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,.V sembfy there aie 12 sovereign -oaiinns The gull between i vnabts and responsibilities, between piivileges and obligations, has become alarming. It cannot longer be papered over by the uncritical extension of Ihe "one-man-one-vote" principle to the enure world. Own Creation The UN itself has contributed greatly to creating this gull, and to steadily widening it. Consider, for example, this solemn Resolution of Decem ber 19W) incredible in its premises, snd appalling in us consequences: "Immediate steps shall be taken . . . in all . . . territories which have not yet attained independence, in transfer all powers to the peoples of these territories without any conditions whatever. Inadequacy of political, economic, social or educational preparedness shall never serve as a pretext tor delaying Independence." This Resolution, masquerading under the pious label of "ana colonialism." was supported enthusiastically by the Communist bloc a cruel irony to Ihe hundreds of millions ol victims of Communist imperialism. This is not to say that every new nation is a purely artificial creation, that it is-necessarily unfitted for UN membership and unwilling to assume alt the burdens of ' membership. It is to say that most of these new nations ' have rot yet served their basic apprenticeship as responsible entities have not even begun to prove themselves capable of maintaining domestic order, much less ol participating in a body dedicated to world order. Bare Civilization The case of the Congo is but the most dramatic. Less than a month after it was granted independence and UN membership it became a raging battleground,' with UN special forces called jn to provide essential policing and the bare necessities of civilized order. There is a 'grim but poetic justice in this: it was the UN itseir that had been insturmenial In creating this mythical "nation" in the first place. The loll of human life has been terrible. The steady financial drain has driven the UN tn the edge of bankruptcy. In the name and under the banner of the UN, unspeakable depredations have been committed against an innocent population. But even beyond these consirerations. the cost to ihe original idea of the UN as an assembly of msiure nations has been Incalculable. So long as we treat the UN as a sacred cow, immutable and untouchable, it will continue to tail short of lis goals. It is time to lake stock, to .measure performance against promise, and to consider effective remedies. One of these is to restore some semblance of meaning In the UN Charter Itself. For It years Ihe Communists have held in contempt the basic principles on: which the UN was founded: an association of "peace-loving, nations, forswearing aggression, and affirming a mutual tolerance and respect for the national independence of all." During the IS' years of its existence, these noble declarations of principle have been reduced to pious frauds. Not Only Reds And not only the Communists have been guilty of contempt. In their case we have at least been forewarned by every item of Ihe public record, and by every chapter of their books of sacred doctrine. Far worse is th contempt of nations with some pretension to membership in th. free world. India, Indonesia, the United Arab Republic, and now those Federated African Slates that have declared open war on the RIGHT OH III TORONTO Kanaoona MOTOR HOTEL , lskway Ml at ft- M E MrM iagTttv y Portuguese territories of Angola and Mozambique all these "peace-loving" nations have committed open and unprovoked aggression against their neighbors, sometimes with the implicit acquiescence of Ihe United Nations sometimes with its explicit endorsement. Ihe United Slates has too often shamed itself by us own acquiescence, its "going along with Ihe majority," its abstentions, its silence. ' We must never stay silent m such circumstances: our clear duty, lo ourselves and to, the cause ol freedom, demands that we use Ihe furum of the UN lo denounce all forms of aggression Communist and non-Communist, whether perpetrated by great nations or small. Most particularly! we must never let the occasion pass, whenever another in the endless series of "anti-colonialist" resolutions is before Ihe UN, to brand tin Communists for what - they truly are: the most flagrant, the most brazen colonialists the world has ever known. We must constantly remind the