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r TT ;.K ..:S-.V. FRIDAY, APRIL 3, 1964 r. Who Invented the Camera? ' - -.-'.- I . Wtn the lS-volume Britanhka Junior Encyclopedia for school and home. Send your questions, name, age, address 1 to "Tell Me. Why!" care of, "X of duplicate questions, the author will decide the winner, I Today's winner Is: Denise Valentino, 12. Los Angeles, Calif. By A. LEOKUM If the camera you use today ' werV the invention of one man. I . it' would be a remarkable achievement indeed! Photog- raphy is the result of many dis- coveries covering hundreds of i years. Before we consider those . - discoveries, let's recall briefly .. what makes photography' work. Photography is possible be- cause of the action of light' on certain substance thai n; ave been chemically-prepared. For example, the chemica silver nitrate reacts to light by turn ing black. So on the film in a camera is an emulsion of silver particles and gelatin. The lensjthe Dominican Republic, filled of the camera lets in light and. the country with statues to him-focuses it on the film. TheUelf. He had more than 3.000 grains or silver particles that have been exposed to light become changed. They become the dark part of "the " Tilm --'nega- .tive Later; the other gramsiTru true. Are removed, ana tne DiacK silver grainsform 7henegative . picture. : Now here are some of" the developments and discoveries that were necessary before the modern camera could be what it is. From the 11th to the 16th century, there was something known as the "camera ob-scura." It just showed an image on paper which could be traced by hand-In 1568. Daniello Bar-baro fitted the camera obscura with aliens to sharpen the image. " j In 1727. a man called Johann Schulze discovered that . light caused nitrate of silver to Change color. In 1802, Thomas Wedgwood and Humphrey Davy were able to make prints on paper coated with silver nitrate, but they couldn't make these prints .permanent. In 1835. a man caljed William Talbot made the first permanent prints, and the first enlargements. In 1839, Louis Daguerre developed a new process for making images on a' silver Plate. 4 And sofon and so on. At'ydu can see, each step in the mak ing of film and in the camera itself, was Improved by differ ent people over the years. The first box camera, which really started making photography popular, was put on the market by the Eastman Company . in 1888. ?. FUN TIME The Riddle Box 1. Why is it wrong to whisper? I.-What pets make tne sweetest FAST SERVICE ON FttM DE VELOPMEN7 KODACOLOR 24 Hours BLACKWHITE Same Day Service PHOTOGRAPHIC STORES ltd. tS Sparks 179 RlrhmeX Bd. . IS Mala Stp.a. fffffflMtSftHifl BACKACHE Wk-akidMyihil Vi mm mi . tcMte sad wsatffa, hvkseh. Ur4 fMlms. dtatartwd ml dtM Mlov. DnM'i Kida-T Pill Miaalat kvia) to sormsl 4oT. Vo- Im1 btur-.lp tnS. DISTINCnVE OFFICE FURNITURE EVANS & KERT UMITEO , " Qaa Str-t Only ' m Oaeen SI. ' 23M701 mi n 9 m 2 . ; The Ottawa: Journal, in case music? 3. What hen lays the longest? ' ' ' :, .. '.- ANSWERS -:, 1. Because it's not aloud. Trumpets. 3. A dead one. DID YOU KNOW? Statues of people are usually erected after they die. Bui, one man. Generalissimo Tjfujillo.of of them put up! Answer to yesterday".' True r False: I False. 'J. 4. True. 5.' FatSeT" - Win the Britannica World Atlas or Yearbook of Events. Send your, riddles. jokes to: Riddles. Jokes, s ? Tell v Me Why! Today's winner is: Mike Breeze, Salt Lake City; Utah. - MINE COLD Many thousands of Africans' from Mozambique, an 'overseas province of Portugal, work under contract in South African gold mines. ' In Madagascar, the fourth largest island in the world, an estimated 87 per cent of the population is dependent on agri culture. o GOREN ON BRIDGE BY CH.RLES H. GOREN - Neither . vulnerable. South deal; - . - north .'v j: . VQ6S4 O AQ . '. . WEST : E.CST T(3 '..'.'