The Boston Globe from Boston, Massachusetts on August 8, 1872 · 4
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The Boston Globe from Boston, Massachusetts · 4

Boston, Massachusetts
Issue Date:
Thursday, August 8, 1872
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.8 fusion gailg (Sbk: ffiljurstmn gbnihrg, ' August g, 1872, Boston: gailir (Skbe, THURSDAY MORNING, AUGUST 8. AMUSEMENTS THIS DAY AND EVENING. GLOBE THEATRE Washington street, cor. Essex Humpty-Dumpty. 8 o'clock. BOSTON ATHENAEUM Beacon street. Paintings, 8tatuary. Italian and German Chronio-Lithographs, c. DR. JOURDATN'S GALLERY OF ANATOMY 397 Washington Street, op. Hayward PI. Day and Evening. THE BOSTON DAILY GLOBE is published every morning except Sunday, at 91 Washington Street, Boston. Subscription price $12 per annum, in advance, to city subscribers; by mail, $10 per year, or $1 per month for shorter time. Single copies four Cbnts each, to be had ol carriers or periodical dealers in town or country. Address Tas Globs Publishing Company, Boston, Mass. THE NEWS The columns of Thi Globe will contain the fullest and most complete synopsis of local 'and foreign news. Our special telegraphic and local reports being nearly all exclusive and of the most comprehensive character. CORRESPONDENCE We shall be pleased to receive letters from all parts of the world, at home and abroad, from persons competent to write for the press, giving us truthful descriptions of people and places, with timely news; and for such communications we will pay. If worthy of publication. ADVERTISING TERMS Ordinary advertisements 12Ji cents per line, first insertion, afterwards 6" cents per line. BtrsiKESS Notices, before editorials, 80 cents per line, each insertion. Special Notices, on fifth page, 20 cents per line, each insertion. First, Fifth and Eighth pages, 12 cents per hue, each insertion. R hading Notices on last page, 50 cents per line. (Agate measure.) PERIODICAL DEALERS throughout New England, or elsewhere, desiring to procure this paper regularly, by earliest despatch, can do so by sending their orders directly to the New England News Company, No. 41 Court Street, Boston, who will furnish The Globe promptly, and at the publishers' price. -SUBSCRIBERS Persons desiring to have THE DAILY Globe left regularly at their houses In the city, can receive it every morning by leaving their names at our counting room, 92 Washington Street, either as yearly, monthly, or quarterly subscribers. TO CONTRIBUTORS We cannot pay any attention to anonymous communications; every article must be accompanied by. the writer's true name and address for our own security. We cannot possibly return rejected manuscripts. SUMMER CHANGES Any of our readers who may desire to have The Globe mailed to their address out of town during the summer months, can be accommodated by leaving their names at our office of publication. Silver Lands for sale. Peruvian Syrup, for Dyspepsia. Burnett's Cocoaine beautifies the Hair, The choicest article in use in families is the famous Halford Leicestershire Table Sauce. Do not purchase anything of the sauce kind but that, if you wish your meats to be made more palatable. For sale by all good grocers. NEWS IN BRIEF. The recent rains are said to have almost ruined the watermelon crop in Tennessee. The Governor of South Carolina has pardoned a negro murderess who was sentenced to be hung. John Boshart, a farmer, residing near Fonda, 2J. Y., committed suicide by hanging on Tuesday. . A despatch from Halifax announces that Sir Hugh Allan has bought the Londonderry iron mines for 8250,000. Bafferty, the murderer of Police Officer Omeara in Chicago, was arrested Monday evening in the town of Laniont, 111. During the year ending July 31, there were 1702 small-pox patients admitted to the small-pox hospital in Brooklyn. Last week, during a storm at Opelika, Ala., the lightning struck and killed a lady. A three-weeks Old child in her arms was uninjured. Dealers in timber and turpentine near Fayette- vll'.e, K. C, say the business is very profitable this year. A man was murdered on the levee at New Orleans on the 31st ult., and his body thrown into the river. Two Floridians who were gathering sponge on the coast were recently attacked by a shark, and one of them was dragged beneath the water and drowned. Nicholas C. Sennott, a prosperous merchant of Chicago previous to the fire, but who was ruined by that calamity, committed suicide on Tuesday by shooting. The Stadt Theatre the only German theatre in New York is to be sold by auction to-day, at the Exchange salesrooms, under an order of the Supreme Court. A conference of Sunday-school officers and teachers of Richmond, Va., has been held, and it was decided .that Sunday-school picnics do more harm than good. A bank of excellent meerschaum clay has been di -covered in Southern California, and workmen are to be imported from Europe to manufacture the .same into pipes, etc. . All is now quiet in Pope county, Ark., and reports from there say that the course of government officials in the matter has amply asserted and maintained the dignity of the law. Advices from Fort Garry to the 3d inst. state that the Indians are receiving the government bounty of wagons, clothes, ploughs, etc. The wagons are worth $150, and the Indians sell them for 850 or $75. The citizens of Salt Lake City are signing a call for a public meeting In the cause of free speech. The meeting will be held in front of the Salt Lake House next Saturday night. A Warrenton, Va., despatch says there has been no meeting between Col. Mosby and Dr. Withers, and a duel is not expected. Col. Mosby has gono to Jordan Springs, and Dr. Withers is attending to his business in Warrenton. Responses received in Pittsburg from all parts of the country indicate that the Soldiers and Sailors' Convention will be one of the largest ever held In the country. Ample arrangements will be made to accommodate all who may attend. It is probable that five hundred thousand dollars will be paid the internal revenue collector as tax on tobacco made in Richmond, Va., during the month of July. Already the amount paid in largely exceeds four bur dr-jd thousand dollars. At Ottawa, 111., an old-time toper named Stack died from a draught of bed-bug poison which he had discovered hidden in a bottle under the jail steps. He drank quickly and heartily, not finding a free Lottie every day. Horace Meyers, one of the editors of the Mining Journal, was assaulted in the street at Salt Lake City, cn Monday night, by the Mormon reporters of the Gentile press, and was denied access to the records of the Police Court. The Georgia Central Railroad Company have offered a reward of one thousand dollars for the apprehension, with proof to convict, of the person or jiersons who cut and misplaced the switch, three miles from Savannah, thereby throwing a train from the track. A Helena, Mon., despatch states that Lewis and Clarke counties give Maginnis, Democrat, 170 majority, and Chateau gives him 40 majority. Madison and Deer Lodge counties are very close and claimed by both parties. Maginnis is still ahead throughout the Territory. A Rochester man returning home late the other night, suddenly ran against a man in the parlor. Supposing him to be a burglar, he gave him a sound thrashing and dragged him to the street to surrender his prisoner to the police. The man, however, turned out to be a sweetheart of the hired girl. Two brothers named Peter and Matthew George were HmotSered in Newcomb's coal mine at Newbury, Ind., by choke-damp. Matthew was smothered in attempting to save his brother, and two other persons, in attempting to save them, came near losing their lives. The body of a Texas man who was known to have killed two Mexican cattle-thieves