world of Ihe grim roster ol nations and people whose freedom and independence have been destroyed by Commun:st aggression. The Charter clearly stales that Ihe privileges of voting membership shall be suspended so long as any nation Is In arrears ia meeting its full UN assessments, both regular and special. Just as we should recall all UN members to their moral and political obligations, we should also demand full adherence to financial obligations and be prepared lo apply Ihe penalties called for against delinquents in the Charter. W W w The problem, in very briefest form, is this: The United Nations, in, some situations, can mediate disputes: it can often provide a useful forum for the airing of differences. But it cannot make policy enforceable policy, backed with the moral authority of legitimate sovereignty and backed with the power that is Ihe monopoly of nation-states. U.S. Must Lead There can be. either In the .UN or in the councils of Ihe free world, no substitute for U.S. leadership. If the United States fails to speak out and to act in behalf of freedom, then Ihe voice of Ihs free world is silent, snd lis power is immobilized. If the United Slates refuses to exploit the world forum which the UN provides to branj every Communist trick, every Communist lie, every Communist crime (or exactly what it is . if we will not be !h resolute advocate of freedom and justice, then the UN Charier itself is a dead teller. Its original promise will go by Ihe board. We will have relinquished the field to the enemies Ihe self - avowed enemies of freedom. The United Nations cannot make policy for the United States. Il can only reflect Ihe policy, and Ihe leadership, that we bring lo it. It can compel no loyalties, can affirm no values except those that we and our allies, by our example and our advocacy, instill in its member nations and lend Us deliberations. In terms of forging peace, I view the NATO Alliance the Atlantic community as the most practical tool in Ihe hands of free men. The UN in the presence of aggressive communism is, at best, a supplementary instrument of international accord. Reprinted with the per-mission 0 th McOraw-HUt Book Company ram WHERI t STAND by Sen, for Barry Ooldicafer. Copy-riflftt It) 1944 by Bdrry Ooldwater. Distributed by Bookt In The Ntwi, Inc. Tuuday: Deenc Policies. HIGHWAY 401 Laarlu.alr-esdUiatied salts and twasws Iwlth ewas- XZTTLZSl --KTS rasas. Caffs ska. CeeapMa eonveallea farllltlea. Free swrkhs. Writ ar lalsphsot taday tar brack are se issat vatfaMe. LICENSED UNDER THE LIQUOR LICENCE ACTr- 2B1-117X, Art Ca SIS aionwAT rNTtacaaxo as i , Agw an. Taswwtw, Caaaa ' J 1 V 1 kt. wiiiw Geld ar V; lkL NtiuralCsid Rideau" 1 MONDAY, AUGUST 81. 1M4 THE OTTAWA JOURNAL WHERl BIRKS STAMP By SENATOR BAXRY GOLDWATER (Stcond in nrit of ' mrtiettl txcrpttd from "Whn I Stand." tkt arte booh to bt pub' lithtd Stptambtr S in which th US. Rtpnkli. ton Prttidintial nbmint ttottt hit position! on vital domtitic and intranational itsurs.) ' I support, unconditionally, th purposes the United Nations was originally intended to terve peace among nations, bated on mutual tolerance, respect tor the sovereign dependence of all nations, and a common sense of Justice. I believe (he United States should make the lulle-st possible use ofijts membership iS the UN as one means of achievmghese goals. The (N, "today is not all it Should be. Even so, it is a useful forum. It can still provide machinery lor valuable conciliation among nations. But I want to see the UN do more. I ant to see it come closer to achieving Its real goals. It can do so only hen all of Us members live up (o the spirit of the Charter. I hive In mind, particularly, the Charters definition of "peace - loving" nations and the obligations of membership. These include moral as well as financial obligations. Red Contempt For I years the Communists have held the UN in contempt. They have repeatedly undermined its operations and Its principles. Should the Red Chinese now, in effect, shoot their way m, the Charter would be all but a dead letter. In that event, the United States in our own best interests, and for the good of the original UN idea would be forced to undertake a serious re assessment of its I, basic commitments. '. In recent years, the flood of ! new members', added to the f Increased powers of the Gen- eral Assembly, has put our-i dens on the UN that are ba-lyond its realistic