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TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 2S, 1935. _ .1.01 DA1I/Y COURIER, CONNEH-iJUS VJX.JLB, PA. PAGE SEVEN. Questionnaire Reveals Most School Districts In F i n a n c i a l Straits Questionnaires on the distressed I financial conditions of Fayette county! school districts, forwarded to 42, boards, both third and fourth class, were answered by 76 per cent, it was revealed at a meeting of county tchoolmen and representatives in the State Legislature. The compiled data showed the fol- 'owing 11 facts: 1. A very low percentage of tax Suplicates is being collected. 2. The number of districts requesting special aid is steadily m- :reasing. 3. Many school districts cannot :omplete the present school term without special aid. 4. A large number of districts are unable to meet their February payroll without borrowing. 5. A surprisingly large number of districts borrowed money last year to meet their payrolls. 6. It is necessary for many districts to borrow yet, a number of them are unable to do so. 7. Teachers are in desperate cir- :umstances as a result of being un- oaid for their services at the present time. 8. A number of districts cannot legally borrow, some do not have iredit, and it would probably be un- tvise for many to borrow. 9. Current book and supply accounts are not being met in a num- ocr of districts. 10. The payment of tuition is becoming an increasing burden on many fourth class districts. 11. The ever increasing deficits in various districts is making it impossible to balance budgets for current years. The large and rapid decrease in assessed valuations with very slight decrease in pupil enrollment is making it impossible for many districts to balance their budgets without going beyond unreasonable increase in tax levy granting that any such increase is possible, the survey showed. The summary of information reported: THIRD CLASS DISTRICTS 1. Tax collection. (a) Thirty per cent of districts le- porting collected less than 80 per cent on last year's duplicate. (b) Forty per cenfrof the districts collected between 61 per cent and 80 per cent. (c) Only 20 per cent collected more than 80 per cent. 2. Special aid. (a) Only two districts of 10 reporting received special aid last year. (b) Eighty per cent (eight to 10) report the need of special aid for present year. ' 3. Payroll. , (a) Eighty per cent of the districts borrowed to meet payrolls last year. (b) Eighty per cent of the districts state that they must borrow this year. (c) Fifty per cent report that they cannot meet the February payroll. 4. Payment of salaries. a) One district has paid only two months salaries this year. 5. Indebtedness. (a) Forty per cent (four to 10) report indebtedness in excess of two per cent assessed valuation. 6. Book and supply accounts. (a) Forty per cent have not paid book and supply bills to date. 7. Deficit. (a) All districts report deficit for last year. (b) Seventy per cent report greater deficit for present year, 8. Current year deficit. (a) Deficits rapge from less than $10,000 to over $60,000 for present year. FOURTH CLASS DISTRICTS 1. Tax collection. (a) One district reports a collection of less than 40 per cent. (b) Only one reports a collection oi over 80 per cent. * (c) Fifty per cent collected between 41 per cent and 60 per cent. 2. Special aid. (a) Fif'y-nine per cent (13 of 22) received special aid last year. (b) Eighty-six per cent (19 of 22) report need of special aid for pres- :nt year. 3. Payroll. (a) Forty-one per cent (nine of 22) are able to meet February payroll. (b) Fifty-four per cent (12 of 22) :annot meet February payroll. (c) Eighty-two (18 of 22) report that it would be necessary to borrow to meet the February payroll. 4. Payment of salaries. (a) Two districts have paid only two months salary. (b) Two districts have paid three months salary. (c) Six districts have paid four months salary. (d) Twelve of 22 have paid salaries to date. 5. Indebtedness. (a) Eight of 22 or 36 per cent have indebtedness exceeding two pet cent of assessed valuation. (b) One district reports an indebtedness oÂ£ nearly two per cent of assessed valuation. 