wa3 recently found hanging to a tree a short distance from his house. His body was shockingly mutilated, and a Mexican knife found near by proved conclusively who were the perpetrators of the deed. Jacob Sleight of Roslyn, Long Island, is a painter. He quarrelled with his workman, Robert Smith, on Monday last, when the latter discharged a revolver at his employer four times, the last charge lodging in Sleight's head. The wound, it is supposed, Is not fatal -The trustees of Cornell University have male arrangements for a course of lectures the coming fall term by James Anthony Froude, the endnent English historian. Two new professors are to be attached to the College of Literature, and another to the College of Chemistry and Physics. The Secretary of the Interior on the 3d inst. apt roved of the acceptance by the Cherokee nation of the provisions of the act of May 11, 1872, for the disposal of the Cherokee strip, so called, in Kansas, and directed the commissioner of the general land office to prepare the necessary instructions for carrying the law into effect. Regulations for the guidance of the district officers at Independence and Wicheta are now being prepared and will be promulgated at once for that purpose. At Trenton, on Tuesday, Luke Willis, a blind man, and his wife quarrelled. He left home, and on Perry street bridge she caught him. They scuffled, and she was wounded in the front part of the leg, an artery being severed, from the result of which she bled profusely. Medical aid was procured, but she was pulseless from the loss of blood and died a short time after the physician arrived. There is considerable commotion in certain quarters of the city respecting the alleged murder by the blind man. THE SITUATION. Our latest advices from Kortb. Carolina leave no further doubt as to the result of the election in that State. One fact, however, is significant: When the polls closed on Thursday, the statement was telegraphed over the country that the Democratic majority was at least ten thousand, and some of the specials to Democratic papers ventured to set it some hundreds higher. The next day's telegrams were still fraught with hope and confidence for the Democrats, although the stated majority was reduced by a few hundreds. Another day passed, and still, with triumphant exclamations, the opposers of the administration pointed to the printed reports of victory, though they were forced to confess that the figures denoting the majority had dropped off to half the amount originally claimed. And so the reduction has kept on from day to day, until now, one week after the election, the Democrats announce that the "State is in doubt" It has been evident from the outset, despite the statement of certain party leaders to the contrary, that the result in North Carolina could have no important influence on the national campaign. A certain amount of influence in deciding the action of a few doubtful voters in some sections would probably be seen ; but the issues in the State were made up long before the voters of the country became divided on the present question of a successor to President Grant; the vote, therefore, could not properly be considered a test of the feeling of the State on the Presidential issue. As already intimated, however, some of the leaders in both parties have endeavored to make it appear that, iu a certain sense at least, the success or defeat of the Republican party hinged on the result in the Old North State. Even Senator Wilson gave much prominence to this idea, and the anti-Admin-istrationists on the other hand have used this theory to urge their friends in North Carolina to turn out to the polls and attempt to win "a victory that should decide the fate of Grant." Accepting a rational view of the case, based on the facts already mentioned, it is evident that, while the victorious party in this election will doubtless attempt to make capital out of its triumph, the result of the national contest will to no important extent be determined or influenced by the official returns from North Carolina. In other States, however, where elections are to take place before the contest in November, the issues are so marked that the results cannot fail to have an important bearing on the national vote. Especially are the eyes and thoughts of the nation turning toward the preparations now going on in Maine. It is a pet sentiment of the down-east people, that: "As goes Maine, so goes the Union." The election there will take place on the 9th of September, and the time between now and that date will probably witness the liveliest canvass ever known in that section. Already the most influential speakers are announced as on the programme of oratorical efforts to be made in behalf of either party. Gen. Kilpatrick, in behalf of the Greeley-ites, has already performed his part in the political drama in the Pine Tree State by denouncing and slandering better men than himself, and suing one or two newspapers for libel. Our special despatches from Portland, published this morning, announce that Sumner, Schurz, Tipton, and other leaders of the Democracy, will follow, and attempt to show the beauties of the new process of political affiliation. Secretary Boutwell and Speaker Blaine rendered good service to the cause of progress and political reform in their addresses at Portland last night; and it is not probable that the friends of the administration will fail to meet their opponents with other able champions and popular demonstrations in favor of the principles represented by President Grant, for whom the State gave a majority in 1SCS of over twenty-eight thousand votes. SUDDEN CONVERSIONS. One of the most noticeable features of the coalition is the suddenness with which its hitherto antagonistic members have discovered traits in each other's characters' and policy which they never saw before. Comparing their past and present estimates it would seem that they had been groping in outer darkness, until the compound laws of the coalition had enabled them to behold what was concealed from them by the smoked-glass of political hostility. There was a time when sudden and entire change in the views of a pronounced antagonist would have been considered conclusive evidence of imbecility or fraud. When avowed political opponents are turned into the most fervent of friends, there is ground for suspicion that something is wrong, either in their intellects or their principles. Prudent men may well doubt the sincerity of an attachment which is of such rapid growth as to set at naught all preconceived ideas of political consistency. They question the value of these hasty conversions, for a man who has once changed will be likely to change again, and the deserter of old friends can never inspire confidence in the new. Sudden conversions prove one of two things either that their subject is unbalanced in his mind, or unsteady in his character. If his previous judgment has been always at fault, his new opinions are valueless; if his convictions are sacrificed to his interest, he can have no claim to respect or toleration. Applying these well settled principles of political ethics to the present state of parties, two things are obvious: One is that Greeley and Sumner have either been fighting windmills all their lives, and now, seeing the folly of it, are eager to settle with the miller for damage done to his property, or they have been bought off by him with a promised interest in the peculiar kind of grist which suits their respective tastes. It is not necessary to assume that they have been consciously bribed, or that they fully realize the nature of the influences which are warping their judgments and misleading their conduct. It is the characteristic of a weak scn-tinientalisrn, like