capacities , burdens that it was neither to-tended nor equipped to carry. These new burdens have not always been matched by a mature sense of responsibility on the part of many participate ing countries. Member-nations ' representing only It per cent ' of the 'world's population can command fully two thirds of The Need to Play Footsy With Asian 'WiidMen' By ISAAC DEUTSCHER pedal Jeanal Carrsipeaasais ' The time for mediation between the warring parties in Southeast Asia seems to have passed; and it was mainly as ' mediators that the Russians - have acted. ; The more decidedly the local Communists line up with the Chinese, the loss inclined are jthey to heed Russian warnings and lake Russian advice. I They are all Maoists now; they are all impatient for de-' cislve revolutionary actio,' ' ' Even Ho Chi - Minh, ihe Khrushcheviie leader of North Vlej Nam. must, if he Is to hold his office, play along i with the pro Chinese majority in the Vietnamese polit-. bureau. . , I The Russians resent this and moodily threaten to withdraw, while soma, of them are m fact anxious to effect the withdrawal before the next great clash of arms has begun, the " ! clash of arms which ihe skir-mtshes In th Gulf of Tonkin iay have foreshadowed. r DOUBLE-EDGED THREAT ' In any case, the threat of a 1 Xussiaa disengagement f Is 'double. edged: j. :i ) f It is meant to warn the A mericans that if I hey do not , behave . less provocatively. . Moscow wilt no longer exert . itself to curb the "wild men" among the Vietnamese and Laotian " Communists , and : guerrilla leaden; and it tells ,thos "wild man" that. If they i to on pursuing a Maoist po-,llcy, Moscow wilt wash ha' hands of them and leave them j"at the mercy of American .Imperialism." I Hmmmt tn hie iticMeaet- -nnent mannetrvT the RoaataJWSoviat Union, that la towards may be playing wHh lire. Khrushchev and his friends. J Will the Pentagon not mis- ,. KEEP ALLIANCE , Interpret sny Russia ttov Mr. Khfcshcha would like that lonita like a withdrawal' to hav his cake and eat u. W fttvclud that Southeast tneast which i Asia is a vacuum into by - j the rotes in the General Assembly, i Some form ol weighted voting may have to. be seriously considered as a way of bringing the UN into line with these 'new realities. Many responsible authorities have suggested a system based on population, on contributions to UN costs, or on some combination ol factors. 1 do not have Ihe final solution. Bui this is one of the major problems that must be considered, soberly and can-d.dly. in assessing the UN's future as both a representative and a responsible organization. No Substitute We must never attempt to use the UN as a substitute for clear and resolute U.S. policy. It is only with such a policy that the U.S. can represent the principles of free men everywhere, in support of the UN's original promise. w There is 'an unfortunate tendency these days to use. Out of War's - New Ties Bind By CARL HARTMAN Associated Frews Writer ' Twenty-five years ago tomorrow Sept. I. 193S Hitler marched on Poland. Three days later, Britain and France went to Poland's aid. Europe once again plunged into war. When the holocaust ended sir years later, the old Europe was gone. In its place, a quarter of a century later, the new Europe la rising. On the surface, at least, the antagonisms and the territorial jealousies of IMS are gone, and Europe Is being drawn together by many ties of mutual advantage. - , Statesmen no longer speak of Creating a "united Europe," but of creating "Europe." Only if they build tightly-integrated continent, they are convinced, can it have the world influence it deserves. ANCIENT HISTORY Quarrels about provinces and colonies that excited politicians 2S years ago sound like ancient history hi the Europe of today. Political leader spend muck mom rime .trying to sell straw American power it free to move? This would be a dan-' gerous illusion and a dangerous temptation. VACUUM-FILLER - For on thing, China la by no means as weak as she is supposed to bet she is quite capable of filling the vacuum left by Russia indeed, if, the Russians do withdraw from Southeast Asia, they wilt do so partly because they are already being squeezed out by the Chinese. But what is even more important Is that any American ; expansion in Southeast Asia,' or even the mere fear of such . an expansion, is all too likely to force Russia back into thai area. And one