6. Book and supply accounts. (a) Tvelve of 22 or 54 per cent have not paid book and supply accounts to date. 7. Tuition. (a) Eleven of 17 districts having tuition pupils have made no payment on current tuition this year. (b) Nine of 17 districts owe tuition for years prior to present year. 8. Deficit. (a) Twenty of 22 districts reporting had deficit last year. (b) Eighty-six per cent (19 to 22) will have greater deficit this year. 9. Current year deficits. (a) Two districts report no deficit (b) Eight report deficit of up to $10,000. (c) Ten (45 per cent) report deficit of between $10,000 to $20,000. (d) One district reports deficit of $20,000 to $30,000. (c) One district reports deficit $30,000 to $40,000. THIRD, FOURTH CLASS , DISTRICTS 1. Tax collection. (a) Fifty per cent reports collection ranging between 41 per cent to 60 per cent. (b) Only nine per cent or (three of 32) report a collection above 80 per cent. 2. Special aid. (a) Fifty per cent (18 oÂ£ 32) received special aid last year while 84 per cent (27 to 32) need special aic this year. 3. Payroll (February.) (a) Fifty-three per cent (17 of 32) are unable to meet February payroll. (b) Fifty-three per cent (17 to 32) borrowed money last year for payrolls. (c) Eighty-one per cent (26 of 32) state they must borrow this year in order to meet payrolls. (d) Three districts state they cannot borrow. (e) Eleven districts are back in salaries one to three months. 4. Indebtedness. (a) Thirty-seven and one-half per cent (12 to 22) have indebtedness exceeding two per cent of assessed valuation. (b) Sixteen districts (50 per cent) owe current book and supply bills. 5. Deficit. (a) Ninety-four per cent (30 to 32) had deficit last year. (b) Eighty-one per cent (28 of 32) report greater deficit lor this year. (c) All but two districts report deficits ranging between less than $10,000 to above $60,000. FOURTH DISTRICT Of 22 districts reporting the following have a levy of 35 mills: Brownsville township, New Salem independent. South Connellsville and Van- dorbilt, (four of 22 or 18 per cent.) Thirtee of the remaining 18 districts have a levy betwen 20 and 30 mills (72 per cent.) Third class districts have increased their tax levy in a desperate attempt to meet the unfortunate conditions of the past few years. San Francisco Gets Into Public Eye With Stunts Yough Brewery, Vyith New Product, Reorganized; WiSI Employ 4O Workers Girl "Ranchers" in Night Fiesta Parade Determined to !et the world kno-w that its Golden Gate International Exposition has opened, San Francisco itages eye-appealine stunts. These girls, in a Fiesta Night parade through the heart of the city, are described as ranchers from a nude ranch. (Central Prtst) ON THE AIR Radio Information At a Glance WCAE--1231 KC. 6-00--Medical Talk. 6:15--Evemi-g News. 6 25--Sports Extra. 6:30--Airliner:, 6:45--Ralph Elaine. 7:00--Amos and Andy. 7:15--Vocal Varieties. 7:30--Xavier Cugals' Orch. 7:45--Inside of Sports. 8:00--Johnny Presents. 8:30--For Men Only. 9:00--Battle of the Sexes. fl.30--Fibber McGee. 10.00--Bob Hope. 10 30--Uncle Ezra. 10:45--Jimmy Komper 11 00--Ne\vs Parade. 11:10--Dance Orchestra. 11'30--Ray Kinncj's Orch 12-00--Ben Bernies' Orch. 12:30--George Hamilton';, Orch. 1:00--Beinie Cummins' Orch. TONIGHT KDEA--880 KC. fi '00--News, sports 6:06--Your Movie Magazine of the Air. 6 15--Manuel Contrares' Orch. 6 30--Music--Sports. 6:45--Lowell Thomas. 7-^0--Easy Aces. 7:15--Mr. Keen. 7:30--Ta f Time. 8:00--Way Back When. 8:15--Fu Mancu. 8-30--Information, Please. 9:00--Mary and Bob. 0:30--Eugene Conlcy. 10.00--If I Had a Chance. 10:30--Federal Symphony Orchestra. 11:00--News: weather, temperature. 11:15--The Music You Want. 12.00--Al Kavelin's Orch. 12:15--New Penn Orch. 12:30--Freddie Martin's Orch. WJAS--1290 KC. 6:05--Dancetime. 6:15--News of the World. 6:30--Bob Trout. 6.45--Opportunity. 7:00--County Seat. 7:15--Jimmy Fidler. 7:30--Helen Menken--Second Husband. 