that of Greeley, to be unable to distinguish between a genuine and a counterfeit integrity, so that his so-called honesty is that most dangerous form of iwliti-cal weakness which consists in being perpetually cheated. When we are asked to dimify his unsteadiness with the name of virtue we recall the words with which a great satirist indignantly denounced the qualities that had involved a nation in dishonor: "Curse on his virtues; they've undone his country." The example of Charles Sumner shows that an overmastering prejudice cannot only blind a man to the merits of an opponent, but to the interests of the people of whom he has been an earnest though of ten an unwise champion. It is easy to be magnanimous when a man sees his enemies crouching at his feet, but the generosity that sacrifices the welfare of toiling millions to the behests of political opponents whose recent action gives the lie to their present professions, is of a piece with the personal hatred that blocks the wheels of public welfare. It is not necessary to dwell on the conversion of Gen. Banks, though its suddenness would have startled any one not familiar with the political antecedents of its distinguished subject. As be has not seen fit to promulgate the reasons for his new departure, it would be useless to speculate upon them or to attempt to reconcile his very recent endorsement of the present administration with the latest oracular utterances which contradict it. In despair of being able to fathom the recesses of his inner consciousness, and to evolve from them the political camels which are to carry him across the desert, we can only recall the significant language of the Biglow Papers: "General is a dreffle smart man. He's been on all sides that give places and pelf. But consistency still is a part of his plan. He has been true to one party and that is himself." Passing from the example of individuals whose sudden conversions are applicable on the grounds of individual idiosyncracies, it is not so surprising that parties should, to a great extent, be controlled by the wayward counsels of their representatives and organs. This is especially true of the Democratic party, which has so long since ceased to have vitality of principle that it has been nothing but a drag on the wheels of progress, and has encouraged a spirit of resistance to needful reforms without daring to openly identify itself with the outrages which were perpetrated with its connivance. The lukewarm-ness with which its leading organs, like the World, have sustained Greeley, shows that even they find it hard to swallow the unwelcome dose which was forced upon them by the Baltimore Convention. The truth is that the primary cause of these sudden conversions is those private quarrels which have so often created divisions in a great and successful party. Such intestine feuds are as old as history. They have disturbed many administrations in this country, and have blighted many ambitious hopes and fair reputations. In fact, one of the principal causes, that led the Republican party into power was the division in their opponents' camp. The difference, however, between those dissensions in the dominant party and the present, is that the bolters then contended for a principle around which all patriots rallied. These latter-day feuds are like those which Greeley and Chase instigated against Lincoln, which failed, as these will fail, because they lacked the cohesive force of prin-0le, and were impelled only by personal antagonism and a narrow self-interest. POSTAL TELEGRAPHY. The frequent and earnest public complaints against the high rates and limited accommodation of telegraph companies long since aroused the attention of those in authority in the national government, and have led to various efforts to remedy the evil. The right of Congress to incorporate the telegraph system as a part of the po3t-oflice establishment, doesn't admit of a doubt, and there is a growing sentiment throughout the country in favor of this important change. Six years ago Congress took the preliminary steps toward this great reform by the enactment of a law bringing all telegraph lines which extend over mail routes under the control of the government in certain particulars, and providing a mode for the acquisition of Buch lines by the government at any time after July 24th, 1871. In furtherance of the plan thus marked out, the Postmaster General, in bis last report to Congress, recommended the passage of a law for incorporating the telegraph system into the postal establishment of the country. This recommendation was opposed with great vigor by parties interested in maintaining the telegraph business as a private monopoly, as it now is. The Western Union Telegraph Company, which, by the statement of its official circular, "possesses almost amonopoly of the vast telegraphic business of the United States," made itself very active and effective in this opposition, although the extortionary course of that company towards the government was one of the strongest incentives for immediate action. All kinds of arguments were brought to bear upon the members of Congress; such as the immense expense in which the project would involve the government, the danger of centralization, the abuse and opposition which might be practiced through the postal telegraph, and the great danger of such a vast government monopoly. The result of all this intangible moonshine was, that the committee to whom the subject was referred finally fixed upon a plan for incorporating a private company to carry on the postal telegraph business, and reported a bill to that effect. The bill was lost at the last of the session, and it is perhaps quite as well that it did not pass in the shape in which it was reported. The attempt to kill one monopoly by creating another is a very unwise policy, and it is especially objectionable to farm out so important a branch of public business as the conduct and management of postal communication to any private body, whether a corporation or an individual. Corporations work to make money solely, and aim to get the largest possible amount for the least possible service. Government, on the other hand, works for the greatest good of the people, and the accumulation of money is a secondary consideration, if the public welfare is promoted. The telegraph would be no more a monopoly in the hands of the government than the post-office department is, or the army, navy or courts of justice. As to expense, it can construct and operate lines as cheaply as any overgrown corporation, and facts developed in the working of the English postal lines show that the service is now rendered at one-half the charge which the companies formerly made to the public. It has been supposed by the possessors of the present monopoly that they can compel the government to pay them an enormous price for their property in case the United States assumes the telegraph business as a part of the post-office service. Thus the Western Union company say, in the circular mentioned above, that, whenever the government desires to avail itself of the power to purchase from this company, "it must result in the company receiving a very large sum for the surrender of its privileges and its highly profitable and progressive undertaking." But we think the monopolists will find that the class of damages for which they thus propose to claim compensation will be found by the arbitrator to be too indirect and consequential to be the subject of an award. The government may either build its own lines or buy the property of the present companies; but it is a great mistake to suppose that it will pay a great pi ice for a franchise which belongs to the public and cannot be alienated. As to the success of