, inscriptions and writings have been discovered. Not enough to give any idea of who the Hyksos were. Not even the names of their kings are known. The Egyptians had another word for them, however, which is conservatively translated "pest." Egypt, however, retained their horses and military organization and these were what enabled them for centuries to be a ruling nation highly successful in their wars.

The Hyksos calamity had really been a blessing in disguise. The discoveries of Sir Flinders Pctrie prove that the Hyksos were a Semitic people, like the Israelites. They livpd in southern Palestine anywhere f-om 3000 B.C. to 1500 when they abandoned all their cities, took up their beds, baggage and animals and marched down on Egypt. The city which the British archeologist has discovered was deserted for some reason before that march, about 2000 B.C.

It lay on the great desert road between Egypt and Asia, and had been occupied for many centuries before its abandonment. When Sir Flinders started digging it was only an immense mound, like an enormous rounded hill. Now a good part of it has been uncovered. Its nouses and streets can be walked through, as in Pompeii. Some of the houses contained as many as eighty rooms, large enough for a modern hotel.

Some had been artistically stuccoed and contained shrines and baths. The city had a sanitary system of sewers. The great mound which covered it has been known for centuries as the Tel El-Aijul. Many treasures have been unearthed, one of them a pendant of gold work which some careless Hyksos lady had lost in one of the streets, to be found 4,000 years later by scientists. Pottery, plaques, jewelry, weapons, a multitude of objects have been picked up.

A number of golden ornaments were recovered in a pit filled with bones of human beings and animals. A plague pit, perhaps, where the dead were buried hastily by men who left the gold-work unrifled rather than run the risk of contamination. A secret passage or tunnel, which yielded no tnas-ures, runs through the excavated part. It probably leads to the heart of the city, where the temples and public buildings still wait to be uncovered. The Hyksos being racial cousins of the Israelites, it was natural for the "Shepherd King," who was the Pharaoh, to welcome them.

And thus is now made perfectly clear some verses in Genesis, whose meaning has long been obscure. It is related in Genesis, chapter 46, vss. 31 to 34, and chapter 47, 2, 3, 5, 6, that when Joseph summoned, at the Pharaoh's command, his father, Israel, and his brethren into Egypt, he said to them: gyptians, gave the Israelites the best of their lands. When the Hyksos were driven out of Egypt, these poor cousins whom they had fostered came in for hard knocks. Now the Pharaoh was a real Egyptian, or as the Bible puts it, "there arose up a new king over Egypt who knew not Joseph." Much of the resentment and hatred the invaders had aroused must naturally have been poured out upon the Israelites.

Why they were not driven out with the others is understandable enough. Here was a large supply of cheap and docile labor, for at that time the Israelites were not warlike. So Pharaoh put them to work, or as the Bible says, "did set over them task-masters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities. Pithom and Rameses." Among the most important discoveries of the Tel El-Aijul was that of the grave of a Hyksos warrior who had been buried with his horse beside him.

This at least 4,000 year old "'The land of Egypt is before thee; in the heart of the land make thy father and brethren to In these verses there seemed an obvious contradiction. Joseph warned his brethren that a shepherd was an "abomination to the Egyptians," yet on his advice they told the Pharaoh that they were shepherds, and to make it more emphatic added, "both we and also our fathers." And upon their answer Pharaoh rewards them by giving them the best land in Egypt in which to dwell. But with the discovery that the Hyksos were of the same race as the Israelites, all becomes clear. The Pharaoh who sheltered Joseph was a Hyksos, a "Shepherd King," and not an Egyptian. The true Egyptians hated every shepherd as an "abomination" because their conquerors had been shepherds, or keepers of great flocks of sheep.

The Hyksos ruler undoubtedly knew and resented this, and there was shall say, What is your occupation? "That ye shall say, Thy sen-ants' trade hath about cattle from our youth even until now, both we and also our fathers: That yc may dwell in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd is an abomination to the Egyptians. "Thi Joseph came and told rharaoh, and said. My father and my brethren, und their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have, are come out of the land of Canaan; and behold, they are in the land of Goshen. "And he took some of his brethren, even five men, and presented them unto Pharaoh. "And Pharaoh said unto his brethren, What is your occupation? And they said unto Pharaoh, Thy senants are shepherds, both we and also our fathers.

"And Pharaoh spake unto Joseph, saying, 1932. br Amwn Wetktar, Inc. Oral Ilriuin Kighti Homed. 6.

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