8,00--Edward G. Robinson--Big Town. 8:30--Al J.tson's Show. 9:00--Wo, The People. 0:30--Benny Goodman's Orch. 10:00- -Dr. Christian. 10:30--Jack Berch. 10:45--American Viewpoints. 11:00--News with Ken Hildebrand. 11:15--Joey Sims. 11 30--Glen Gray's Orch. 12-00--Sammy Kaye's Orch. WEDNESDAY Two Held on Arson Count. SOMERSET, Feb. 28.--Lloyd Fletcher, 28, and Leonard Lape, 23, of Somerset, were committed to the county :ail in default of bond on charges or arson growing out of the firing of Fletchers automobile on the outskirts of the borough Saturday. Held as Armed Bandit. SOMERSET, Feb. 28.--Alleged to be the masked and armed robber who fled after securing 550 in a Saturday night holdup at Ferrelton, John Gurnich, 22, of Boswell, R. D. 2, was arrested by State Motor Police who charged him with armed robbery. SALLY'S SALLIES 15 So-rrfOUCrrTFUl- Of HE. ' k Nobody ever got dizzy through doing too many good turns. WCAE 7:00--Program Resume 7.00--Morning Expiess. 8 00--Morning News 8 15--Today's Almanac. 8.30--Do You Remember. 8:45--Hits and Encores. 8:55--Health Column. 9:00--Lillian Malone. 9:15--Gems of Melody. 9:30--Band Goes to Town. 9:45--Secret Diary. 10:00--Central City. 10:15-John's Other Wife. 10:30--Just Plain BUI. 10:45--Woman in White. 11:00--David Harum. 11:15--Lorenzo Jones. 11:30--Young Widdec Brown. 11:45--Road of Lit*. 12:00--Time signal 12:00--News. 12:10--Melodies. 12:15--The O'Neills. 12:30--Bernic Cummins' Orch. 12:45--Singin' Sam. 1:00--Bill Johnson. 1:15--Bernie Cummins' Orch. 1:30--Musical Caravan. 1:45--Voice of Experience. 2:00--Helene Daniels. 2:15--Polly Entertains. 2:30--Kitty Keene. 2:45--Figures in Brass. 3:00--Mary Marlin. 3:15--Ma Perkins. 3:30--Pepper Young's Family. 3:45--Guiding Light. 4:00--Backstage Wife. 4:15--Stella Dallas. 4'30--Vic and Sade. 4:45--Girl Alone. 5:00--Dick Tracy. 5:15--Your Family and Mine. 5:30--Jack Aj-mstrong. 5:45--Orphan Annie. 6:00--American Schools 6:15--Evening News. 6:25--Sports. 6:30--Laws for the Laymen. 6:45--Romance Lyrics. 7:00--Amos and Andy. 7:15--Edwin C. Hill 7 30--Modern Melody. 7:45--Jack Bfrch. 8:00--One Man's Family. 8.30--Tommy Dorsey's Orch, 9:00--Town HalL 10:00--Kay Kyser's Klass. 11:00--News Parade. 11:10--Dance Orchestra. 11:30--Lou Breeze's Orch. 12:00--Dick Jurgen's Orch. 12:30--Lights Out. 1:00--Bernie Cummins' Orch. Dr. S. H. Williams And Don Saunders Ai Pii) Meeting Two distinguished speakers, Dr. Samuel H Williams, head of the biology department, and Don F. Saundeis, secietary of the General Alumni Association, of the University of Pittsburgh, addressed a large turnout of memtaeis'of the Connellsville Pitt Club last week at a meeting held in the Unity Fraternity club rooms. Dr. Williams spoke of his trip to the Island of Haiti, where he and seven "beareis" went on an exploration trip into the mountainous in- tenor. He told of the voodooism practiced theie and explained its workings and influences on the inhabitants. Dr. Wilharr.s, a former student of Connellsville High School, has been doing research work along the lines of animal distiibution in North, Central and Sou'Ji America since joining the University of Pittsburgh's KDKA 6:30--Curly Miller, 6:45--Farm Markets. 7:00--Musical Clock. 7:15--Western Trails. 7:30--Musical Clock. 7 45--Russell Pratt. 8-00--News. 8 05--Musical Clock. 8-15--Dr. Sunshine. 8:30--Musical Clock. 9:00--Shopping Circle 9:15--Linda's First Lovo. D-30--The Editor's Daughter. 8:45--Gospel Singer. 10:00--Tena and Tim. 10-15--Jane Arden. 10:30--Bob Carol. 10.45--Houseboat Hannan. 11.00--Mary Martin. 11.15--Vic and Sade. 11:30--Pepper Young's Family. 11:45--Getting the Most Out of Life. 12.00--News, weather and temperature. 12:15--Voice of the Farm. 12:30--National Farm and Hone Hour. 1:15--Farm Radio News. 1:30--Women in the News. 1:45--Happy Gilmans. 2-00--Betty and Bob. 2-15--Arnold Grimm's Daughter. 2.30--Valiant Lady. 2-45--Betty Crocker. 3:00--KDKA Home Forum. 3:20--Dale McFeatters. 3:30--Tea Time Tunes. 4:00--Club Matinee. 5 00--Biltmore Boys' Orch. 5:15--Terry and the Pirates. 5:30--Don Winslow of the Navy. 5:45--Tom Mix Stright Shooters. 