the postal telegraph in Europe, and especially in Great Britain, there have recently been some very erroneous statements in the papers, calculated to make the public believe that the project was am. entire failure so far as pecuniary results are concerned. But the correct statement of the case shows that in Great Britain, Russia, Norway and Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Bavaria, Switzerland, Italy and Turkey, the government postal telegraph system is self-sustaining and a source of income to the State. The only European countries in which the change has been made where the revenue is less than the expenses, are Holland, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Hungary, and Rouma-nia. In Great Britain the success, both pecuniarily and in increase of public accommodation, has been most remarkable, and is steadily progressing. There are at present 180,000 miles of wires in the United Kingdom, and during the last fiscal year ending April SO, 1872, the receipts were 755,000, and the expenses 420,000, showing a net revenue to the government of 355,000, ojc nearly fifty-five rer cent, of the receipts. The weekly average of messages sent in 1871 was about 220,000, and in 1872 the average increased to about 284,000, showing a very large and steady increase in the business. With the example of England before us, the United States government should not longer delay to inaugurate this great reform, and thus give the people cheap and expeditious intercommunication. The benefit to be derived from postal telegraphy would fall equally upon all, the rich and the poor, the high and the low, the laborer and the capitalist, the merchant, the trader, and the mechanic. It would be a new and improved adaptation of the great blessing of the post-office system, and a happy enfranchisement for many from the extortionary grasp of monopoly. THE NATION'S PERIL. One politician, at least, has found time to refer to what he very properly designates " the greatest peril of the nation," viz. : the foreign indebtedness of the United States. In his speech before his neighbors, the other day, Vice-President Colfax digressed to say that the greatest peril to our nation is not our political divisions and controversies, but it is recklessly running in debt abroad. He believed so much in the old-fashioned doctrine of living within one's means, that he looked with alarm on the fact that more than 81,000,000,000 of national, State, city, and railroad bonds are held abroad, to be paid by us, principal and interest, in American gold. The first half year of 1872 we shipped abroad 853,000,-(iCO of gold that ought to have been kept at home; the last week in July the amount was increased by nearly $5,000,000. In this very month of August 850,000,000 of debt for foreign railroad irou falls due, and $20,000,000 are expected as duties in this one month at New York alone, which, at the reduced tariff, averaging thirty-six per cent., represents nearly Sfi0,000,000 of foreign goods in one month ertering into consumption in this country, all to be paid for at some time and in some way. This last amount is of course increased by the fact that some cargoes of goods have waited till the reduced tariff operates; but, if financial panic should occur in Europe, if war should bring our nation into its vortex, if our bonds should bo sent back for conversion into gold, there would be a panic in the country and great distress. The Globe has already referred to the same subject at considerable length, and showed the tyranny of foreign capital as affecting the United States. In this connection it is apropos to state that not until our mercantile marine is placed upon its old basis will both the American farmer and American merchant be relieved from this tyranny. As showing how no small amount of our money is being absorbed, systematically by foreigners, the following fact a fine point upon a vital question is put forth by a California paper: It says that in that State a million acres are devoted this year to the growth of wheat, for which the farmers will receive alout 15,-COO.Ot), out of which must come the cost of raising and the expense of forwarding the crop to San Francisco. Hut the ship-owners receive 13,000,000 for carrying the wheat to a foreign market, the value of the crop being nearly doubled by the time it reaches the consumer. If the freights were less exorbitant, the wheat-growers could, of course, demand a higher price from the shippers; and if the grain were exported in American vessels, the large profits of the ship-owners would be kept in the country, even if they were not shared with the producers. But foreign vessel-owners bave the wheat-growers at their mercy. The freights from San Francisco this year are nearly forty per cent, higher than they were last year, the increase in the profit of the shippers coming directly out of the pockets of the consumers. The remedy is apparent, but it is difficult of application. THE CANADIAN COPYRIGHT. Our reader who are at all interested in Dominion affairs will remember the very acrid discussion in the Canadian newspapers and Parliament, last spring, of the provincial copyright bill; and the subsequent passage of the Fame. The fight was very eagerly watched by the publi.iers both of the United States atd England, for the passage of the bill would militate seriously against the profits heretofore realized on the international lKok trade. The main features of this bill were the exclusion of American reprints of English works, and the levying of an excise duty of fifteen per cent, on Canadian publishers for the benefit of the British author. The act was passed by both branches, but, as it was known to be in contravention of the act of 1847, it was reserved for the consideration of the queen. The imperial act just mentioned, was originally framed in 1842. According to its provisions the author's copyright covered not only the mother country but the colonies as well. In 1847 the law was modified so as to admit American reprints of British works into Canada on payment of a customs duty of 12 1-2 per cent., the proceeds of which wero to be handed over by our government to the British authors. Owing to a variety of circumstances, however, this amount was scarcely ever collected, American reprints of British books were practically free, the British author was cheated out of his rights, and during this time the imperial act prevented any Canadian from undertaking the work of republication without paying more for leave to do so than he could afford if he was to compete with the American publisher. The present bill was introduced to remedy this abuse, and would probably have succeeded in doing to had it been legally enacted. The Dominion government has just been informed by cable that "the Canadian copyright act will be vetoed, because inconsistent with imperial legislation; if reenacted by the Canadian Parliament, it will be accepted, and the imperial law altered in harmony with it." Although practically settled, the question must now wait until the new Parliament meets at Ottawa before it can bo legally and properly disposed of. Substantial just ice will be done, loth to the authors and publishers of the mother country and to Canadian publishers as well, although the publishers of English reprints on this side tho line will have no reason to rejoice over the result. THE NEW RAILROAD ERA. In a late number the. .Philadelphia North American discusses what it calls "The Coming New Era in Railroads," taking the ground that tlie problem now before the country in the way of transportation is to construct a main through line of railroad from ocean to ocean, from every leading point on the Atlantic sea-board, each touching in its course all the important