The Boston Globe from Boston, Massachusetts on March 12, 1905 · 60
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The Boston Globe from Boston, Massachusetts · 60

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Sunday, March 12, 1905
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60
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1Z THE BOSTON SUNDAY OLOBF-f ARCH 12, 1905. TO SAVE SHELLFISH I IN MASSACHUSETTS. . Vigorous Course of Action is Outlined by the StaJe Fish Commission, Vnder the Leadership of Its New Chief, Dr George W. Field, Scientist. Says the new commissioner: "The state up to the present time has adopted no general shellfish laws, but each year makes or unmakes laws to suit local tactions in the shore towns. This policy is wasteful of time and energy, and prevents adequate development and prosecution of the shell fisheries." Steps taken toward establishing a state lobster hatchery. In which the latest methods of aritficial propagation will be followed. flow clam flats may be made to pay more than farm lands, under proper state control. AN hour's talk with Pr Geirg W. Field, cluurman of lite board of fish and game commissioners of the stat of Massachusetts. Is worth week of readmit on the question or what Massachusetts needs to develop ji..r resources in shellfish. Dr Field has been chief of the flsh commission since December, and is now fairly embarked on undertaking which, when they mature, will put the state on a proper .md satisfactory footing in dealing w;th Its supply of sheiltlsh. Fishing has been g lng on for a century with very little restriction." fays Pr Field, and now we are feeling the drain, ami must do something to preserve wiiat is left us The state up to the present has adopted no general hellti.'-h laws, but ach year makes or Unmakes laws to su.t local factions in the shore towns. This policy is wasteful of time and energy, and prevents the adn,uate development anil prosecution of the shell fisheries." New brooms sweep tiean. and Dr Field s not only a new broom in the fish commission, but a new kind of broom as well, lie is the rlrst scientifically trainc i fish commissioner the state has had. He has studied marine life from boyhood, was trained in the best schools in the world, and has prepared himself for a career In sueii work as he now does for the state of Massachusetts. He represents a type of oJB. ial common In European countries, or in Jarmn, but rare in state employ in this country', where most appointments are made through political favor. His position to him is not merely a job. but a stepping-stone in his profession. Sine taking charge of the affairs of the fish commission. Dr Field has made a careful survey of conditions relating to the state Fisheries and has outlined aggressive reform work in the direction in which It is most needed, namely, in the preservation of lobsters and clams. "Do you expect to maintain the present supply of lobsters?'- Dr Field was asked In a recent interview. "That Is a hard question to answer." he replied with a smile. "We shall try. but we can make no predictions as to what our success will be. The laws relating to the illegal taking of lobsters are among the hardest laws in the state to enforce. Illegal fishing goes on in spite of everything that cau be done to Mop it. The commission's patrol boat. he Scooter, in charge of Deputy D. J. Killion. has been very active in pursuing illegal fishermen, and caused to be re- turned to the water upward of SOP.OOrt , short lobsters last year that would have j been brought to market otherwise. But J the law states that a cus cannot oe 1 made against a fisherman unless the lobsters are actually s. iied. and tho deputy may see a man dump overboard 10 bushels of shorts- without being able i to lodge a complaint against him. although the man may acknowledge that he has them all crated for shlptm nt to market." A State Lobster Hatchery. "What will be Jone by the state to ) propagate lobsters on its own account?" was asked. "We are preparing to establish n stare hatchery, to be operated on lines demonstrated to lie successful in artiuci.il . rulture of lobsters The latest met ho J ! of treating the newly-hatched lobsters, j that of kei ping the water In constant I notion, has passed beyond the stago ! of experim nt. and Is an assured sue- I .-ess. We shall employ it in a new I hatchery, which we hope may he estate- j lished. There is a bill now before the legislature, providing or the appro priation of money for the beginning or this work. "It is our purpose to taKe for our station a protected Ixniy of salt water having plenty of depth at low tide, it Is necessary to have protected water, pure from the ocean. It is our purpose to build there, either on piers or us a 1 ff3 SLeL Mf I these lobsters will eventually yield the artificially reared lobsters which we expect to put out in the waters of the state from the new stntion. "How many eggs does a looslcr produce? That depends on the age of the lobster. Tnere is evidcn e thai hrough-out its life a lobster produrcs in tho aggregate, as the sum ol its life's wrrk. not less than aOO.'-0 seed. CVM in he Mist lot. two years later. two years later, and so on until ao-'iit :.'01 have been produced, when th yield gradually decreases with old ase "It Is a blob gic.il f..ct that out of .t eggs proi'i'ced in the lifetime of a seed lobster, only on the average two lobsters come to maturity. The basis .. ..