Sunday Gazette-Mail from Charleston, West Virginia on June 20, 1976 · Page 82
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Sunday Gazette-Mail from Charleston, West Virginia · Page 82

Charleston, West Virginia
Issue Date:
Sunday, June 20, 1976
Page 82
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Page 82 article text (OCR)

90 -June 20,1976 Sunday Cawllf-Moi/ "~ ; Charleston. we»i Vlrginis INDUSTRY Great Medical Discovery Spike and Nail Production Were First of State Efforts In the 1870s when West Virginia was an agricultural state, production of spikes and nails led its young industrial efforts. The spike and nail business made more than $4.5 million a year at the turn of the 18th century. Following was iron production-forged and rolled-making $4 million annually. From 1865 to 1876 West Virginia natural resources were being advertised throughout the country. Notices told of a shallow oil field stretching from Burning Springs. Wirt County, into Pleasants County: of Marion County sand used in glass making, of the marble works along the Potomac River, and of the Northern Panhandle's fire clay and potters clay. In 1869, according to Dr. Charles Ambler's "History of West Virginia," there were 2,444 industrial establishments in West Virginia employing a total of 11,600 persons. Included were 287 females and 657 youths. Capital invested equaled $11 million and the value of annual production exceeded $24 million. Almost two-fifths of production was credited to Ohio County. Other industrial counties, in order of importance, were Mason. Marshall. Jefferson, Berkeley, Kanawha and Wood. Industrial centers were Wheeling, Martinsburg and Wellsburg. Other large industries, in addition to nails and iron, were in pig iron, curried leather, wagons and carriages and iron castings. Kanawha's contribution to the state's young economy was salt production. In 1869, it produced salt sold for more than $1.3 million. By 1880 salt as a key industry was dying, but it had brought prominence to men like David and Joseph Ruffner. the first big salt operators; their brother Tobias, who first found pure salt, and William Dickinson and Joel Shrewsbury, who found gas along with the salt. Prior to 1882, according to one historian, all gas found in the state was discovered accidentally, usually while boring for oil. .Petroleum was first obtained in a large quantity on the Little Kanawha near Parkersburg in 1860. Drilling was revived aft- er the Civil War in Wirt," Wood and Pleasants counties. In the spring of 1876 there were 292 wells averaging three barrels a day. Production became static until the end of the decade, enabling the new Standard Oil Co. to monopolize the entire field. Sawmills in young West Virginia were few and small. By 1880 there were 472 mills with a total product value of less than $1.75 million. Railroads coming into the state often offered inducements for establishment of businesses along their lines in order to secure heavier shipping tonnage. Timber businesses often were started, followed in popularity by the staves and stone timber business. In 1876 the main railroad in the state was the Chesapeake and Ohio. In 1868 a group from Virginia and West Virginia consolidated holdings of the Virginia Central railroad with the Covington and Ohio Railroad, creating the Chesapeake and Ohio. The railroad line from Covington, Va.. westward to the Ohio River was completed in 1873 through the efforts of Collis P. Huntington. Huntington and associates received ownership of the CO in 1875 when the company had financial problems. The rail line had immediate impact on several parts of the state. The city of Huntington changed from a flatboat shipping town to a thriving river port which daily reshipped vast quantities of freight. The James River and Kanawha Turnpikes became toll-free and, again, Charleston be- rame a formidable contender for the state capital which it had recently lost to Wheeling. The greatest event in medical history during the first 100 years of the United States was the discovery of small pox vaccination, according to "First Century of the Republic," published in 1876. That year, when West Virginia was 13 years old, there were 7,000 medical students in the U.S. Before the American Revolution there were two medical colleges in the country, one in Philadelphia, the other in New York. Before 1800 Harvard, Dartmouth and Rutgers added medical departments. Then, during the first half of the nineteenth century, medical colleges multiplied at nearly one a year. In the days of stagecoach travel more colleges were needed to serve all sections of the country. West Virginia had no medical school in 1876 but it had a state medical society allied with the American Medical Assn., formed in 1847. In 1872 a national Public Health Assn. was organized. Vaccination against small pox was discovered by Jenner in 1798. Inocculations were started in the U.S. a year later. Other discoveries before the nation's ·'', centennial included ausculation--listening to sounds within the chest - and the use of a thermometer. Surgical operations becoming frequent included the ovariotomy, removal of ovarian tumors, first done in 1809 in Danville, Ky. The first successful application of anesthesia by inhalation of ether during surgery was done in Boston in 1846. Midwives. first used ether in 1847. Anesthesia with chloroform quickly followed. Nitrous oxide gas was used for teeth extractions. King Coal in Serfdom; Business Slump in '70s King Coal was lost in serfdom in 1876. According to the West Virginia histories, unfavorable business conditions hit the state in the 1870s and the aggregate product of all mining enterprises in 1879 was less than $1 greater than