this happens a major Russo American" clash may well develop. Such, it should be recalled, was Ihe pattern of events m Korea In IMS 5. only that: there the United SiaTes did the disengagement and withdrew its - occupation - forces from Southern Korea, with the result thai soon thereafter it returned to fight a long and devastating war. - 1 . A Russian disengagement from Southeast Asia may en-' tail comparable blunders and ' even graver complications. , In this connection the que-. I km arises whether Moscow has now definitely torn op the Russo . Chinese alliance or; whether that alllanc is still to seme extent operative. . Recently ihe Soviet press-warned the Maoists that they ; must wot take M for granted that the Soviet Union would give them the benefits of the alliance regardless of how die-; eracefully they behaved to- wards those who speak for the ' Me would like to keep the n wouiu n t Oaw aMazsc m roTC. with- Barry Go the United Nations as an excuse lor not driving hard bargains with the Communists. Such difficulties as e have with the Communists, it is "'ofien said, can be ironed out Hi the UN. This is not true, and the history of the UN has proved it abundantly and clearly. The UN is a discussion forum. Attempts to make more of it at this juncture actually' weaken Ihe good purposes can serve. More to the point, the UN is a forum lar dilfercnt from the one we envisioned and voted for in 1945. The easy optimism of "one world" and one "rule of reason." 'to which Preiident Truman referred when the UN was lormed in IMS, has been shattered and with it the unrealistic dream that the UN might soon become a true parliament of all mankind. The one indispensable ingredient is lacking: there is in the world today no agreement on basic premises and essential values. There are no agreed upon ground rules governing Ihe reconciliation of Holocaust berries or steel to their historic enemies, or deciding how much foreign, aid money their taxpay ers will send, to new nations that were once Ihe colonies they owned or coveted. CURTAIN IS RUSTY The Iron Curtain is still down across the centre of Europe, but it is rusty in many spirts. Behind Ihe curtain are the provinces of Silesia, Pomerania and East Prussia, now marked on the map as "under Polish administration." It was from here that Hitler marched. But in the atomic age. Is this stilh orime recipe for war? It seems un likely. Today, Western Europe is united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, with IS members reaching from Can ada all the way to Greece and Turkey. Economically, six big nations, traditional business enemies, have united in Ihe Common Market. France, West Germany. Italy. Belgium, Holland and Luxembourg have made great progress in a Joint approach to ihe problems of coal, stee and atomic energy. Their out himself and his policy being subject to the force of the alliance. He knows that Russia cannot easily give up the strategic advantages of an association with China, but he calculates that some measure of a dissociation may well pro- mote a further detente and even rapproacbement between the USSR and the USA. Th Chines denounce, of course, this attitude as yet another instance of "Khrushcheviie doubla-facedness." But la Moscow too soma people find ihe game a bit too "Machiavellian"; and th problem of the Chinese alliance is still at Ihe centre of an Important debate within the Soviet ruling group. Hence ihe contradictory of U.S. weapons. De Gaulle is statements that are coming, trying to develop one. West Ger-from Moscow: ''-many officially doesn't want jf One - day) pravda makes one. but it would also like to transparent, hints at a re- have bigger say about Amer-nuncialion of the alliance; and ica's. ' the next day Mr. Khrushchev himself speaks as If he intend- ed to reaffirm the validity of the alliance. V ' Thus, in his seech at Ord-Jonlkidze, In the Caucasus.' he said: :. . . should the imperii allsls nevertheless dare to unleash war agalnst-any socialist state, the peoples of the Soviet' Union will. . . depend not only their .o" country, but also other socialist countries." Mr. f. Khrushchev spoke these words at the heixht of the Vietnam ese crisis: and in terms which 'had aa almost Maoist flavor, about them, he went on' to warn the "Imperjalists" that tf they were nevertheless to provoke wsr, ihey would meet in it with their doom. ' - Ye, the. whole game over p Southeast