El Paso Times from El Paso, Texas on May 3, 1964 · 17
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El Paso Times from El Paso, Texas · 17

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Sunday, May 3, 1964
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17
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Snnday, May 3, 1964 Dial KE 2-1661 TITE EL PASO TIDIES El Paso' HOME Newspaper Want Ad Dept. 532-1971 Page 5-11 F3YIL0S in mi.,.. ,. . . '""!! imimmh i J-' More Changes In Sight Brazil Dumps Commies; Financial Strides Taken Rural Areas Present Problems Colombian Army Is Fighting Banditry By EDGAR MILLER Rio de Janeiro. (AP) A month ago Brazil was teetering on the brink of economic disaster and a possible take over by Communist elements. Today it is making strides toward whipping its tangled web of problems. The lightning revolution that drove Joao Goulart from the presidency has brought many changes in Latin America's largest nation and more are in sight. Inflation had been doubling the nation's cost of living every year. Obviously the revolution alone could not solve this and accompanying debt problems. But it has brought a climate of confidence unknown for three years. The cruzeiro, Brazil's monetary unit, has strengthened in relation to the dollar, and the stock market surged. Food lines caused by phony shortages have disappeared. Rio's daily blackouts, caused by an alleged power shortage, have ended. Wheat has begun arriving from the United States to avert a threatened bread shortage. Prices have leveled off somewhat, thanks mainly to state action temporarily freezing prices on many products. Guanabara State says food prices, for the first time in years, showed a slight decline over the 30-day period. The government has moved to follow up its initial advantages with measures aimed at stream lining Brazil's tax structure, solving supply problems which caused food shortages, purging governmental deadwood, and eliminating some of the basic causes of the inflationary spiral Goulart tried some of the. same measures but they failed as he gave in to first one, then another, pressure group adversely affected. President Humberto Castello Branco, armed with extraordinary powers plus the firm backing of the military forces which ousted Goulart, seems immune to most of these pressures. Mass arrests of Communists and fellow travelers took place early last month. Hundreds of those seized have been cleared and released. Others may face! trial on charges of violating national security. The so-called supreme command of the revolution, composed of military leaders, has virtually faded away after fulfilling its announced role of preventing partisan squabbling from putting Brazil back to the prerevolution level. Many Brazilians, imbued with the idea that the military's place is in the background, took a dim view of the armed forces' post-revolutionary action, although they said firm measures were needed. Some still harbor resentments such as one pro-Communist student who declared: "The Castello Branco government didn't get a good start. It began with a coup of force. A dictatorship though tinted with legality replaced a regime which could be called anything but which was the legal regime. Perhaps the predominant view of the events in the past month was expressed by Juliao Silvei-ra, a dry goods salesman whose salary is equivalent to about $50 a month. "It's difficult to know if Brazil is at last on the right road. But I have great hopes that President Castello Branco will be able to solve our problems because if this doesn't happen it will be the time of the Reds. And this will be bad," he said. Castello Branco, a highly respected military man who rose from private to supreme command of his nation's armed forces, has 21 months to clean house on his own terms. He has picked a team of basically nonpartisan specialists as Cabinet ministers. They have promised to start the basic reforms, including land reform, that Goulart talked about. Elections next year will pick Castello Branco's successor. Campaigning for the presidency, already under way when the revolution came, has halted under a tacit agreement to give the new regime a breathing spell. It is still early to begin speculating on what new political factions and alliances will grow up before the 1965 vote. The two main candidates arose before the revolution. Carlos Lacerda, governor of Guanabara State, was one of th3 principal planners of the revo lution. Former President Jus- celino Kubitschek had cautious ly refrained from opposing Gou lart in an obvious bid to get Goulart's support and that of Goulart's Brazilian Labor party in 1965. Lacerda is in Europe on a two-month vacation. Kubitschek is keeping quiet. He still stands in some danger of losing his political rights, and consequently his right to be Marxist Aid Sought 'Left Turn5 For Ceylon Brings On Political Storm By DENZIL PEIRIS Colombo, Ceylon. (AP) A political storm is gathering over Ceylon and Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike has turned left in an attempt to escape it. Convinced that neither she nor her Freedom party alone can solv eCeylon's problems, Mrs. Bandaranaike is seeking help from Marxist-oriented political groups. In repayment, she