districts of the interior. The complete success of the Union Pacific and the Kansas Pacific have already developed the truly American talent for vast enterprises, and the view taken by the author of the article alluded to is not an unreasonable one. Fifty years hence the whole of what is now an immense wilderness will more than likely be covered with a complete network of rails, as intricate as that which now covers the surface of New England or Ohio. Beside the two roads already built, the Northern Pacific is nearly half completed and the Atlantic and Pacific road will be commenced next season. A swarm of others are pushing rapidly westward, among them the Atchison and Pike's Peak, the Atchison and Colorado, the Leavenworth and Denver Narrow Gauge, the Southern Pacific, and several yet in embryo designed to run from the Missouri river to points in New Mexico. This side of the Mississippi the different east and west lines can hardly be estimated. The competition for through trade on these lines is destined to become as great as that between the Northwest and the Atlantic ports, and, though several of them will make San Francisco their objective point, others will strike at points either north or south, and cause the rapid development of old or the creation of new comnu ial cities. The terminus of the Southern Pacific will probably be San Diego, in the extreme southern point of the State, several hundred miles south of San Francisco, and one of tho most available ports for the Chinese and Japanese trade which could possibly be had. The terminus of the Northern Pacific has been fixed at Puget Sound, the distance of that locality from Asia being less than from San Francisco. From Puget Sound, according to the authority quoted, to the Amoor river is about four thousand five hundred miles; to Hako-dedi, Japan, direct, four thousand eight hundred miles; and to Shanghae, China, five thousand seven hundred and sixteen miles. From Hong Kong to San Francisco is six thousand two hundred miles. The distances to Japan are about the same by both routes. But to all the northern parts of Asia the Puget Sound route is much the shortest. It is known to be the determination of the Northern Pacific Railway Company to create a great commercial port on Puget Sound, and to strike out boldly in a competition for the Pacific trade. Looking at the vast field opened to the view in this direction and taking into consideration the energy and daring already displayed in the construction of the multitudinous railways of the Union, there seeius to be absolutely no limit to the possibilities of the future. The demand exists. The country possesses the men, the money and the ability to meet it. With these, possibilities extend beyond probabilities and become facts. EDITORIAL. NOTES. The Coming Comet. As is pretty generally known a comet is exicted by some people on Monday. So much has been said In regard to the composition of a comet, how intangible and harmless it is, it seems mere folly to repeat it all again. The astronomer tell us with a smile at our fear that the gaseous mutter of which the comet is composed could be compressed so that the teacups, from which we drink, could easily contain it; that it can no more Injure tho earth than can Uie vapor which hangs over the river in the early summer's morning. Again he tells us that the nearest point to which any comet has ever approached the earth has been computed to bo about twelve millions of ndlcs away from us, a fact exceedingly satisfactory to timid peoplo. It is hardly possible then to apprehend danger from an object whose gaseous composition is so immaterial that were it to surround ns we could not be conscious of its presence, and whose proximity Is never beyond twelve millions of miles. Up to the 16th of July last no mention had been made of the approach of this comet by German astronomers. The scientific bulletins from Germany have thus far been totally silent in regard to its coming. Moreover, if a comet were to be so brilliant on the evening of the 12th of August aa it is predicted this will be, it should now be visible In the heavens. But not even a minute telescopic comet can he discovered by the well-trained eye of the astronomer. It must be remembered, also, that the approach of a comet Is very gradual; it can never appear suddenly ; evening after evening it must grow brighter and brighter until it has reached the full height of its splendor, when it will as gradually wane and disappear. Where can this marvellous comet be, then, which is to effectually exterminate us in a few days? But the astronomers add one more strong reason against its appearance. Tho comet, which Plantaniom is supposed to have predicted, lias never apoarod in our beavens, at least not within the memory of man. Sow, before a correct prediction can be made of the future appearance of a comet it must have appeared in the heavens once at least In previous years, in order that the astronomer may have the data npon which to baso his calculations in regard to its course and the period of its return. Consequently, any calculation which has been made in regard to this comet, bas been computed upon no basis whatever, and we have good reason to distrust the prediction. Where is our comet now? Does there not appear to be a possibility that no such comet exists, after all? The Cotton Chop. It aptiears that there are now CC3,rM more bales of cotton afloat than there were at this date of 1870. Two years ago, from tho cotton in sight and the new American crop, the world had a supply, from August 1 to September 1, 18,71, of 5,885,-000 bales. This year, should the crop prove equal to that of 1870-71, there will be a supply for the next thirteen months from these combined sources of 6,550,000 bales. If it be said that we cannot count upon a crop equal to that of two years ago, the answer is that.having 6f3,000 bales more in sight than at this period of 1870, we should be in a position equal to that of two years ago, even If we count upon a yield of oidy 3,687,000 bales. Taking all the facts of the tituat ion into account, there is strong probability to sustain the supposition that the supply of cotton, during the coming crop year, may exceed that of all former years. It is difficult to reconcile these prospects with the present market value of cotton and cotton goods; especially after we have so recently seen what effect an Ameiican crop of over fo.ur million bales has upon rrices. The Galway Election. At last the British government has decided upon what course it will adopt in regard to the now notorious Galway election case. On the 24th of last month in the House of Commons, the Attorney-General for Ireland announced, that after careful consideration of evidence and consultation with the other law officers of the crown, he had resolved to prosecute the Roman Catholic bishop of Clonfert, Capt. Nolan, the one candidate, and his brother, and nineteen other priests mentioned in the judgment of Mr. Justice Keogh. The Attorney-General said that it was the most painful duly he was ever called upon to discharge, nevertheless he should not shrink from performing it. The satisfaction he felt was that what he had done was approved by his own conscience in the discharge of a solemn duty in the high office which ho held, and looking solely to the discharge of that duty he had nothing to aiologize for and nothing to regret. The IsirENtuxo Crisis. Illnton Rowan Helper has written a letter to the Tribune rejoicing over Bunks' adherence to the so-called reform movement. It is only necessary to say that Mr. Helper speaks of Gen. Banks as "one of the most clear-sighted and incorruptible statesmen In America; one who might himself have been worthily and wisely selected as tho