8:00--News; Sports Weaener. 6.06--Movie Magazine of the Air. 6.15 --Manuel Contiaies" Orch. 6:30--Music--Sports 6:45--Lowell Thomas. 7:00--Easy Aces. 7:15--Mr Keen. 7:30-r-Welsh Chorus. 7:45--Horace Heidi's Orch. 8:00--Fingertip Fantasies. 8:15--Fu Manchu. 8:30- -Hobby Lobby. 9:00--To be announced. a.30--Wings for the Martins. 10 00--Ransome Sheman Presents. 10:30--Public Interest in Democracy. 11:00--News; weather. 11:15--The Music You Want. 12:00--To be announced. 12:15--New Penn Orch. 12:30--Al Kavelin's Orch. teaching staff. Don Saunders, secretary of the General Alumni Association, gave a talk on loyalty to the university after graduation. Featuring the entertainment program were numbers sung by the Elks quartet composed of C. Hcibert Ellis, David Chariesworth, Wilbur Camlin and H. D. Shearer, Jr. A short business meeting was held at which plans were furthered for a dance, a smoker and a picnic to be held in the near future. Highway Worker Out. SOMERSET, Feb. 28.--John W. VanSickel of Someifield has been dismissed as assistant maintenance superintendent of the Department of Highways in Somerset county at a salary of ?1,860. Fix Track Meet Dates. Tri-State Track Coaches Association made plans for the W. P. I. A. L. indoor relays at the Pitt Track House, Pittsburgh, on March 25 and the Tri- State association's indoor meet at the same place on April 1. WJAS 7:30--Musicaie. Â· 8:00--News. 8:1S--Time Again. 8:30--Greenfield Village Chapel. 8:45--Cheene Melodies. 8.55--Today's Programs. 9:00--Richard Maxwell. 9:15--Good Neighbor. B:3D--Joyce Jordan. 8:45--Bachelor's Children. 10-00--Young Dr. Malone. 10:15--Myrt and Marge. 10-30--Hilltop House. 10.45--The Stepmother. 11:00--Volkwein's Musicaie. 11:15--Scattergood Baines. 11:30--Big Sister. 11:45--Aunt Jenny's Real Life Stories. 12-00--Mary Margaret McBride, 12 15--Her Honor, Nancy James, 12:30--News of the World. 12:45--Our Gal Sunday. 1.00--The Goldbergs. 1:15--Life Can Be Beautiful. 1:30--The Road of Life. 1:45--This Day Is Ours. 2:00--Doc Bartley's Daughters. 2:15--The Life and Love of Dr. Susan. 2:30--Ameucan School of the Air. 3:00--Indianapolis Symphony. 4:00--Of Men and Books. 4:15--Today's Program. 4:20--The Zany Family. 4:45--Navy Band. 5:15--Howie Wing. 5.30--Baron Elliott's Orch 6.05--Organ Melodies. 6:15--News of the World, 6:30--Bob Trout. 6:45--Tall!: of the Town. 7:00--County Seat. 7:15--Lum and Abner. 7:30--Ask-It-Basket 8:00--Gangbusters. 8:30--Paul Whlteman's Orch. 9-00--Texaco Star Theatre. 10.00--99 men and a Girl. 10.30--It Can Be Done. 11:00--News with Ken Hildebrand. 11;15--Charles Baum 11:30--Jackie Heller. 12:00--Glen Gray's Orch. Shady Grove Park Will Be Offered At Public Sale UNIONTOWN, Feb. 28.--Shady Grove Park will be sold at pubht. sale to be arranged by E. S. Tyler receiver of National Bank of Fayette County, who came into possession of the property following proceedings in which C. A. Pressey, former owner was declared bankrupt. No date for the sale has yet been set, Mi-. Tyler said Monday. The receiver took over the paik property for $3,250, free, clear and discharged of all leins and encumoe: ances with exception of taxes, of approximately ?6,000, which have been assessed against the tract. Transfer of the propel ty to Tylei was confirmed in an order enterec February 1, 1939 by United States district court of Western Pennsylvania. Pressey, who owned and operatec the park until the bankruptcy proceedings, came into possession of the premises September 30, 1930, by deec of Laurel Coaster Company, records reveal in the office of Recorder Pa' F. Hynes. The park includes rides, concession stands and the large, modern swimming pool. Pressey was lepresented in the transfer of the deed to Tyler by Fred W. Hosier, trustee. News of Tri-Town Community DAWSON, Feb. 28--About 50 persons attended the Washington tea given by the Philathea Class of the James Cochran Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church of Vanderbilt Saturday afternoon at the paisonage. The following program was presented: Instrumental