it had been 10 years previously. A volume outlining progress during the United States' first 100 years reported: "Since the opening of the Chesapeake Ohio Railroad, coals from the Kanawha Valley are finding their way, to some extent, to seaboard and Eastern markets but, with this exception, the vast coal deposits of this great Southern region are as yet mined only to supply the limited local demands." The state produced 300,000 tons of coal in 1840 and 200.000 tons were used in Kanawha County salt furnaces. At the turn of the 19th century coal was used by blacksmits and settlers near its outcrop. Wheeling residents heated homes with coal from nearby mines as early as 1810. Coal was discovered in the Kanawha Valley in 1817 and began to replace wood at the salt works near Maiden, according to Callaharj's "History of West Virginia." There were 185 state "quarrying, oil boring and peat cutting" establishments in operation by 1876. All but eight used steam engines and the total employed 1,537 persons. Only 646 persons mined underground. In 1863, 444,650 short tons of coal were mined statewide. Production hit the million ton mark in 1873 but did not reach the 2 million ton level until 1883. Julius deGruyter's "The Kanawha Spectator" noted there were nine mines in the Greater Kanawha Valley in 1875. Area salt furnaces used 101,000 tons and the balance was shipped to market. [OPYMASTER OFFICE PRODUCTS Most State Families in 1870s Supported by Agriculture Farming supported more West Virginia families in 1876 than any other endeavor. Between 1870 and 1880 the number of state farms jumped from 40,000 to 63,000. But, West Virginia's agriculture story is one of "retarded development and unscientific economy," according to Dr. Charles Ambler's "History of West Vir- Acting in Community Our Bicentennial. I! means more to Americans than just a Celebration. It serves as a stepping Stone to the future. It's a door leading to bigger and better achievements.. . through Community Education. Kanawha County Schools Community Education Offers New Life: New Inspiration ginia." published in 1933. He cited a $4 million drop in the estimated value of farm products from 1869 to 1879. In "69 West Vriginians owned 2.6 million acres of improved land, valued at more than SI million. Farm products and stock were valued at more than $23 million. The average size farm in the late 1860s was 214 acres, a comparatively large area. Ten years later the average size was 163 acres, an encouraging sign, Ambler wrote, because more people owned land. West Virginia's percentage of unim r proved farm lands-69.7-was exceeded only by Arkansas and South Carolina. Leading the state in farming were Harrison, Jefferson, Berkeley. Monongalia and Ohio counties. Ambler reported that corn, wheat and oats were principal crops alone with tobacco and Irish potatoes. Wool also was produced on West Vriginia farms. The Mountain State's premier agricultural industry--apple growing--got its start in 1876 when E.W. Border purchased 40 acres near Kearneysville, Jefferson County, and planted winter apples. He used peach trees as fillers, Ambler wrote. The Grange, the national farm organization, got its first West Virginia lodge in 1873 in Jefferson County. It was an activist group until 1876 when it became largely a social organization. in liuo mere were 3YH west Virginia lodges of The Grange with 10,650 members. They represented a sixth of the voting population. The Grange established cooperative stores, mutual life insurance companies, a woolen mill, a hoe and rake factory, and supported cooperative cattle markets in Baltimore and Cincinnati. The Grange was active in initiating railroad regulations which protected farm lands and it succeeded in making agriculture a required subject in elementary school*- . ..._ WE'RE NOW IN A NEW PLACET NEW FACE! ...IN OTHER WORDS, MfeVe MO V6O . . . But, Just Across The Street to 510 Cop/to/ Sfreef CHARLESTON, W.VA. However, behind our new, white facade You'll Still Find... The Same Top Quality Copier Products The Same Professional Personalized Service Trie Same Friendly People WAITING THERE TO SERVE YOU, BETTER.' Copymaster Office Products COPIER-DUPLICATING EQUIPMENTS SUPPLIES 510 CAPITOL ST., Charleston, W.Va. Phone 342-0I 78 i FOR OLD-FASHIONED SERVICE AND CONVENIENCE MICHELIN X STEL-BELTED fWDIALS THE PEOPLE S CHOICE WHETHER YOU DRIVE A FAMILY SIZE CAR OR COMPACT... JOIN THE MICHELIN MOVEMENT! YOU'LL BE GLAD YOU DID. ALSO SEE US FOR EXPERT CAR SERVICE ·Front End Alignment Repair ·Complete Brake Repair Service ·Wheel Balancing Shock Absorbers ·Exhaust Systems Batteries 'We don't make a second best' What do John Soule,* Horace Greeley and the Bank of West Virginia have in common? "GO WEST!" John Soule said it first in 1851, and Horace Greeley popularized it later in his publication, the "New Yorker". One hundred years after John Soule said it, the Bank of West Virginia began to offer the same good advice. And we've been saying it for 25 years this year. "Go West!" . . . to Charleston's great West Side... for friendly old fashioned service with every modern banking convenience. We're proud to have served individuals and businesses "all around the town" for a quarter of a century. When you need fast, friendly banking services, "Go West" . . . t o Charleston's most convenient bank, the Bank of West Virginia. The phrase "Go West, young man," was originated in 1851 by an Indiana newspaperman, John Soule, and later appeared in Horace Greeley's publication, "The New Yorker" says the World Book Encyclopedia. OUR 1951 25th 1976 BANKOF WEST VIRGINIA TENNESSEE AT ROANE CHARLESTON'S MOST CONVENIENT BANK MEMBER FDIC

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