standard-bearer of the people, had there been at Cincinnati or at Baltimore any dearth of names representing great and good men." Mr. Heljer is evidently writing alHiut a subject with which he is but slightly acquainted. AGBicoreKAL Faius. The season of agricultural fairs is rapiilly approaching, and it is an indication of progress- among the farmers of Massachusetts that they are making unusual preparations for the annual exhibitions of the town and county organizations. These fairs, if properly conducted, do much to advance the agricultural interests of tho Commonwealth, and every farmer should give them his hearty sanction and support. Two Travellers. The rival candidates for tho White House are evidently enjoying the hospitalities of the people among whom they are travelling. Courtesies arc extended to both by men of all parties, and political predilections and preferences sown but right if in the general good feeling that prevail. Old Lixe Democbats. Our Washington spot-mis this morning give the main points of Iho nddrt'iut of tho old line lH-mocrats. The document has u familiar sound and may induce a portion of the IVmooracy tj desert tiie now Tammany leaders. A Mi'CH-Alti'SED City. No city In tho country fares harder at the hands of ltomUcrs than Detroit. What Detroit has done to merit tho cruel treatment, nobody seems to know ; and yet hardly an exchange comes to-hand that hasn't on abusive item. Any mean action that can lie conjured out of the imaginary brain of a penny-a-liner is at once localized in Detroit, as if everybody took it for granted that because the city manufactures all the chewing tobacco it must necessaiily be in bad odor. Before us is a column of items cut at random from a metropolitan daily, from which we learn that "A Detroit beggar thoughtlessly exhibited a ten-cent scrip, and was immediately followed into a lane by six of his fellow-citizens and robbed." A little further down we are told that "They speak of quadrupedal dogs in Detroit as distinguished from the rest of the citizens;" and that "There is a man in Detroit so mean that he wrote the usual inscription on his wife's coffin rather than pay for a coffin-plate." This is only one paper's daily portion of abuse, and as it is repeated three hundred or more times a year, in equal quantity and quality, tho question naturally arises: What has Detroit done or failed to do to merit such treatment? Fibes. For the past month our exchanges from all quarters have been filled with accounts of fires, some of them of the most disastrous character, and many of them attended with loss of life. Every man who owns a dollar's worth of real estate is interested in knowing how these conflagrations can be checked or obviated. The great fault lies iu the system of building in this country. We put up stores and dwellings on the principle of match-boxes, and then expect firemen to put out the flames without their spreading. In Paris all buildings of any pretension are made fire-proof by filling in between each story with non-combustible concrete, so that a fire would be confined to a single story. Of course it would cost a great deal more to build in this way, but the risks are less, and so would be the losses in case of fire. Let our builders consider tho idea. Mb. Boutwell at Portland. Secretary Bont-well's speech at Portland last night, : an abstract of which appears in our despatches this morning, was a powerful effort in behalf of President Grant. POLITICAL NOTES. The Kenehec Journal says Gen. Banks has enlisted in another Red river campaign. The editor, however, adds that "fortunately his defeat this time will not cost the lives of so many brave New England boys as his former one." The Bridgeport Standard evidently feels that the present editor of Mr. Greeley's pajier makes calls upon others which he would not care to have made upon Mr. Greeley as when he said a few days since: "But we leave it for Mr. Matthews to reconcile his former professions with his present practice." The Greeley journals affect smartness in nicknaming the Republican party as "Renominationists." So were the supporters of Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Jackson and Lincoln. The Boston Journal says : "The epithet can le meekly borne ; it only means that the jieople are still disposed to retain in their own untrammelled hands the right to decide whom they will trust at the head of tho government." An exchange says: A ruffian and a blackguard has only to open his mouth and he will expose himself. Tliis was illustrated by Kilpatrick last night at a Greeley meeting. He opened his speech with a conrse and indecent attack on Gen. Grant, as follows : " I'll tell you what Grant was. He used to peddle cord-wood, and it is still an open question whether he used to bring back the proceeds of his sales to his wife and family, or spend it all in drinking." The Worcester Spy says : John Quincy Adams, we hear, will vote for Grant and Wilson. A gentleman of this city states that he heard him say this Monday, while riding and conversing in one of the cars of a train on the Old Colony railroad. His statement is that Mr. Adams, Iu reply to a question said: "I shall support and vote for Gen. Graut." We have faith iu this statement because the gentleman who makes it is entitled to confidence, and also because the fact stated is what our estimate of the character of Mr. Adams has led us to expect. A meeting of soldiers and sailors of Maryland was held Tuesday night to make arrangements for attending the reunion of veteran soldiers and sailors of the late war, which will be held at Pittsburg, September 17. Qnte a number were enrolled to attend the reunion, and a resolution, proposing to extend the hand of political fellowship to the Confederate soldiers who fought against us, exacting no conditions except the cordial support of Grant and Wilson, was offered by Gen. Felix Agnus, and was unanimously adopted. In 1864 the Tribune contracted a better opinion of Gen. Dix's character as "a patriot and soldier" than it seems to entertain at the present moment. Speaking of the arrest and commitment of one A. M. Palmer to Fort Lafayette, an act which encountered "scathing criticisms" from some of Greeley's present supporters, the Tribune said: "We hold that ticn. Dix's action has been that of a patriot and soldier who knows what are the national perils, and does not hesitate to take the responsibility." The "soldier and pat riot" of that day has still a strong and ji;st perception of the "national perils" as involved in the nomination of Greeley to the Presideucv, and faia warning to that effect will not pass unheeded. The Pittsburg Commercial says: We commend to the careful consideration of those who supposed that the letter of Sumner would divide the colored vote, the responses that are coming up from that element of our citizenship in all parts of the country, unanimously repudiating his advice, expressing astonishment and sorrow at his course, and declaring their unswerving devotion to the Republican party. Instead of the letter influencing the colored jeople and settling the result of the campaign, as Sumner intended ami expected, it has withdrawn from him their confidence and esteem, besides completing his political ruin in the State which ha so long honored him with its highest rewards. The St. Louis Globe publishes the names of three respectablo men driven out of Bollinger county, in Missouri, because they were Republicans. One of them, who was doubly offensive from the fact that he had been a Union soldier, was beaten with many stripes. The Globe says there are scores of- men in that county who have been beaten by the Ku-Klux because they are Republicans, but tbev are in mortal fear, and dare not complain to the authorities. Similar