trio, Miss Julia Silbaugh, Donald and Glenn Pearson; guitar solos and duets by Jane Moore and Annabelle Lint; piano solos, Jack Colbert, Dick Col- 3ert, Mildred Jean Freed and Myrtle Sdna Wilkinson; piano duet, Jack and Dick Colbert: vocal solos, Jane Ann Herbert and Betty Somers; readings on Washington, Jeannine Weans and Martha Jean Jones, and accordion solos by Miss Rose Alice of Monarch. Mrs. Lloyd Shaiien- berger and Mrs. Claire Stiouch poured tea at the decorated dining- room table. The reception committee consisted of Mis. Louise Sillbaugh and Mrs. Emily Paig. Mrs. G. B. Roberts was in charge oÂ£ the program. Among the out-of-town guests were Mis. R. P. Kamerer, Mrs. B. M. Wade and Mrs. W L. Armstrong of Perryopolis, and Miss Webster of Monarch. Philatheas Meet Tonight The Philathea Class of the Philip G. Cochran Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church will meet at 7:30 o'clock this evening in. the social auditorium. Mrs Huey's group will be in charge. Altnirian Class Thursday. The Ladies Altrurian Bible Class of the East Liberty Piesbyterian Church of Vanderbilt will hold its regular monthly meeting Thursday evening at the home of Mrs. Harry Strickler. After the meeting an auction will be held. The members are asked to come prepared to buy a gift and bring one that can be sold. Missionary Meeting 1 . The Women's Foreign Missionary Society of the Philip G. Cochran Memorial M e t h o d i s t Episcopal Church will meet at 2:30 o'clock Thursday afternoon in the social auditorium. Personals. Mrs. Godfrey Haas of Leisenring spent Friday afternoon at the home of her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Ken H. Collins. Miss Marguerite and Bp'iby Dur- bln of St. James Park speu^ the week-end with their brother-in-law and sister, Mr. and Mrs. Harold Campbell of Brownsville. E. D. Brewer of Vanderbilt was a business caller in Greensburg and Hermenie Saturday. Farewell Reception Held for Rev. layhew A farewell reception was held at the Dawson Baptist Church Friday evening in honor of Rev. Harry V. Layhew, who has accepted a large charge in West Virginia. There was a large attendance of church members and friends at the reception. After the program, lunch, was served. The program was as follows: Devotions, Rev. H, D. Furrier, who will succeed Rev. Layhew at the Dawson charge. Songs, "Laurel Valley Waltz," "Lonesome Valley" and "Face to Face," Bar X Roundup. Reading of appreciation to retiiing minister, Mrs. Etling. Short talk, Dr. Thomas Charlesworth, pastor of the Dawson and Bryan Methodist Episcopal churches. Vocal duet, Hoffman sisters. Piano solo, Doris Lee Colbert. Reading, Miss Sara Phillips. Vocal solo, Eioise Stockier. Reading, Myrtle Wilkinson. Vocal duet, Stickel sisters. Songs, "Children's Waltz," "Don't Make Me Go to Bed" and "Aunt Dinah's Quilting Party," Bar X Houndup. Quartet, Hoffman and Stickel sisters. Short talk, Rev. William Harper, pastor of the California Baptist Ghurch. Presentation of gifts to Rev. and Mrs. Layhew, church members. Short talk, Rev. Layhew. Group song, "God Be With You Till We Meet Again." Continued from Page One. much Jargei. But from a standpoint of modern installation which guarantees t' -i utmost in health standards, there is none better, they say. A visit to the bottling house reveals theie is no human hand'touch- ing any bottles from the time they are placed in a %vasher and until they are leady for the cartons after having been washed, filled, closed, pasteurized and labeled. This large machinery has water of various temperatures through which the bottles are passed. The bristles are installed so as to make it almost an impossibility to miss any bit of foreign particle that might be in a bottle. After the machine cleaning has been completed, the bottles automatically move onto an endless conveyor before an inspector who stands in front of a large maynifying glass which makes it possible to detect the tiniest bit of foreign particle in the bottle. The bottle must pass this minute inspection before it goes to the filler where it is