is offering concessions that would take this island nation of 10 million clos er to socialism. The nation is confronted with rampant inflation, unemployment, paralyzing strikes, rising oTwrornmont'il ovnonifiTrflfi f V - f outstrip income, unrest in rural areas, the prime minister's primary source of political support, and a dip in her parliamentary margin to three seats. The government was taking such knocks in Parliament ear lier this year that Mrs. Banda ranaike sent members home un til July, hoping to use the inter val to shore up her position. Aided by her Socialist-minded finance minister, Tikiri Banda has opened talks with Dr. N.M, Ilangaratne, Mrs. Bandaranaike has opened talks with Dr. N.M. Perera, leader of the Social Equality party, and Philip Gun-awardena, head of the People's United Front. NEW ROAD Perera is an old-school Trot-skyite who has taken the parliamentary road to what he calls reorganization of society. Gunawardena is a Marxist who claims he picked up leftist tendencies at the University of Wisconsin and Columbia Univer sity in the 1920s. He says na tionalism, Buddhist revivalism and Ceylon's indigenous culture are the instruments of making progress. If Perera and Gunawardena can carry their parties into Mrs. Bandaranaike's fold, she will '" ouvuV-: , wr GOING THROUGH MANY CHANGES Brazil, Latin America's largest nation, is making strides toward whipping its tangled problems since the lightning revolution early in April drove Joao Goulart from the presidency. The revolt has brought many changes and more are in sight. During Goulart's regime, Brazil was on the brink of economic disaster and a possible takeover by Communist elements. (AP Wirephoto Map) a candidate, for his attitude toward Goulart and his Communist-leaning regime. Littlez resistance to the new regime has appeared. Only one important independent newspaper Correio d Manha has consistently opposed it. The most important extreme leftist paper, Ultima Hora, has offered only token resistance. pick up about 20 more seats in Parliament enough to relieve pressure. Ilangaratne has nationalized properties of Shell, Esso, and Caltex oil firms, set up a state-owned Petroleum Corp., taken over British, Canadian, Indian and Ceylonese insurance firms, and imposed strict controls on British and India banks. Perera wants worker partici pation in management of state- owned industrial and commer cial firms that control cement production, transport, petroleum distribution and chemical and textile manufacturing. He wants state controls on export-import firms and firmer clampdowns on banks, with "concessions" to minorities, especially one million Tamils, who feel they are second-class citizens. The problems causing Mrs. Bandaranaike to swing left stem mainly from what one political expert calls Ceylon's desire to drink champagne on a beer economy. The Ceylonese for years, have yearned for the West's higher living standards. Education from kindergarten to university i3 free, medical treatment costs nothing, and train and bus trav el is subsidized. Nearly 18 per cent of the annual national budget of $450 million goes to lower the prices or consumer rice. Price supports pay farm ers more than the world rice price All this on a tea, rubber and coconut economy that is growing at a rate of about 0.8 per cent annually while the population gains 2.6 per cent. The welfare bill and salaries for top-heavy government ad ministrative sections leave lit tle money for capital invest ment and the hope of creating industries that anight raise the annual per capita income of $123.40. Heavy deficit financing has been in effect 10 years. Foreign exchange reserve has slipped until at times it is ade quate to cover just two months of imports. Ceylonese import hair their rice and almost ai their clothes Curbs on imports drastically reduced customs and tax revenues; strikes . reduced tea and rubber production, and tied up Colombo port so many times that foreign shipping lines imposed a surtax. The budget has been thrown almost hopelessly out of joint. Some projects such as road building have been al lowed to lapse as an economy measure. Further hampering Mrs. Bandaranaike are inefficiency and corruption in some state-owned ventures which report large financial losses. Westernized, English speaking intellectuals who run the government have been alienated by Mrs. Bandaranaike s move to make Sinhalese the official lan guage a move that grew from her attempts to widen her rural support. As matters now stand, Mrs. Bandaranaike has until July 10 the day Parliament recon venes to set up a coalition. If she cannot, her government will be in danger, By JOSEPH NOVITSKI Santa Teresa, Tolima, Colombia. (AP) Deep in the heart of this nation of majestic Andean peaks and fertile valleys the tough, well-trained Colombian army is fighting banditry and subversion. Rural violence has plagued Colombia more than 15 years The nation's armed forces, backed by U.S. aid and com manded by the war minister, Maj. Gen. Alberto Ruiz Novoa, have sworn to rid the country of the "bandoleros" the last rem na-nts of Colombia's 10 blood years of interparty warfare. Focal points of the campaign is the Lepartment (Mate) or Tolima, where "The Violence" as the undeclared civil