- .rr..rt . n I enltitre. there fore, is to save more than two out of jIO.isV Whatever we do above this Is clear gain, and the r.itio of lobsters secured by artiftciil propagation is far higher than the ratio reared in the natural state "The los of seed from tbe sale of lobsters W. Inches long in the mark-'ts Is very gnat." jald Dr Field. "The average length of lobsters sold is altout Inches, and ihe ego from t to 7 veil". A fennle lotvt.r has then produced not over eegn. e l.ieh. you will .-.-. 13 alout tTO.UM short of the normal number, fro-n whleh two mature lobsters, on an average, survive If the fisheries were to continue to kdl female lobsters at from 4 t-. 7 yrs of age. yon can see i There we would land without preserva tion of the adult .rt itie armiciai pio-pagation of their eggs.-" "Is the Massrtchusts hatchery to be Independent of tbe hatcheries at Woods Hole and Gloucester, conducted by the government 7" "Entirely so Thoe stations have done a great de il in cultivating lobster on this coast, but now that a new station is soon to be opened at Knothbav Harbor. Me. by the government many of the eggs previously supplied to the waters of Massachusetts from the stations here will le sent there To supply this deficiency in the number liberated on our coast, end Insure the return to Massachusetts waters of the fry hatched from Hie eggs taken In Massachusetts waters, will he the aim of the state hatchery. "I can hardly say definitely, offhand, but it must l-e through Intelligent legislation. The old laws must be renlaced by m w. The state should reserve the right to lease the flats to responsible partus under conditions that would insure their proper cultivation. A few years of protection, without promiscuous digging, would make Din flats extremely valuable, for the clam Is a rapid BP-wer. It needs only a year or a little m ro to become of marketable size, that is. from an inch to two inches in length. "The state could derive a comfortable income from its clam flats, and the business would be of great economic value to the people." said Dr Field. "An example of the returns to be had fiom intelligent cultivation of sheiltlsh may be cited in the experience of Khode Island. "When I became connected with the agricultural experiment station of that state I recommended that, after n study of the conditions, certain changes be made in Point Judith pond, a body of salt water laO) acres in extent, from which people had hauled away clams nnd oysters by the cartload until the supply was nearlv exhausted. The state appropriated K'.)0 for the work, and H2.C00 was obtained from town appropriations. After being improved and properly handled, the pond now produces an annual Income to the state and towns of SSA.ixo, whleh you will see Is a pretty goo I dividend on an original investment or fS.WiO. "This shows what Massachusetts Is throwing away, with her great areas nt flats allowed to go to waste as common property. They are like fertile land abandoned as ommon. for everybody's 1 at tie to run over, to the benefit of nols..l . except tin oor return that comes from perpetually grubbing at them. dr for th The Future of tne Clam. t'!i:it do you expect t. clam" " Hr Field was asked. "There is a good deal to lx !one. and we are as .-i considering ways and m .ins of beginning. The time has arrived when th state must take more effective steps to protect its claims and clams. It not generally realised that under proper cultivation from to IwW bushels of clams can be taken every year from an acre of flais. Willi clutiis Examples in Raising Shellfish. "This shows what they think of shell-Hs.i privileges in Japan." said Dr Field, taking a plan out of his desk. "Here is a chart of a harbor in Japan, showing .1 survey of helltish eoiucsstons. The unit for n concession Is only l." feet situare You 1 an see the chart is cut up into line lines showing the great uum-ber of concessions, hundreds of them, ami covering every square fool of harbor b low high water mark. "Kach plot is work d In the most ingenious manner. There i- a great rise and fall to the tide, and some of the pi its art terra' ed While on others branches of trees and slicks are put down for the oysters lo ling to. The Jai-aiic.se can show us a great ileal atout raising claim and oysters where the natural supply is no longer remembered "Tbe lime baa come." said Dr Field, POEMS YOU OUGHT TO KNOW. Whatever your occupation may be. and however crowded your hours with affairs, do not fall to secure at least a few minutes every day for refreshment of your Inner life with a bit of poetry. Prof Charles Eliot Norton. Ihk No. 1321. SV MY BIRTHDAY. . 