automatically Tilled and tapped. The bottles continue moving on the endless chain conveyor and, without being touched by human hand move, into the mammoth pasteurizer. The pasteurizing piocess makes it possible for the beer to be kept months at a time without losing its taste and flavor. From the pas- teurizer, the bottles move onto another conveyor to a labeling machine after which they go to a loading plat-: form. Here the bottles are touched by hand for the first time since they were placed in the washer, and are put into caitons for storage and distribution. The bottle filler has a capacity of 20 barrels hourly. Computing slightly more than 13 cases to each barrel of beer, the filler can turn out a big job. The filler is operated from three large steel drums which are located m the basement of the bottling house. These drums are filled by underground lines that are run from the brewing house proper. All beer en- teimg the drums is run through a Government meter. The drums, as well as all of the other equipment in the bottling house, have been gone over minutely in getting in readiness for operation. The engine house has been electrified although one unit of the old steam engine has been left intact In the building for use in event of emergency. Only the best equipment oÂ£ its kind has been obtained to replace the old steam type. The large storage tanks of 110 barrels capacity have all been repainted and reserviced. Also gone over were the laige wooden tanks in which the fermentation takes place. From these tanks the beer goes into the storage tanks which, incidentally, are of steel. A general renovation ihas taken place in the large key and bai-rel filling room where beer for draught purposes is filled in large containers. The kegs have been repitched The president said that bottles of beer will be of two sizes, pint and uart. The latter, he said, has been popular especially with the hard laboring man. The content is greater, too, he said. After conducting a tour of the renovated property, President Brink said: "We have what is probably one of the most modern plants in the entire industry." He pointed out that the equipment can't be surpassed, the brewing expe- lence of Brewmaster Kilger of more than 48 years speaks for itself and that high quality of both imported and domestic grams will be used at all times. "There's a triple combination that will give to the people of Connellsville and its environs the best 'beverage of moderation' that can be bought any place in this country," President Brink said. "Try it and find out for yourself." The brewery, president has been located in Connellsville nearly a year. The vice-president of the concern is L. G. Grabiak of Rillton, the secretary is David Bernard and the Ueas- urer Abe S. Chinn of Connellsville. Members of the board of directors, are the four officers and Philip J. Galiardi, Harold P. Pore and David Trozzo. A sales force has been making contacts of distributors for the introduction of Yough Pride Plisener. William J. Fagan, one of the 'city's best known residents, will be the Fayette county reptcsentalivc. Closes Mis Laboratory - To Dictator Scientists Prof. Percy W. Bridgman, eminent Harvard physicist, announced that in the future no citizen of Â» totalitarian state is welcome in his famous laboratory at Cambridge, Mass. Prof. Bridgman announced his decision in "Science," official publication of the American Association for the Advancement ol Science. In his article, entitled "Manifesto by a Physicist," Dr. Bridgman made it clear that his stand was purely a personal one and had nothing to do with the policy of his university. He not only haÂ« closed the doors of his laboratory to citizens of dictator nations, but will refuse to discuss any of his experiments with any of those citizens. "A citizen of such a state," Prof. Bridgman writes, may be compelled to engage ui any activity" -whatsoever to advance the purposes of that state. The purposes of totalitarian states have shown themselves to b* irreconcilably in conflict with tin purposes of free states."