outrages are reported in other parts of the State, and the threat is made that no Republican shall gather corn or vote this fall, and many Republicans have already hail then" growing crops destroyed. Gratz Brown is Governor of Missouri, but it is" no part of Am mission to protect political opponents. The Narragansett correspondent of the Providence Journal writes that Horace Greeley arrived Tuesday. He is the guest of Senator Sprague. Early this (Monday) morning he dipped his "distinguished' form into the billowy deep, and it was surprising how similar the effect upon him was to that upon other people. The sanic amount of shrinking and dripping and eye-rubbing, ami the sanio ludicrous figure that one cuts when the ornaments are tucked up in tho bathroom, and the natural body natural save a scant preservation of decency struts the beach. The spectacles and the "old white hat" did not take a bath. The only characteristics that went along were the "barefooted" head and the straggling locks which the fans, you know, so inimitably present. Of the Sage of Chappaqua's visit to Silver Spring Tuesday, the Providence Journal remarks: "Mr. Greeley visited Silver Spring, yesterday, when a clam-bake was served with very little more parade and ostentation than usual. If the occasion was intended to be a political demonstration, as intimated by the correspondents of the Greeley papers abroad, it was altogether a failure. The company of men, women and children were not large enough to call out any political oratory, and enthusiasm for the Presidential candidate was tempered with moderation. The day was delightful, the clams were good, and the Philosopher's experience will enable him, when he resumes bis pen, after the re-election of President Grant, to tell his gratified readers what he knows alxmt clam-raising on the shores of the Narragansett." The Transcript has the following: " With me If I tteadily advance, over me if I falter, its grand army moves on," etc. There is something dreadful in this picture of self-immolation. The faltering Greeley marched over by that grand army of reform not the grand army in blue which saved the nation, but another grand army, some of whom will wear rebel gray, some the war paint of Tammany, and some should wear the variegated livery of Sing Sing but all arrayed with Tweed, Barnard and the rest for purity or death, even though they trample the struggling form of their agricultural chieftain iu his kindred dust, to achieve the one or the other. We cannot withhold from Mr. Greeley a bit of friendly, practical advice. Let him start well mounted and keep ahead. Once down, those who are marching behind him will kick him unmercifully. Let him stuff the " standard of the great Liberal movement," which he proposes to bear, in his ample coat pocket. Time enough to flaunt it abroad when he enters Washington. He undoubtedly recalls with some misgivings a jieiiod when once before he unfurled a flag bearing the words " On to Richmond !" and tried to lead off in that direction, but, being no better mounted than on a Tribune hobby, he fell, and was ridden over anil trampled under foot, and the end was that the standard was taken from him by a stronger hand and borne on by others whom he had helped to rally but could not lead. The Boston Journal says: Several years ago when Gen. Banks delivered a speech in New York on the tinnnces of the country, the Boston Post gave him tho following favorable notice: "Mr. Banks, like Nick Bottom in the play, finds it necessary to explain Ms part in the Republican farce, fearing that tho people will believe his performance to be actual dtsign and reality. We report the Ianguag3 of his heart, not of his tongue: 'My good sirs, gentlemen merchants of New York, it is true I talked abjut certain contingencies, and said that under certain circumstances I would let the Union slide, and said much more of the same kind but all that was in my part of the plav. If I did not talk abolitionism, how could we carry the votes of the Abolitionists? If we did not denounce the Constitution, the Union, and tho fugitive slave law, Harrison, Phillips and Geirit Smith would spend their lungs and money in another party. If we did lit have anv trouble in Kansasin Cod s name what eoull we say abo-it I-rank Pierce and the administration? If we ,ii l not say anything about the Pacific, railroad, hrw c-eiild we excite ami secure the votes 01 lau 1 necu-lators and the countless m hemersof thela'! Oh no.!, ,y friends he that believes the deol tmwu of a politician is to be pitied for his ignorance and l-nrA for his stupidity. Our oidy hope is, as a partv to agree with even-body, to promise everything l" manded until after election and he inostbelfI who supposes that we mean what we sv " Can tV Pest tell us whether the recent letter from Gu Banks came from his head or his heart? The Philadelphia North American answers tha nonsense talked about military despotism with the most unanswerable of all argument facta; as it says our army consists of a force of 35,000 men, about the number of an ordinary corps in active service, scattered over an aiea of 3,600,000 square miles, about ona man to every thousand square miles. Now these troops are not the only force of armed men in the con ii try. There is the armed and disciplined militia of the States, which are under the solo command of the Governors of their respective States. The Governor of Massachusetts to-day has a larger force at his command than any officer of the Unicd States army, having now about 5000 men and twenty guns under his orders. If it is true, in spite of these facts, that the country is groaning under the iron heel of a military despotism, what a heel that one soliiier must have to cover a thousand square miles, and how biz is his body? LAW AND THE COURTS. Reported for Ttte Boston Globe. SUPEEME JUDICIAL COURT August 7. Before Wells, J. John Leteis et al. Executors, vs. Lyman Mason. In this case, which (as reported in The Globe of June 29) was an apial from the Probate Court of Middlesex county, admitting the will of the late John Lewis of Everett to probate, a motion for a new trial was heard, grounded on an alleged tampering. HU Honor intimated that the motion will be overruled. This and the question of certain costs wiU be decided at the hearing, August 17th. L. Mason and S. Z. Bowman for the executors; Hubbard and Avery for the caveators. W. If. Adams vs. John Kane. This defendant, wiia (as mentioned in The Globe of August 6) was commit ted to jail for contempt, brought in the lease to be filed, paid costs and was discharged. MUNICIPAL COURT. Before Judge Forsaiih. In the Boston Municipal Court, yesterday, the case of Thomas Glancy and William dimming, charged with larcenv from Haley, Morse & Co., was continued till the 13th in S1200. Samuel Perry, who was arrested for swindling the .Etna Sew ing Machine Company, hail his case continued till the 15th in S 500, and was afterward arretted for fraud in Chester, Penn. James Harris, for larceny from his room-mate at No. 7 Anderson street, was fined 17 and eosts. Patrick Boland, for assault on Timothy Manning, was fined 10 without costs. John Monks, for keeping an unlicensed dog, wai fined 15. Several persons were fined for minor offences. "CALL JUDGE BARNARD." From the New York Tribune. Judge Barnard then took the stand in his own defence. It would be fortunate if the manner and ap-X-earance of the man could be reproduced in these pages, or, if it were ossible, to print his testimony verbatim ; but it can only be described as sensational to the latt degree. The soldierly bearing which has made so deep an impression on one of the newspaper correspondents, and which is partially produced by the tight-fitting, close-buttoned coat