1 m By JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER. Other selections from tbls sotbor. hl portrslt. satogrepb sod blornpblml sketrb. bire already been nrlst.d In this series. The authorised and copyright works of Wbittler are publlsbed by Uoufbton. Ulfflln tc Co. BMton and New Vork. ENEATH the moonlight and the snow Lies dead my latest year; The winter winds are walling low Its dirges In my ear. I grieve not with the moaning wind As if a loss befell ; .Before me. even as behind, God is, and all is well! His light shines on me from above. His low voice speaks within, The patience of immortal love Outwearing mortal sin. Not mindless of the growing years Of rare and Iofs and pain. My eyes are wei with thankful tears For blessings which remain. If dim the gold of life has grown, I will not count it dross. Nor turn from treasures still my own To sigh for lack and loss. The years no charm from nature take; As swwt her voices call. As beautiful hc-r mornings break, As fair her evenings fall. Jxive watches o'er ray quiet ways. Kind voices speak my name. And lips that find it hard to praise Are slow, at least, to blame. How softly ebb the tides of will! How fields, once lost or won. Now lie behind me green and still Beneath a level sun! How hushed the hiss of party hate, The clamor of the ihrong! How old. harsh voices of debato Flow into rhythmic song! Methinks the spirit's temper grows Too soft in this still air; Somewhat the restful heart foregoes Of needed watch and prayer. The bark by tempest vainly tossed May founder in the calm. And he who braved tho polar frost Faint by the isles of balm. Better than selMndulgent years The out flung heart of youth. Than pleasant songs in idle years The tumult of the truth. Rest for the weary hands is good. And love for hearts that pine, But let the manly habitude Of upright souls be mine. Let winds that blow from heaven refresh. Dear Lord, tbe languid air; And let the weakness of the flesh Thy strength of spirit share. And. if the eye must fail of light, The ear forget to hear. Make clearer still the spirit's sight. More fine the inward ear! Be near me in mine hours of need To soothe, or cheer, or warn. Aud down these slopes of sunset lead As up the hills of morn! Pueiua Yon Ch-clit I" Know" eanoot he tonght In hoi form. Tbe first poem ever print. -I undei that title In any puMh-atloa whatever appeared in the Hon! mi Sunday lilohc. July IV Mm. line Is printed eery Am. The separate works of most of the author- cao. f uure. he bought at all book (tore. J houseboat, a similar station to that em ployed by the state of Rhode Island at Wickford At this station it is our pur pose to Impound seed lobnterf. which are to be bought by the state from fishermen all along the coast. For this purpose. Siuoo was appropriated last year, and becomes available this year for the purchase and protection of adult lobsters. As soon as the ice is out of the harbors the commission' boat Egret will start out to collect the seed lobsters for purposes of propagation. The eggs from selling at from $1 to t- bushel this is a valuable crop. "The conditions in the state show how this great source of wealth is neglected. There are hundreds. I might say thousands, of acres of flats that under our present laws have been dug over so much that they yield scarcely a clam. Properly protected and cultivated, these fields might be made to yield a richer crop than any farm land in the state." "What methods do you propose for restoring the clam flats T' was asked. "wh'n we must turn from the old laws, which were based on a natural abundance of everything, and frame laws to meet conditions as they are. Iands ate no longer held In common, and It Is no longer economic Justice to the people that those tidal lands producing clams, or the oyster beds, should be so held either. The rights of towns could still be preserved under revised laws, and they could get more nut of their oyster beds and clam flats than now, but tbe state should have supervision of them." "Th laws la Connecticut and Rhode Island, where the states have taken control of the oyster beds formerly held by the towns 11s common property, have Worked well both for the states und the oyster bu-dncss. The little state of Rhode Island gets a rev nue of over JM.'ijit a yi ar out of Its oyster grounds, und the lieds are scientifically cured for and cultivated. In Connecticut, where the business ralsliiK oysters Is yearly growing important, anil yields an enor-revenue. practically ull the oys-I .in.lle.1 are art Itleiall V reared. Massachusetts could do the same thing, and make money at It." of ni-Ti mou teri Protection from Pollution. "What is the hoard doing to guard ngnlnst the sprad of disease through shellfish In polluted waters?" was asked. "That is another subject that Is dally growing more important.'- said Dr Field. "We want to carry on a campaign of education, nnd shall also enforce the state laws rigidly. The state board of health has authority to forbid the taking of shellfish in polluted areas. This has been done, for example, in New Bedford harbor, where a deBnlte region has been marked off. and fishing for any kind of ehellfuih therein forbidden. The same thing will be done tn other places If need arises. "Are shellfish In waters near a city generally dangerous?" "If there is sewage entering the water, yes. The bacillus characteristic Jf sewage pollution may remain alive In a clam some days after it Is eaten by the clam, and it is an active source of danger during that time. The chances of this transmitting typhoid fever, though remote, are still positive, as many cases of typhoid have been traced to shellfish. No one should take chances tn eating shellfish that do not como from pure water." Dr Field's Training. Dr Field enters into his work with the enthusiasm