war has come to be known has claimed some of its most sav age tolls. For the peasants of Tolima, La Violencia" flows along like the mighty Rio Magdalena in whose valley they till their crops of cotton, rice and soy beans. For them, and for the coffee and cattle-producing neighbors in Tolima's rugged, rainy mountains, the 1948-58 period is known simply as "The War." The sociology department of the National University has reported that 200,000 persons died before nationwide warfare ended offi cially with a political truce be tween the Liberal and Conserva tive parties in 1958. POWER VACUUM When the feuding factions made their peace Tolima emerged as a power vacuum. The new National Front regime governed only principal cities and towns, supported by the army and police. Heavily armed groups of bandoleros ruled the countryside. In the wildest areas self- styled "independent republics" some of distinct Communist flavor sprang up, run by war chiefs. Bandit chieftains, term- ; themselves political pro tectors of the peasants, waged war against the authorities un der flamboyant aliases like Black Blood" and "Sure Shot." A key government victory came during the week when mm Win a Sprite, the wonderful new lightweight by American Wheel Chair. It weighs only 23 lbs-, retails for $155.00. A certificate good for $5.00 on the purchase of a Sprite will be given to all who enter. Obtain an entry blank at your American Wheel Chair Dealer today. Contest ends May 31, 1964. it Mm0- SPRUCING UP FOR A CAMPAIGN A Colombian company commander gets a helping hand from one of his men as he shaves alongside his tent in the rugged mountain territory of the South American country. Colombia's armed forces are presently engaged in a struggle against banditry and subversion in the nation's rural areas. (AP Wirephoto) army forces trapped and shot down "Black Blood," an outlaw whose true name was Jacinto Cruz Usma. A $10,000 reward posted for Cruz went to his brother, Fe lipe Cruz Usma. Felipe said he went to authorities after Jacinto threatened to kill him and his family unless they supplied the gang with $2,000 in supplies. Communist party cards, guns, grenades and ammunition were found when 13 surviving gang members surrendered. In 19S2 the government de clared that the bandit leaders who had ignored earlier offers of general amnesty would have to be fousht on their The task of shaping up the op eration fell to Gen. Ruiz, a Korean war veteran. To win the Alamogordo AF Cadet Named To Merit List U.S. Air Force Academy, Colo. Cadet Michael O. Wheeler, son of Mr. and Mrs. Orvan H. Wheeler of Alamogordo, N.M., has beeen named to the superintendent's merit list for outstanding academic and military achievement at the Air Force Academy. He also has been selected for the position of squadron clerk with the rank of cadet staff ser- own geant. He is a graduate of Ala-! mogordo High School. peasants confidence and cut away their support of the ban doleros the armed forces began building roads and health centers, carrying doctors to isolated towns. The order went to the 6th Army Brigade m Tolima's capi tal, Ibague: "Carry the war to the bandits. Tolima must be pacified." HEAVY KILLINGS In 1962, 210 soldiers and 2,311 civilians died at the hands of bandoleros and 383 bandits were slain. A year later the civilian deaths were halved, and the bandit deaths almost doubled. Army casualties fell to 118. From Cth Brigade headquarters Col. Bernando Currea directs the counter-guerrilla operations by 4,200 men of seven battalions. Currea, a graduate of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff School at Ft. Leavenworth, Kan., gives his field commanders a free reign. He delivers orders to his staff, then telephones to Bogota to ask for four doctors to inaugurate a new health center. The seven battalions, each with a fixed zone of responsibility, cover an area of 53,957 square miles. In the wild mountains in the southwest corner of Tolima, spilling over into northern Huila, an "independent republic" is tightly controlled by armed bands totaling more than 300 men. Tribute is funneled into Mar-quetalia, in an inaccessible valley. DESCRIPTION GIVEN Seen from a helicopter hovering under fire, Marquetalia is a group of three houses and a corral by a small river. Densely overgrown mountains ri-se to 8,000 feet There are no roads. From the houses Communist guerrilla leader Isauro Yosa, 55, directs the operations of a younger leader called Marulan-da self-styled "Chief of the Forces of Order." "In this region, we control what is accessible," says Lt. Col. Valencia, 6th Brigade oper ations officer. "Where the roads stop, Marulanda takes over. Engineers, backed by a 1963 U.S. Agency for International Development loan of $546,000 matched by the Colombian .government, are cutting roads through the area. Troops hold advance strong points, building medical centers and markets to attract the peasants. When will the army go Into the mountains after the political bandoleros? Valencia smiles: "We're burn ing our bridges and our bandits one by one." m Enter the iSprite Contest at PARK BISHOP 413 N. MESA 532-7871 ok a. Two rich amethysts and "9 diamonds in swirled 14K gold setting. $89.95 b. 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