which he always wears, was all there aa he stepped jauntily t-j the ch-rk's desk and held the Bible to his lips. The remembrance of the scene will be a lingering one in the memories of all. The trial is intensely imortant as being the first impeachment; the prominent actors in it are worth j f the occasion, and the chief figure in it has an infamous notoriety scarcely attained by any other judge in the United States. His face was white, and, like his thin hands, exhibited the traces of sickness or of mental anxiety. His manner was restless, and it seemed as if no position rested him. Occasionally be would throw his lei; over the arm of the chair and twist his other foot around the leg of the chair; now he would be sarcastic, continually asking with a smile at once sneering and angry, and with a deprecating cesture How can I tell what I don't know?" Then he would be defiant, and, with scowling brows, charge the lie direct upon reputable witnesses; anon, be would start forward, his eyes ahnost blazinz with seeming raga, and bis voice quivering with excitement, as Uie prosecutors calmly questioned his a -curacy. l.) you want to show that 1 am a gambler?" He almost shuddered ence when his questioner, on cross-examination, asked him if he was in partnership with John Chamberlain. "If you do, then I will tell you that I am not." There were phases of his appearance very different from thi., very mueh more repugnant, bail as this was; and there were moments when he showed the rowdy in talk and tone. As an instance, he spoke of Lane, who got the order from him in the suit against the New York Pier ani Warehouse Company, as having cheated him; and when he met Lane again he told him, "If you ever speak to me again I'll knock your head, off." It was to le expected that everything tending to criminate him would be flatly contradicted, yet he hail the good sense to confess those thincu which admitted of no denial, while be added to his contradiction of other mints the most unqualified denunciation of the witnesses. One of the first points brought to his notice was the furniture in his diuuig-roim, where he contradicted Dr. Quackenbush. his own witness, by saying that he did not order Fisk to have the chairs made , because they were all thure in the office at the time. As to the $000 with which he paid for them, although he bad no intention of it when he went there, he said sneering that he always carried his money in his pocket, esiecially since thero had been S3 much anxiety to examine his bank account. He had $1'KH) iu his pocket now. On cross-examiration. he demanded, with a show of indignation, " Do you think I am a pauper;" and when asked why he didn't call Quack-enbush before the judiciary committee, he fairly glared at his tormentors, and answered: " That's just what I wanted you to come to. It was because the committee they had down there, with one or two exceptions, was a committee that had boon packed to convict me. Royal Phelps testified for an hour what a great scoundrel I was, and cited two iustauces where I had received money. Tnen, on the cross-examination, he admitted that he had made a mistake; it was Richard B. Connoiiy; and so I didn't want to produce a witness before such a committee ps that. 1 said, what a nice show I ha I; I didn't tldnk it manly to go there." "And yet,' was Mr. Parsons' quiet resimnse, "you produced twenty or thirty witnesses there." In regard to the discharge of seven prisoners f )r illegal registry at his own election, Barnard contradicted Capt. Irving, who testified he did not see Judge Barnard the night in question, but had tha wi it taken up to him. Barnard sal 1 he did see Ca-t. IrviKg over the banisters; and scarcely ten minutes afterward, on cross-examination, be said be dil not se Capt. Irving, bnt knew it was him beeausa he recognized his voice. One of the most sijmiticant portions of his testimony was that relating to the telegrams from Coleman, calling him to New York the night he signed the order against the Albany and SusqiH'hanna railroad. He said that he would not have come, if be had thought what the business was; that he supposed some of his own family were tick at Long Branch, although the telegrams just before had informed him that they vra all ri:;ht. Then, again, although so worried about it, he did not think it worth while to teleeraph to Coleman at the Bianch when he found that he was not iu New York. Mr. Parsons aktd if he was aware that there was a rule in the Sui reuse Court requiring applications for Chambers orders to be made to the judge holding Chanders. "Yes," replied be, "but 1 know they never obey it-"' He then denied that he and Cardozo were the first ones to break the rule. He bad a riht to hold Chambers anywhere in toe State, and yet he had forgotten all about his vacating Judge R-jsc-cran's order on the ground that he hail id right to grant such an order in New York. There is but sjaee to mention one more absolute and nuqualiiicd denial of Garvey's story. He represented Garvey as staii'l-ing daily at the Chanibers door and button-holing tha judges to urge them to let him do some frescoing on their buildings. If he had asked him ( Barnard) once, he had asked him a hundred times. As to the origin of the word "Gratz," Barnard admitted at once that he had made the remarks charged to him. and boldly aflirmed, to the no slight astonishment of the court, that he bad a right to give patronage to his friends. He had won the office, and the patronage was his. In short, the testimony of Barnard has fiuishel the case for him. The terrible weakness of his own story is apparent; his manner and appearance have told heavily against him, and his attacks upon the Bar Association have only added to his ruin. One other witness was examined, after which the court adjourned until morning. LEGAL ANECDOTES. "WAY DOWX IJf MAISE." Down in Maine the intercourse between judges an! witnesses, seems now and then to be of that pleasant colloquial sort that might be emulated with aivan-tage elsewhere. Judge T , for example, who held late term of the Supreme Court at Saco, besides being learned in matters legal, is also an excellent judge of horseflesh. On the trial of a horse case, one of the parties, who was also a witness, Grace by name. nt being so clear in his testimony as the judge thought desirabhe, was asked by him to describe the animal more minutely. "Wbv, judge, all you Saco fellers know ihat air boss. 'Twas the Bill Littlefield hoss that Al Hodgkins used to drive," was the "minute." clear ami readv reply, in a patronizing tone. The "Saco feller" on the bench smiled quietly; the rest of the "fellers" smiled audibly, till the sheriff "feller" called "Order in the court !' This was hardly of that ilk of bon hommlo which characterized a certain effort of the court in county, Tennessee, to establish and maintain its dignity. The following is a verbatim copy of the "order" as "spread upon the records:" "It is ordered by the court that there be no yow-vowin' done by any of the justices while the court is In session." LAW VS. JUSTICE. "Brother Jones," said a Western judge to a counsel who was employing bis cloquenee in defending criminal: "You are misquoting the law to the jury. "1 don't caie anything alout the law, your Honor, but if you want to talk justice, I'll go you Nina. OXE OF JUDGE BARMARD'S FBrE'D9- Just now, our quoting a good thing from Judge Barnard will, should ho be found guilty, need oo aiiologv other than the saving iu reply to whicn ne gave the repartee. One of the counsel in an important case, in making a motion in favor of his client. commenced thus: "Your Honor, give the ueviiu" mie! luuge li. msiauiiy repueu: - jiiunuu 6'" The bar cachiuatcd.

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