of the expert. He has been studying oysters, rami and many other sea products for more than 30 years. Borr? In North Brtdgewater. and receiving hu early education in Brockton, he graduated at Brown university In 1SMT. with the degree of AB. Pond of the seashore from boyhood, his pref- rence in study was biology, and after his graduation at Brown he entered Johns Hopkins to study invertebrates under Prof W. K. Brooks, the famous authority. While at Johns Hopkins he served as assistant at tho Woods Hole biological station, and was also on the biological survey of the island of Jamaica. Uraduuting at Johns Hopkins In 1S92. he received his doctor s degree, was ap point-d to the Hmithsonl.m table at the fnmous Nnples aquarium, where for a year he studied marine forms, methods of oyster culture, and the economic side of the production of marine foods. In 1903 he studied nt the university of Munich, and returned to this country to become associate professor of biology at Brown. Here he remained for four yeurs. Prom 1896 to 1900 he was biologist for the Rhode Island agricultural experiment station, with special charge of rehiibllltatlnx the clam and oyster Industries In southern Rhode Island. In 1900 he enme to the Massachusetts Institute of technology as a leeturer on economic biology. He next becamo an Instructor at the institute, und In 19K? became biologist to the state lis h. and game commission. He was appointed to the board of 1 ommlssloners on the death of Cupt Joseph VV. Collins, the chairman. Planting Rosea in tne Spring. Roses may be planted either in the fall or spring, although I prefer the latter. There Is less danger of a severe winter cutting back the shoots, or of alternate freezing and thawing exposing the unestabltshed roots. April and May are the best months for plunting. The beds should be protected from the northwest winds, and have a southern or an eastern slope, if possible. It Is a good plan to have the hybrid roses on the east side of a fence, and the hardier and more free-growing to cover the fence Itself. Rosea that are to be grown for the perfection of tholr bloom should never be in close proa unity to a buUdiug or trees. tiuburbun Ufa, MAKING NEW FLOWERS. FASCINATION OF CROSS-FERTILIZATION. Peter Fisher of Ellis, a Part of Norwood, a Most Successful Cultivator of the "Divine" Carnation, Says Even a Blue Variety is Only a Question of Time Under an Acre of Glass He Grows Thousands of Plants. T HP hybridization of flowers is the llower growers fad. It is the fun. the relaxation from the daily drudge and routine of his business. It fills his life with hope. The anticipation, the expectancy of producing some grand improvement over existing varieties, tne eiemeni. m o attractive to all humanity; everything about It tends to lend a fascination wcllnlgh irresistible, once the acute mind has entered the vast field of cross-fertilization. It is a science as well, and when carried to Its highest plane produces its geniuses, who in their turn bring forth tho wonders, the marvels of the fiori-cultural world. Luck may favor the chance artist, who. without any particular thought or reason, crosses two flowers. "Just f"r fun." but it Is to the careful, thoughtful, painstaking hybridist that we owe the present high slandurd of the excellence of nearly all of our so-called florists' flowers. The operation in itself is very simple, consisting in transferring the pollen generally by means of a camel-hair brush, from the male parent, and placing It on the stigmatic surface of the flower of the female or seed bearer, but the art. the forerunner of success, lies in the selection of the varieties to be crossed, possessing separately the qualities it is desired to combine and perpetuate. For example, a flower of good form, but defective In color, is perhaps, crossed with nncther Which is faulty in shape, but of a novel and desirable shade: a weakly growing variety of good habit may be used with effect in combination with a stronger grower lacking the particular qualities present In the former. Greater Boston claims as a resident one of the most successful hybridists of the day in Peter Fisher of Ellis, a part of the town of Norwood, who for many years has hi en : most successful cultivator of the "divine" carnation, as the rinks of a few years ago are now designated, and who has reached the highest plnnaele of success, both as a grower and hybridist of this roost popular flower. Mr Fisher itas been known for many years among the growers and retailers of cut flowers in this vicinity as a producer of tin- highest grade of carnations, his specialty, and the originator of some valuable acquisitions to existing varieties, but it wus not until four or live years ago. through the produc tion and dissemination of tbe beautiful Mrs Thomas W. Law son variety that his name became famous throughout the county. This variety, owing to it sensational advertising, as well as Its previously unequaled degree of excellence, created Intense Interest outside as well as Inside of the profession. That- was by no means the first or the last of Mr Fisher's grand accomplishments in his chosen field. His establishment is located in the center of the town of Ellis, and consists of eight greenhouses, containing 40.000 square feet, or very' nearly an acre