- M V JII V K it I O ltlllll O KJ4I 10 QIt SOUTH A A K Q It S 4 , 7 Al ,-'. O .... A4J " . The bidding.' , Sooth West North 1 Pass t J Past U 4 Pass Pass East ; Pass i Pass j Pass ; Opening lead: Ten of 0 East's maneuvers in defend - ing against .declarer's slam contract apparently m a r k e d him as a "long shot" bettor.. The favorite, however, was in hu opponent's corral, and it required . very nimble mental-, performance for East to uncover the best bet . for an upset.1.' - . . When South made a jump rebid in his own suit after North's two club response, toe latter was aware that a slam was in the offing, for be had the equivalent of an opening bid himself. His action took the form of a raise beyond game an invitation which South was quick to accept West openajl the ten of diamonds and the ace was played from the dummy. Trumps were drawn In three rounds. Declar- j er cashed the ace of clubs 1 i 1 Any person having information as to cause or origin of a fire on property at Carlsbad Springs, owned by Alex and Sara Stark is asked to communicate with Sutton Perry Ltd., 88 Metcalfe St,, Ottawa, 236-9781. Reward is offered for useful information. - -' --..':. .. DEWALT POWER SHOPS BLACX & DECKER POWER TOOLS FRIDAY and SATURDAY APRIL 3 AND 4 Factory Representative In Attendance! i in ii 410 Bank Street ou Can Gci&tfer Grades, (1 1) W. A. RANKIN UMnXO Uesftri&ss 1$ Important This is the eleventh of a series . of articles by a well" known ; U.S. educational authority, giving students and . parents practical, help en how' to improve grades at jschool. , V.j : "N-.vv By LESLIE J. NASON, Ed.D., : with HARRY KARNS '.' eatness and orderliness can help you make better grades. in. arithmeticand mathematics. , ' .' '': .' . -' - '.. Unhappily, many, students..- neglect thee-Simp.e rules because no one has explained how. important they are.'.1 . : Let's face .it. Modern educa-ton-many times neglects the individual student.' This is not I necessarilv. the fault of the schools-. It .is a consequence of an exploding school -. age population- and' shortages qf teachers and classrooms. NEATNESS ESSENTIAL '-. , Teaching techniques are designed for classes of 35, AO. 50 ; students., - Potentially good students get into' bad ' habits andare not-; exposed to goodi habit s Training jp .jwrfhess Xs djaicllv-uTt4fffed;l)ypunch- ard-4eVsmade , for xapid ' grading. .NAll tyts cannot be of this" .type, however,, isna when the student faces new situations, hK is in trouble Good scholarship becomes im possible Recently on grade card day a father broucht his 10-year- old son to us Jimmy's card borea ..hard and uncompromising NEEDS. TO IMPROVE behind AArith metic. Translated to'theless compromising language oK20 years ago. the grade was ' standing . for Failure The boy seemed bright enough. We decided ,to experiment. We wrote out some columns, of addition, some subtraction, and some multiplica dropping West's ten and continued with a small club. When West showed out, South put in dummy's nine. Had East taken this trick, the contest would have been over, for declarer- would now have been In position to discard his small hearts on North'i established . club suit. East was fully aware that the moment of decision was at hand, and he paused to consider his prospects. If he won the frick, his only chance to , set the contract hinged on an. attempt to cash -the king of diamonds, for South was surely marked with the ace of hearts to warrant his strong bidding.. However, if declarer had a second diamond, he would surely have finessed the. queen on the opening lead. East reached the conclusion that the only rear opportunity was the prospect of finding his partner with the jack of hearts, Jin which case there was a chance to take two tricks in that suit In order to put his judgment to the test, Cast per mitted dummy's nine to hold. for by surrendering his club trick be prevented the run of the suit. Declarer cashed the king of clubs and ruffed himself in with another club. Since the North hand lacked an entry to cash the established long card In the suit. South switched his attentions to hearts. He cashed the ace and then led another heart to the queen. He was doomed to disappointment when the king turned up in the East hand. A heart return per mitted West to cash the setting trick in that suit. iiwpqwFw - wi imii'l'i.'H . u..::i;.i;ti u: i:tn.f.t:t,.i.n; 1 1 236-471 tion. He: worked jhe, problems Vapidly and faultlesslyj ' ;' I; We aked J immy t return the next day and-bring s'ome of hisarithmeiic papers' with him.' He did,' and the source of the trouble was immediately apparent' so obv'ipus that jrbu would wonder-why the teacher or the parent., hadn't seen it. . ;;' . ;-;.'