Asia ..has, on all .sides, become extremely sub- t! so subtle Indeed that the player seem quit en- tangled, tn it complexities. imkmhi farwi Cecrrtght Reserved) Idwater minor disputes and difler-ences. Indeed, where the ma jor powers are concerned, thereaie no minor disputes at all: only minor skirmishes in one encompassing conflict. When the great powers agree the UN can work effectively; when they cannot, the UN, too, becomes an aiena of basic conflict. Free From Dues Its debates art not devoted almost exclusively to declamations of anti-colonialism. Its members are free from even the responsibility to pay their dues. Its charter commitments attains! internal interference have been critically violated in, for instance, the Congo. Us notion of voting by sovereign nations was falsified at Ihe outset by the allocation of separate votes to political subdivisions of the USSR. The United Nations was created by SI nations - which had In common at least a wartime association, and thus . a habit of working-, in concert. Today, in the UN General As- Europe goal is to make the area a single economic unit. By lM, if all goes well, they will have no uriff walls against one another, and a single tariff wall a low one against goods from outside countries. Even more important, they hope lo have uniform farm prices and farm policies, and a system of making major economic decisions Jpr the whole area by a weighted majority vote against the interest of any one member If necessary. The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) unites seven other countries on the edges of the Common Market: Britain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Portugal, Switzerland and Austria. They also are working toward the razing of all Internal tariff walls in 1961. LOOK FOR WAY Advocates of a "big Europe." like West German Chancellor Ludwig Erhard. are looking for a way to bring these two organizations together. . President Charles de Gaulle of France says he wants to see Europe united "up lo the Ural Mountains" that is, including European Russia. He does not say how this should be done. The closest East-West contacts come through trade, which both sides are eager lo promote, and by cultural contracts on which Europeans set great importance. West Germany will not recognize the existence of East Germany when it is a question of exchanging diplomats- or signing treaties. But trade is another matter. The two Germanys do half a biljion dollars' business every year. For II months, the West Germans have been busy setting up trade missions in the capitals of g,,, Europti (hougn ,hev y. no diplomatic relations with them. West Europeans feel so ma- terially secure they can afford to argue about what form their Joint defence should take, disregarding the U.S. complaint that none of their countries Is putting Its weight In the common task. MAY GIVE UP BOMB Britain has lis own H-bomb, but may give it up If it can get a bigger voice in the use Britain would like to keep Its ties with th Commonwealth and the U.S. At the same time it feels drawn to continental 'Europe. It may mean something that th long-deferred tunnel under th English Channel now has a good chanc of being builL Franca has also lost in empire, but . under d Gaulle it is making an active try at leader- ship on the European continent This means keeping Britain out of European organizations, and an urge to revise the whole Atlantic alliance. Wast Germany and Franc are trying to and their old en mity. At lb same time. West Germany wants to stay on good terms with Britain and some smaller nations, who fear a French-Germanattempt so run th continent, -v ' These cross currents have slowed lis progress of the Com- mon Market. But they do not signify the kind of conflict that i leads to war, A BEAUTIFUL. NEW BIRKaV DIAMOND fIN9 Birks' Jewel Studios present Rideau . A. Ihui distinctive new solitaire diamond ring features a contemporary interrelation of the traditional six-claw Tiffany setting, which ftrf&xto jP. BACK-TO-SCHOOL, with a Birks' Rideau gives the bnlliant-cut iirks diamond unusual prominence snd security. "The RiSau DiamcmS ring Is avail-' able in a wide rhfftra of aismonS sites ana pnea ranges. BIRKS BUDGET TERMS ' ' l Down, Balance la II Monthly Payments You II find the Bideao watch made in Switzerland to Birks own speciftcatkm both smart and reliable. 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