of glass, devoted entirely to carnations and almost exclusively to varieties which he has himself originated. These houses, as well as their contents, are models of perfection In the horticultural art. and are as clean and neat as a drawing room, the healthy condition of the plants and high state of perfection of the crop evidencing the perfect surroundings with which they are associated. The proprietor is a very busy man. His days are spent working in his greenhouses, directing his numerous assistants, gathering, sorting and packing the flowers, entertaining carnation specialists from all points of the United States and Canada, and attending to the many details incident to the business. His evenings are devoted to his correspondence, which is large. "Yes." he said recently to a Globe writer, "the carnation has made w-on-derful strides in recent years, both in the quality and size of flower as well as in the estimation of the public. Yet we are only beginning and bigger surprises are in store to be opened up to the world in the next few years than have been seen in the past. "There seems no limit to what can be done by hybridizing, either as to the size of the bloom or its coloring. Even the blue carnation is only a question of J time. Here, for example, is a seedling showing blue variegations and we have had two true blue seedlings, but both were weak and died in the field. But it Is sure to come. "The standard of perfection Is annually being raised by the Introduction of Improvements, and varieties tnearur-Ing four and one-half Inches in diameter are well established facts, the standard for-sise having doubled within a few years. Even larger flowering sorts have been produced, but wer.-disqualifled by some imperfactlon. such as a weak stem, burtsing of the calyx. t-eecs or a meager production of blossonss which make them unprofitable. "There are hundreds or thousands of named varieties of carnations, but ihc-st of superior quality may be counted on the fingers of both hands, while bu: dm hand would be necessary to enumerate those of the highest quality, and these are liable to be supercecc-d at any ume, thus being forced into the second class. "We are constantly experimenting. Here are thousands of little plants just coming out or the ground from oroduced by what we consider crosses, that is. crosses of two varieties, combinging points which are l.a.-ile to show improvements on existing varitues. These will bloom in the field next sum mer or later in the houses, and the in ferior ones are immediately called out as their characteristics appear. This season we have bloomed and are blooming three thousand new varieties wh:cti have, never flowered before. After tiia customary elimination we shaH probably save a dozen, considered worthy of a farther test. There may be 1CC. as it is surrounded by chance, but a cozen ia the more likely number. "It is a mystery Where all the carnations go to. We grow annually aoout 30.000 plants, which will average to produce 20 to 3. and with some varieties more, hish-grade flowers during tea season. These are all shipped to B-ton. and our output la but a drop ia tna, bucket. "We propagate each spring about SC. 000 carnations and ship the rooted cuttings to growers in other sections wno desire to obtain the new van-, ties. ' Mr Fisher came to America ?"on Crnll-jnil nhnill IIHII II aCO j-IJ O3 since to which Though always having been tuo gieenhouse business it was rKt until about 12 years ago that he turned cut thoughts to cross-fertilization. A few years ago there wa? organized the American carnation socn ty, an auxiliary branch of the society of American florists and ornamental horticulturists, which, as its name implies. Is devoted to the interests ami i.J.ince-roent of the carnation. This f. includes in Its membership all the principal carnation experts of the country, and holds an annual meeting in on of the floricultural centers In January the meeting for IS06 was held in c r. as-' . ai Which Mr Fisher was elected president of the organization for the n.-ui:ig year, and Boston selected as the meeting place for 130b. 1.1 i . ..... rn resided in the Y'icioltV of Boston, hich city he Is much attached. POND IN BOSTON THAT NEVER FREEZES. 1 " Wjt.r. -J WILLOW POND IN OLMSTED PARK. H There in no more remarkable spot In its modest way. even at this season of the year, when winter has robbed the landscape of much of Its charm, than Willow pond, one of tbe smaller tributaries pf 1 ett pond. Situated some tittle distance from Jamalcaway in what la designated Olmstead park. It has few visitors and Its natural beauty Is to a reil degree uju&arrad. Opposite, on a alight rise of ground, is the New England hospital for women. Tbe extreme length of the pond is hardly more than 100 feet, while its width will probably ttiegceed SO feet, lta depth is not grcft. for a pole 7 feet long would reach bottom at any place, but the water Is of such surprising clearness that objects many yards dis tant are aurrMsd s its ixajftaftg with all the fidelity of an excellent piw tograph. . Whde the other oonds are iceboUB Willow pond is never frozen, probably fed by springs. . A tiny, but industrious waterfall rles the water through a chain of tl It pouda to Lavcreu .1 1

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