. " Jimmy, wfi'o' understood ihe intricate piwess'es of aijh-metic perfectly, had , never learned to copy numbers down in straiEht columns. He had been applying the right princi-,,)' I i pals to the wrong riumbets be- j proniems witnout a single ! awarded. Thursday by the gue-cause of- a purely physical ( complicated move on your bee Safety League at its annual mistake!,'.'.,.. ,. . ; . . ' 'i part. : . ' meeting. The citation stated " "What does your teacher say f marks are - neatly v and cor- , that the ; medal . was- Vin rec.ig- about your papers?" we ak- ed. ''She says they're wrong.'" : We're afraid we Would have ;tq give the teacher a B for Blindness. OrJ maybe that is unfair. Pafrvi'Jady:--' perhaps' she didn'r have the time to, . say rnore. .-' ' ' '. . '.' ' '. TUoIeASY SYSTEM 4J0ejL, learning to be neat and orderly, Jimmy started turning our perfect papers in school. '. .' ':: '.';-'; ' ': ' We simply cannot stress too strongly the importance of details A small error, a small s omission "can destroy completely .the effect of a large amount of otherwise flawless work.. .;' ' . ' You should" do these thirigs as. a matter of courses ' , . 1. Arrange your work neatly on the paper. -,2. Use the -correct symbois. 3.. Make ure that plus and minus signs, equal signs, frac tion lines, exponents, and other marks are nearly and cor- y placed. , 4. Make sure that every thing you write on the paper is actually true. 5. NDo scratch work on a separate piece of paper so that your rnJnd is not distracted from the actual steps of the problem. As you pet into more ad vanced work.Vou will find that problems ho nger cart' be solved at a glance. Then you must- make use)f a special technique. It is baed on this fact: Nearly alioitftolex problems in math can b solved piece by piece. Let's run through thesteps that will help you '' -.'.- J .' ,f : V '. But now , you know a Secret that : can help yoti avoid the pit talis whichajk ait the .ctes less and unwary. In the next dhapter we are' going to tell ydu some more secrets, that wil( help you on examination, day. . ; 4 ' .' " NEXT: How to prepare for "examinations.' , ; ,.'-. -' j,' u , 1 RAmt)'' Montreal DOiTID f Expert Honored p MONTREAL' (CP !$;t. Leo Plouffe.-Montreal po iijc. department's explosives ex ! pert, headed a list . of . hono-s -nition 01 nis exceptional serv tees 10 the-entire population by lover a period.; of several Jmont v ,1 Quit Smoking After 40 Years Want to know how to stop fer-ling like a walking furnace? .This article " in , April Reader's Digest may help you. "No one ever died or went crazy from lack of tobacco," says the author,,, and he gives you practical hints that really work. 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Is there- another , little' part f the problem you can deal with? STEP AT A TIME Usually- there is. -This pro-. ce. normally results in v the solution of very complicated ' l m onen-aie anie io vive im- pie problems, without- the Use of these techniques, They are I remaining available 24 hour a shockedi1 when , thefr grades day to dismantle a great num-suddenty drop from "A's" to jbejr of. bomssetby' terrorists "t s or lower, when ,tn e y reach college-. levplrhath ' i;....llTl. - 1 brigbrness isteJhJCtnC Ufrfil-thejroTscoyer -or.' .are. j shown the simple learning pro-j cesses which will nerrriif them - to do the work of which they, tire capable. ) ' ' '. k" .,.,: Millions, of boys n.d' girls- in public schools and colleges. do' not' know how to spjve prob- . lems. They are the sad victims of an age that knows how to measure l:100,000th of-;an inch but neglects to. tell boys and girls how to arrange num- : bers in a neat and orderly col umn. . . 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